AP World History Chapter 27 Terms

Congress of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time
Holy Alliance
alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of the established order; formed by the most conservative monarchies of Europe during the Congress of Vienna.
Decembrist uprising
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
Alexander I
1815; Russian tsar who supported conservatives and joined the Holy Alliance
Nicholas I
1825-1855; Russian tsar who put down the Decembrist Uprising, expanded territory and crushed liberal ideas
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
Crimean War
war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire aided by France and Britain over the Holy Land. Russia lost because of industrial disadvantage (inferior ships and weapons).
Emancipation of the serfs
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained.
zemstvos
local political councils created as part of Alexander II’s reforms; gave middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy
Trans-Siberian railroad
constructed during the 1870s and 1880s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; increased the Russian role in Asia.
Count Witte
Russian minister of finance (1892 -1903); economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investment in industry.
intelligentsia
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.
anarchists
political groups that thought the abolition of formal government as a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world’s first large terrorist movement.
Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov Lenin
Russian Marxist leader; insisted on the importance of disciplined revolutionary cells.
Bolsheviks
literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.
Russian Revolution of 1905
defeat by Japan resulted marked by strikes by urban workers and insurrections among the peasantry; resulted in temporary reforms.
Dutch Studies
studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18th century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.
Diet
Legislative branch in Japan
Duma
Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
Stolypin reforms
Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a market- oriented peasantry.
Yellow Peril
US’s fear of japan’s imperialism
kulaks
agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.
terakoya
commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
Matthew Perry
American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.
Meiji Restoration
power of the emperor restored with Emperor Mutsuhito in 1868; took name of Meiji, the Enlightened One; ended shogunate and began a reform period.
zaibatsu
huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890s. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895): fought in Korea between Japan and Qing China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.
Sino-Japanese War
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China,
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.