AP World History Chapter 19 Outline

Rape of Nanjing
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed
Imperialism
The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
“Yellow Peril”
European name for Chinese, “weak, cunning, obstinately conservative and, in large numbers, a distant threat,” racist color-metaphor that the peoples of East Asia are a danger to the Western world
Social Darwinism
An application of the concept of “survival of the fittest” to human history in the nineteenth century
Qianlong
Emperor of China, son of Kangxi expanded China’s boundaries extensively, would only rule for sixty years so as to not dishonor his grandfather
Taiping Uprising
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864, was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan
Qing dynasty
Manchu Dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming, weakened by Taiping Rebellion, Opium war, weakened even more by Western pressures bc they were inadequate, in 1911 it finally collapsed
Opium Wars
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods esp opium, China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions
Treaty of Nanjing
Formally called the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Commerce between Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and the Emperor of China, was signed on the 29 August 1842 to mark the end of the First Opium War
Unequal treaties
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers
Self-strengthening
Chinas program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the west
Boxer Uprising
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed
“Sick Man of Europe”
European nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans’ inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problem, fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period
Ulama
Conservative religious leaders of the Ottoman Empire who viewed modernizations as a threat to Islam
Janissaries
Conservative military leaders of the Ottoman Empire who feared modernizations would threaten their power
Tanzimat
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat” means “reorgini-zation”
Young Ottomans
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system
Young Turks
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire
“Japanese Miracle”
Meiji Restoration
The overthrow of the Tokugawa shoqunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to the emperor Meiji