AP World History Chapter 13

Allah
Time: about 610 CE
Location: Arabia
Definition: God of Islam and means god in Arabic
Significance: 1) Supreme god; strictly monotheistic Islam
2) Muhammad’s followers attacked elites to make them adopt Muhammad’s faith and government dedicated to Allah
3) Ruled the universe, recognition of other gods amounted to wickedness, bring judgement to the universe, rewarded the good and punish the bad or wickedness.
Five Pillars of Islam
Location: Arabia
Definition: Five practices that all Muslims are required to participate in
Significance: 1) Acknowledge Allah as the only god and recognize Muhammad as his/her prophet. Pray 5x a day facing Mecca. fasting during the month of Ramadan. Charity for the poor and weak. Undertake the Hajj to Mecca.
2) Created the framework that bounded the umma into a cohesive community.
Hadith
Time: 9 and 11 century CE
Location: Arabia
Definition: Traditions of the prophet Muhammad
Significance: 1) Includes sayings attributed to Muhammad and also provided accounts of the prophet Muhammad’s deeds
2) Muslim scholars often took the Hadith as guides to interpret the Quran
3) Various early works of the Hadith provided insight on social and legal customs, biographies of Muhammad, and commentaries on the Quran
Hajj
Time: 632 CE
Location: Arabia to Mecca
Definition: Required for all Muslims to take pilgrimage to Mecca
Significance: 1) Muhammad led himself to the Ka’ba and established the Hajj as an example for all Muslims to undertake
2) Muslims that are physically and financially able must undertake the Hajj and at least make one pilgrimage to Mecca once in their life time
Hijra
Time: 622 CE
Location: Abyssinia (modern day Ethiopia)
Definition: Muhammad’s flight from mecca to Medina that marks the first year of the Muslim Calender
Significance: 1) Called new home Medina “the city of the prophet” and Hijra “migration”; serves as the turining point of the Islamic Calender
2) Muhammad’s followers fled to Abyssinia due to the pressure and fear of persecution
3) 622 CE, Muhammad fleed Medina to Yathrib
Islam
Location: Arabia
Defintion: ” Submission to Allah”, world religion founded along the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad in the 7th century CE
Significance: 1) Prophet religion that brought unity to large streches of land across Arabia
2) After, Muhammad’s death,mIslamic commnnitties led rounds of military expansion that extended the political and cultural influence of Islam
Jihad
Location: Arabia
Definition: The struggle often used for wars in defense of the faith, Islam
Significance: 1) Imposes on the spiritual and moral obligations on Muslims by requiring them to fight off vice and evil
2) Calls on Muslims to struggle against ignorance and unbelief by spreading Islam and seek converts to Islam
3) Involves physical trouble, obligating muslims to wage in war against nonbelievers of Islam
Jiyza
Location: Arabia
Definition: Head taxes on all nonbelievers in the Islamic territories
Significance: 1) The Arabs allowed conquered peoples to practice their own faiths/ religions and levied taxes to nonbelievers of Islam
2) Umayyads favored the aristocrats and caused deep and great resentment among the conquered people, which led to resistiveness against the Umayyads rule
Ka’ba
Location: Arabia
Definition: Temple in Mecca; foucused on onligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam
Significance: 1) Drew worshippers from all over Arabia and brought considerable wealth to Mecca
2) Large black shrine that is considered to be the home of a powerful diety
3) Muhammad promoted at the Ka’ba and other shrines, ruling elites of Mecca began to persecute the prophet and his followers
Muhammad
Time: 570-632 CE
Location: Mecca
Definition: Founder of Islam, last prophet of Allah, and a merchant
Significance: 1) Underwent a transformation that he experienced visions of Allah’s messages or revelations, delivered by Gabriel to explain Allah’s views to others
2) Established Umma for political unity and Hajj for all Muslims to undergo
3) Personal leadership led to the formation of the 5 Pillars of Islam
Quran
Time: about 650’s CE
Location: Arabia
Definition: Holy book containing Muhammad’s teachings and revelations; holy book of Islam
Significance: 1) Serves as the definitive authority for Islamic religious doctrine and social organization
2) Communicates through Muhammad’s understanding of Allah and his relation to the world
3) Hadith serves as the interpretation of the Quran by Muslim scholars
Umma
Location: Arabia
Definition: Community of the faithfuls within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create. degree of political unity
Significance: 1) Muhammad saw a society that needed guidance and decided to organize the society into the “umma” – provided legal and social code
2) Muhammad led society in daily prayer to Allah
3) Organized community ventures by launching raids into Mecca
4) Muhammad provided relief to widows, orphans, and poor n reminder of his rough childhood