Last Updated 19 Feb 2018

AP World History–Chapter 12 Terms

Category World History 
Essay type Research
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Hangzhou
Capital of Song dynasty
Renowned for its beauty and sophistication
Sea permitted international commerce; population of more than 1,500,000
Wendi
Reunited core areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in 3 1/2 centuries,
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty.
Yangdi
Son of Wendi, member of the sui dynasty,
murdered his father
Drove back nomads from the north
Established milder legal code
Restored examination system
responsible for the canal system
Loyang
Capital of later Sui dynasty
Built by peasants under Yangdi
Li Yuan
Laid basis for golden age of Tang dynasty
took over after assassination of Yandi.
title of Gaozu
Kaozong
Tang emperor
During his rule, Korea taken over by Chinese army
scholar-gentry
Civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance
obtained from well-educated households
song dynasty
Changan
Later capital of the Tang dynasty, larger than any other city in the world at that time
Ministry of Rites
Administered many kinds of exams for examination system
jinshi
Title given to those who pass the most difficult exam on Chinese literature
pure land buddhism
Heaven-like concept in Mahayana Buddhism; provided a refuge from an age of war and turmoil
Zen
Chan variation of Buddhism
Practiced mostly in China, Japan, and the West
Stressed meditation and appreciation of natural beauty
Empress Wu
Empress; Tried to make Buddhism state religion; Comissioned many Buddhist paintings and sculptures; Tang Dynasty
Wuzong
Emperor from Tang dynasty
Buddhism openly accused under his rule; by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology.
Empress Wei
Poisoned husband, son of Empress Wu, in order to seize throne
Put her son on throne
Xuanzong
Tang dynasty reached peak under his rule
Devoted more to internal pleasures (music, art) than running the empire
Married Yang Guifei
Yang Guifei
Later wife of Xuanzong, royal concubine
She and family became arrogant with excessive ambition which led to decline of Tang dynasty.
introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt.
An Lushan
Nomadic military leader in the later Tang dynasty
Led a revolt to start a new dynasty
Zhao Kuangyin
Former military commander-turned-emperor
Renamed Emperor Taizu
Founded Song dynasty
Overcame all but one rival, the Khitans, for empire expansion
Liao dynasty
Noble family from Manchuria
Zhao failed to conquer their land
khitan
Khitans
People from Liao Manchuria
Zhao failed to conquer their land
Forced Song rulers to sign treaty saying they will pay Liao dynasty big tribute in order to avoid invasion
Sinified
Influenced by Chinese culture
Describes the Khitans
Zhu Xi
Chinese philosopher during the Song dynasty
Taught that one should apply philosophical principles in everyday life
neo-Confucians
Revived Confucianism in the later Song dynasty
Taught that personal morality is the highest goal and historical experience is the best guide in life
their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Tangat
Tribes from Tibet
Established Xi Xia kingdom
Xi Xia
Kingdom founded by the Tangat tribes
Song paid tribute to them
Wang Anshi
Minister to Song emperor
Began many reforms in order to prevent collapse of empire
Reorganized exam system
Argued that passing exams should require analytical thinking instead of just memorizing Chinese classics
- greater state intervention in society
Jurchens
People who overthrew Liao dynasty
Founded Qin kingdom
annexed most of the yellow river basin, forcing Song to flee south.
Jin kingdom
Kingdom founded by the Jurchens
Conquered northern Song lands, forcing residents to move to the southern end of the empire, after overthrowing the liao dynasty
Southern Song dynasty
Lasted from 1167-1279
Formed after Jurchens took over northern Song lands
Considered most glorious reign in Chinese history and, according to Mr. Stearns, all of humankind
Champa Rice
introduction of new seeds such as this from Vietnam increased the yields of peasant holdings through more thorough soil preparation and weeding.
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Flying Money
the credit vouchers which they could then present for reimbursement at the appropriate office in the city of destination.
Sui Dynasty
dynasty that succeeded the han in china; emerged from strong rulers in northern china; united all of northern china and reconquered southern china
junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bambook fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula, especially in the Song and Tang Dynasty's were the BEST ships in the world
Tea
a specialized crop; marketed to much of the empire; helped expand agrarian production
Chan Buddhism
known as Zen in japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite chinese society
Bureau of Censors
their chief task was to keep track of officials at all levels and report their misdeeds or failings
Tang Taizong
He reconquerored the northern and western land that China had since the decline of the Han Dynasty.

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