AP World History CH8 focus terms

Parthians
Persian dynasty. Based in Iran and extended to Mesopotamia. Had very heavy calvary (horses and armored troops). Government followed the example of the Achaemenid administration. Civilization to the east of Rome; defeated by the Sasanids in 226; acted as a middle man in Chinese/Roman trade
Zhang Jian
This Chinese General is credited with discovering the trade routes for China that began the Silk Road
Hybrid Camels
camels have 2 humps and are robust, heavy-coated cold-climate camels. Dromedaries have one hump and are finer boned and lighter coated desert dwellers. Both have evolved to withstand a dry environment
Alfalfa and Domestic Grapes
Stirrup
Device for securing a horseman’s feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century C.E.
Lateen Sail
Triangular sail that was developed in Indian Ocean trade that allowed a ship to sail against the wind.
Madagascar
an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa. 4th largest island in the world.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Women as Mediators between Cultures
Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
scarcity of water restricted trade across the Sahara to a few difficult routes; southern traders supplied salt from large deposits to Sub-Saharan Africa, Traders from the equatorial forest zone traded kola nuts and palm oil. Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara.
Rock Paintings and Engravings
Camel Domestication
Originated from the Arabian Peninsula, as they are not native to Africa. Did not fight on camels, but got off and used as shields.
Sahel
extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara. a strip of land that divides the desert from wetter areas
Ghana
a republic in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea. the first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade
Great Traditions
historians term for a literate, well-institutionalized complex of religious and social beliefs and practices adhered to by diverse societies over a broad geographical area
Small Traditions
Historians’ term for a localized, usually non-literate, set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a single society, often in conjunction with a “great tradition”
Commonalities in African Life and Culture
Iron Metallurgy
Extraction of iron from its ores. allowed for cheaper stronger production of weapons and tools. More abundant than tin and copper. A technological development brought about during the Zhou dynasty.
Bantu Languages
Descriptive name for languages spoken largely east and south of the present day nation of Nigeria; i.e., in the regions commonly known as central Africa, east Africa, and southern Africa. Spread with people who migrated.
Domesticating Pigs
Faxian
Buddhist monk from China who described India’s Gupta rulers, their respect for Buddhism, and the Gupta Empire’s prosperity. The first person to leave a record of his Buddhist pilgrimage. He left Chang’an in 399 C.E. when he was sixty years old. He went to the cities of Ganges valley. When he returned to Nanjing in 414 and he began translating sutras he carried back from his journey.
Theravada Buddhism
‘Way of the Elders’ branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Therevada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods
Mahayana Buddhism
The more mystical and larger of the two main Buddhist sects, this one originated in India in the 400s CE and gradually found its way north to the Silk road and into Central and East Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment
Armenia
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia (east of Turkey today) and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. The Ottoman Empire is accused of systematic mass killings of Armenians in the early 20th century. a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia
Ethiopian Christianity
retained basic Christian theology and rituals, reflected the interests of its African devotees. Believed a large host of evil spirits populate the world