Society of the Cincinnati
A society established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. Thomas Jefferson and other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic and feared it could turn into an aristocracy so they worked to disband it. This was showed that nothing would stand in the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.
Wife of 2nd president John Adams and Mother of 6th president John Q Adams who was very vocal for women rights. Abigail’s controversial views for women rights lead to later movements for future women equality.
Articles of Confederation
The first and very basic constitution for the United States which loosely stated the ideas for a non-centralized government. Although this primitive constitution proved to be ineffective, it laid the foundation for the real Constitution and a new centralized government. Although this document was largely excepted by the general public, more intelligent politicians noticed the flaws and secretly held the constitutional convention.
The era 1781-1789 takes its name from the Articles of Confederation, this decade has sometimes been described as an era in which America experienced disastrously weak government under an inept Confederation Congress, an unstable economy that brought the nation to the brink of depression, and a society torn by violence and class conflict. This is the most crucial era after a revolution and the ending of this period marked the foundation for an established government. The ability to make it through this period showed that the colonists were truly the United States of America.
Whereas a confederation is separate states a federation is a single body with one central government. The establishment of a federation was extremely important because it showed the United States were truly “United” and not just “States”. It banded them together as one country.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. The area was to be surveyed before the sale and settlement thus avoiding lawsuits. This was an ingenious plan by the government in a way to make up war debt while simultaneously preventing any aggravation from a group of citizens who weren’t keen on paying taxes. It also laid the foundation for the westward expansion without too much governmental intervention.
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This was an updated version of the land ordinance of 1785 which that laid the official plan for westward expansion by setting the guidelines for new colonies. The law stated that first there was an initial period in which there would be settling before a population of 60,000 arose declaring an official colony. This idea was important to the establishment of new western colonies and allowed the new empire to be free to stretch its boundaries and expanding the empire.
A rebellion by former veterans of the revolutionary war who did not receive enough compensation to sustain a life after the war. Tax collectors were not very sympathetic towards the vets and these conflicts became known as Shay’s Rebellion, and small armies were raised prepared to fight. This rebellion was squashed by Jefferson who feared that it would get out of hand, and therefore prevented any further problems. This showed that there was going to be no deconstruction of the new empire.
A great fear of the propertied class, who believed the revolution had created an insatiable appetite for liberty. Shays Rebellion, an example of mobocracy, demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers, even thought the rebels had a debt to pay. The fear of mobocracy and another Shays Rebellion, the Continental Congress was pushed into creating a strong central government that would provide a needed foundation.
A captain veteran of the Revolutionary War, Shays led impoverished back country farmers to rebellion in Massachusetts. The rebellion by Shays stressed the importance of a strong central government.
The individual right of a state to set its own laws. Up until the drafting of the Constitution, the 13 colonies were still awfully independent. Many people called for the “hoop to the barrel” that would unite the states. The conflict between states rights and federal rights was a main argument during the Second Constitutional Convention. “The Great Compromise” provided a balance of power between states.
A charismatic New Yorker, he saved the first constitutional convention by calling upon congress to summon a convention the following year that was meant to bolster the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation. With Hamilton’s leadership, the 55 representatives convened at Philadelphia on May 25, 187, and the result was the penning of the Constitutions.
Young, profound student of government, he made contributions to the Constitution so notable that he was dubbed “Father of the Constitution”. Also contributed to The Federalist, and was also the 4th president. Since he wrote the majority of the document. Madison is the most significant drafter of the constitution. His writings in The Federalist remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution
Also known as the “large-state plan,” it promoted the idea that representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population. The Virginia Plan obviously gave the larger states an advantage, and this injustice forced tiny New Jersey to give their own plan.
New Jersey Plan
Countering Virginia’s plan, the “small-state plan” provided for equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population. The opposing viewpoint held by New Jersey fueled one of the Constitutional Convention’s most crucial arguments. The problem could only be solved through a compromise.
The Great Compromise
Compromise in which the larger states were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives, and the smaller states were appeased by the equal representation in the Senate. Since the larger states yielded the most, the delegates agreed that every tax bill or revenue measure must originate in the House, where population counted more heavily. This compromise broke the logjam, and from then on success seemed within reach.
Indirectly elects president. Large states had the advantage in the first round of voting, because a state’s share of electors was based on its amount of senators and representatives in Congress, while the small states would gain a larger voice if no candidate received a majority of the electoral votes and the election was thrown to the House of Representatives where each state had only one vote. A vital compromise of the Constitution which balanced electoral power between larger and smaller states.
It was a compromise that yielded a slave counting as 3/5 of a person in regard to a states representation in the House of Representatives. As opposed to the disputes between small and large states, this compromise “settled” disputes between northern and southern colonies (the southern being the main slave-holders). However this proved to only be the beginning of disputes regarding slavery between the north and south.
The only legitimate government was one based on the consent of the governed, and that the powers of government should be limited. This theory (that later becomes a political party) is one that keeps power in the hands of the people. It opposed Federalists, who believed that a country should be governed by those who own it. It was the idea that led to the political schism that remains in our country today.
Consent of the governed
The main theory that drove republicanism. This idea divided republicans from the federalists; republicans focusing on the power of the people and the federalists handing the power to the government.
Opposed the federalists and their desire for a stronger federal government. Included Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. They strove to keep alive democracy, fearing that a strong federal government would lead to the same problems they faced with the King.
Desired a strong central government, fearing a loose democracy would lead to disaster. They believed that the sovereignty of the people resided in all branches of government (executive, judiciary, and legislature). Included George Washington, Ben Franklin, and most wealthy Americans. Opposed not anti federalists and republicans. The fact that they were, in general, wealthier, more educated, and better organized led to their upper hand in the early government.
The Federalist Papers
Essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison commenting on the Constitution. Although these essays were designed as propaganda they remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution.
The architects of the Constitution, though conservative, conserved this principle of republican government. Another concept dividing federalists and anti federalists. Federalists believed that it resided in all branches of government, (executive, judiciary, and legislature) while the anti federalists believed it resided in only legislative.
Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights was a set of ten amendments to the constitution that was known as a safeguard of some of Americas most important principles including freedom of speech and religion. Without out the Bill of Rights many of the more anti federalist states would not of ratified the Constitution. It contains freedoms that were not mentioned in the Constitution that are unique to the United States. It also left the door open to further amendments to be added as a way of updating to modern times without changing the original Constitution which is illegal.
Judiciary Act of 1789
It was an act past by the first Congress that established the first federal courts and organized the Supreme Court comprised of a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts. This act completed the three branch government with a judiciary branch which was strong enough to still stand today.
Funding at par
This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton’s establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.
This act proposed that the federal government to take responsibility for all of the states debt instead of having each individual state pay for their own. It showed that the states truly were part of something larger and were all in it together. Hamilton’s methods were clever because it persuaded those who oppose the centralized government to favor it because they had less debt to pay.
A taxed, proposed by Hamilton that placed a tax on a few domestic items, such as whiskey. This angered some farmers who know had to pay tax on their whiskey and made it difficult to trade it. This caused minor rebellions which were squashed because of the fright of a rebellion.
They was taxes placed on manufacturers used to raise money and pay off debts of the war. The first tariffs were important in establishing manufactures that could compete with national markets. The first tariffs were moderate as they seemed to favor manufactures to help them establish a market.
Bank of the United State
This was established by Hamilton and opposed by Jefferson as a way to strength the economy and attract investors which lasted for 20 years and had a cap of $10 million. It also created a currency which did not exist in the early American days. The bank was extremely important in strengthening the economy as it created a stock market which boomed immediately. It also established an ever so important currency which fixed many uprising disputes about money.
The belief that the Constitution should be interpreted “literally” or “strictly”. The idea that what the constitution did not permit it forbade. This was the viewpoint of Jefferson while debating Madison on the issue of a national Bank, and is still an issue in today’s society.
Madison’s argument that the government has the right to pass any “necessary and proper” laws. The argument of implied powers helped Madison win and create The Bank of the United States.
The belief that the Constitution should be interpreted “loosely” or “broadly”. The idea that what the constitution did not forbid it permitted. This was the viewpoint taken by Madison during his debate with Jefferson over the national bank. Madison won.
1749; homespun pioneers of western Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton’s high excise tax bore. President Washington called upon the militia, and 13000 men from different states answered the call. When the militia reached Western Pennsylvania, the rebellion had already cooled down. Displayed the power of the central government, which was able to summon a force from different colonies to fight for the federal government.
Begun by Jefferson and Madison, the Jeffersonians regretted the bloodshed of the French Revolution, but believed it to be a cheap price for human freedom. The Jeffersonians also believed that America should honor the Franco-American alliance of 1778. This is one of the first examples of political parties that later developed into harsh rivalries that are now known as the Democrats and Republicans.
Washington boldly issued this in 1793 shortly after war broke out between Britain and France. This document not only stated the government’s neutrality in the conflict but also sternly warned American citizens to be impartial in the matter. Washington issued this in realization that the new country was not economically mature enough to be involved in a war. This proclamation proved to be a major prop in the spreading isolationist tradition, and illustrates the truism that self-interest is the basic cement of alliances.
A thirty-year-old representative of the French republic that landed at Charleston, South Carolina, who took advantage of the existing Franco-American alliance by fitting out privateers. Represented foolish misconception that the Neutrality Proclamation did not reflect the wishes of the people.
Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794 to avert war. Jay had weak negotiations and secretly supplied the British with the details of American bargaining strategy. Through this the British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on US soil and to pay damages for the recent seizures of American ships. This unpopular treaty vitalized the Democratic-republican Party of Thomas Jefferson more than any other issue. Also led to Pinckney’s treaty because the Spanish feared an Anglo-American alliance.
The treaty between America and Spain in 1795 which granted America practically all they demanded, including navigation of the Mississippian the territory north of Florida. Was a direct result of Jay’s Treaty due to France’s fear of an Anglo-American alliance.
Washington’s farewell address
Was printed in newspapers, not presented orally, in 1796 when President Washington decided to retire after serving two terms. In it he advised the avoidance of permanent alliances. His choice to retire after two terms established a tradition for American presidents that was later made part of the Constitution in 1951.
Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
In response to the Sedition and Alien Acts, Jefferson secretly wrote up a series of resolutions approved by Kentucky legislature in1798 and 99. Fellow Virginian James Madison drafted a similar, but less extreme statement which was adopted by Virginia legislature in 1798. These resolutions were a brilliant formulation of the extreme states’ rights view in regard to the Union.
When the French, outraged by Jay’s treaty, begin violating the terms of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778, President John Adams sends over three secret go-betweens to talk with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister. The demanded a bribe of $250,000 in order to merely talk with Talleyrand. This occurrence led to Naval Battles between the two countries. But France, already at battling Britain, realized they did not wish to have one more enemy added to their roster.
The drafter of the Declaration of Independence and 3rd president of the United States, founder of UV. The highlight of his presidential career was the Louisiana Purchase, and his heated rivalry with Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson can be thought of as a typical idealistic American whose progression as faced with real issues and forced to act resulted in him manipulating his ideals for practical relevance. He shaped, both politically and geographically, the modern U.S. with his brilliant and controversial accomplishments
Was in 1807 when a royal frigate was about ten miles off the coast of Virginia when a British captain ordered them to surrender so it could be searched for British deserters. When the captain refused the British opened fired killing four Americans. This dispute caused tensions to fly which later resulted into the war of 1812, however, in the immediate future many Americans were outraged and begging for a war to begin, but it did not until 1812.
The Embargo Act of 1807
Act passed by Jefferson in an attempt to force both the French and British to repeal their no trade clause. However, this plan backfired and only angered Americans while also crippling the economy do to the outlaw of foreign trade. Although unpopular at the time the Embargo act actually forced the U.S. to become more independent and to develop a more sufficient industry. This act created much unpopularity for Jefferson and later led to the inevitable War of 1812. It also created major hostilities in New England and even created a small population that wised to secede from the U.S.
This is a slightly dumb down version of the Embargo Act which reopened the ports to foreign trade with all countries except England and France. It pretty much marked the failure of the 15 month Embargo Act. The fact that the non-intercourse act replaced the Embargo Act was one of the final steps that made war with Europe inevitable. It proved that we were still to dependent on England and France and that the central government did not have enough control to strictly enforce this act.
Macon’s Bill No. 2
This act, past by Congress in 1810, formally ended the Embargo Act which left America and it’s new president James Madison in a bad predicament that now pointed only on war. Since there was no longer an Embargo act, America attempted to make peace with either France or Britain however as one country wavered the other stayed firm preventing an agreement which eventually lead to war.
Young Republican hotheads from the South and West that wanted to go to war against Britain and eliminate the Indian threat on the frontiers. The War Hawks’ push for action against the western Indian tribes led to Tecumseh welding a confederacy of all the tribes east of the Mississippi.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
Two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, that welded a far-flung confederacy of all the tribes east of the Mississippi. The Prophet was discredited by attacking a much larger American army, and Tecumseh was killed in the Battle of the Thames. Their actions were in response to the flood of western-bound settlers, and resulted in Indian unity and cultural revival. The death of Tecumseh ended the hope of an Indian confederacy.
Mr. Madison’s War
The name given to the War of 1812 by pro-British Federalists. The War of 1812 was fought to gain Canada and was opposed by the Federalists. The War of 1812 is considered America’s second war of independence, and resulted in a wave of nationalism that swept throughout the country.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson’s goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Founded by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic Republicans favored states rights and opposed the Federalist Party. The victory of the Democratic Republicans marked the first party overturn in American history.
Judiciary Act of 1801
One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams’s last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Adams signed the commissions for these Federal judges during his last night in office. Demonstrated the Federalists’ last minute attempt to keep some power in the newly Republican Government.
The strong-willed chief of justice and cousin of Jefferson. He dominated the Supreme Court with his commanding personality and powerful intellect. He shaped the American legal tradition more profoundly than any other single figure. Also his decision regarding the Marbury vs. Madison affair spurred the Jeffersonians to fight back.
Marbury vs. Madison
The dispute that arose when Marbury learned that his commission was being shelved by James Madison (the new secretary of state). This controversy rose the question of who (which branch of government) had the final authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution.
The pirates of the Barbary states on the North Coast of Africa that made a national industry of plundering and holding for ransom merchant ships sailing into the Mediterranean. The conflict with these people led Jefferson to, against his pacifist will, to dispatch an infant navy to the shores of Tripoli.
Jefferson sent Monroe to Paris in 1803 to purchase New Orleans and as much land east of it at a maximum price of $10 million. Monroe ended up spending $15 million, however he was able to purchase Louisiana and an immeasurable amount of land to the west. The purchase of this land doubled the size of the United Sates. Also, it represented Jefferson’s contradiction to his own beliefs of strict construction, buying this enormous amount of land without first consulting the government.
Self-educated ex slave, who was betrayed by then French and imprisoned in France. Is leadership of other ex slaves helped the sell of Louisiana to the Unites States
Military Genius of France, who later became a dictator and eventually overthrown. He sold the west land (Louisiana) to the United States for a very cheap price doubling the land of America.
Lewis & Clarke
Meriwether Lewis and William Clarke were sent by Jefferson to explore the recently bought land from Louisiana Purchase. Led to a 2 ½ year expedition which benefited the country with knowledge. This also inspired other explorers to explore the rest of the land
Orders in council
Issued in 1806 by London government closed the European ports under French control. Traders had to stop in Britain first. This caused Napoleon to fight back, greatly slowing the trade between countries including America. It was later revoked
The foreign policy against united kingdom Britain ands Ireland made by Napoleon. The continental system prevented anyone from trading with Britain without first stopping in France. Along with Britain’s adoption of a similar policy this sparked the Embargo to be passed by Jefferson in an attempt to not get involved with foreign conflict.
The forcible enlistment of sailors used by Britain and others after orders of council. Start of a fight overseas, many were killed leading to Jefferson’s attempt of embargo act.
The Constitution “Old Ironsides”
One of many American ships that had thicker sides, heavier firepower, and larger crews with a single gun. They were used in the war of 1812 and were very useful in helping the Americans dominate the see; something they could not accomplish on land. The “Old Ironsides” ships, the war of 1812 would have been disastrous for America because of inability to win battles on land. Although they lost the war, their dominance over Britain on the water was a terrific confidence booster for the newly formed navy.
Francis Scott Key
He was the writer of the “Star Spangle Banner” which he composed while detained on a British war ship watching the Americans hold firm against the British bombardment of Baltimore. The Star Spangle Banner has become a deep part of American society and our identity. This song brought hope and a revival of unity for the young country at war.
Battle of New Orleans
This was a battle led by Andrew Jackson which was one by the Americans, and restored much faith, although the war had ended two weeks before. Although the war had unknowingly been over for two weeks this decisive victory was an enormous confidence boost that changed the was the citizens viewed the outcome to a positive.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the war of 1812 which was signed on Christmas Eve in 1814 and gave no favoritism to either side. It was simply an agreement to stop fighting and restore conquered territory. Although there was no real winner the Americans were happy with the outcome chanting “Not one inch of territory ceded or lost” this later led to a renewal of trade with Britain.
A meeting with delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Vermont to discuss grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. This was do to the fact that all of New England felt as though they were separating from the U.S. as the Federalist Party continued to decline. This convention showed how angry New England was about their current status in the U.S. However, many people overreacted to this convention fearing that New England wanted to secede from the nation which was not the case. Some of the topics of discussion were the abolishment of the three fifths clauses and a law stating a president can not run in consecutive terms.
The process of the country becoming divided between regional beliefs focusing on the falling New England Federalists and the rest of the country. The uprising of sectionalism lead directly to the Civil War and conflict between the North and the South.
A treating after the war of 1812 between Britain and America concerning ownership of the Great Lakes which were given to America much to the dismay of Canada. The surrender of the Great Lakes to America was just one of the products of the war that greatly angered Canada, and gave America sure dominance over their northern neighbor.
The spirit of national-consciousness or national oneness. An essential ingredient to every empire. The national spirit manifested itself into distinct American literature, a revived national bank, a handsome national capital, and an expansion of the army to 10000 men.
The American System
The three-part plan developed by Henry Clay that stressed a strong banking system, protective tariffs, and a network of roads and canals. Clay’s plan was essential in developing a profitable home market. This home market enabled America to become a self-sufficient, isolated country,
Glamorous, eloquent and ambitious member of the House of Representatives, Clay was the father of the “American System”. The American System led to a heightened sense of nationalism and created a profitable home market.
“Era of Good Feelings”
This phrase was used to describe to administrations of James Monroe. Although Monroe was least distinguished than previous presidents, he successfully cemented national identity in America. Monroe’s goodwill tour of 1817, where he visited New England and then moved west to Detroit, cemented nationalism in America.
Panic of 1819
Due to the over speculation of western land, the panic brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, and unemployment. The panic created a severely strapped lower class, who in turn sowed the seeds for Jacksonian democracy.
The banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States’ response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks.
Stated that no more slaves should be brought into Missouri and also provided for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already there. Defeated in the Senate. Just another event foreshadowing the Civil War.
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
This prohibited Missouri to be a slave state, however it prohibited all future bondage in the remainder of the land of the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri. Although in its 34 years it preserved a shaky compact of the states, this compromise did not resolve the conflict over slavery, it simply avoided it.
Occurred in Missouri before the Missouri Compromise and was a sort of tug of war between Missouri being a free-soil state and a slave state. The resolution of this dispute was to set the stage for the rest of the territory west of the Mississippi on the issue of slavery.
McCullough vs. Maryland
(1819) A response to Chief of Justice John Marshall’s attempt to bolster the power of the federal government at the expense of the states. The suit involved Maryland’s attempt to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United Sates by imposing taxes on its notes. Marshall denied the request and at the same time strengthened federal authority. Marshall’s ruling of this case was a most famous example of “loose construction”. He said that the Constitution was derived from the consent of the people, and therefore allowed the government to act for their benefit.
Cohen vs. Virginia
(1821) The Cohens were found guilty by the Virginia courts for illegally selling lottery tickets and then appealed to the highest tribunal. Virginia won when the conviction was upheld; however Marshall asserted that the Supreme Court had the right to review the decisions of the state supreme courts. This proved to be a huge loss of states’ rights, the federal government now basically dominating the judicial branch of all states.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
(1824) This suit grew out of an attempt of New York to grant to a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. Marshall, not surprisingly, stated that the Constitution declared that Congress alone had the control of interstate commerce. This, similar to the Cohen vs. Virginia case, struck another blow at states’ rights while increasing the power of the federal government.
Fletcher vs. Peck
(1810) The notorious case that arose when Georgia legislature (bribed) granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River country (Mississippi) to private speculators. Marshall and the Supreme Court said that the grant was a contract (although a fraudulent one) and that the Constitution forbids state laws impairing contracts. Perhaps the most noteworthy decision that further protected property rights against popular pressures. Also, it was one of the first assertions of the Supreme Court to tear down state laws that conflicted with the Constitution.
Dartmouth v Woodward 1819
Most remembered of Marshalls decisions, college granted to king George III but new Hampshire state legislature wanted to change it. In the end the original name stayed because the constitution protected contracts against stare encroachments. This is how Marshall became molding father of the constitution.
Had spot in senate but repetitively stepped down to Supreme Court. He expounded his federalistic philosophy. He argued to keep Dartmouth and gave new ideas to Supreme Court.
Removing a law or refusing to enforce it. In 1815 there was a lot of talk about nullification in the New England colonies, the outright floating of the Jefferson embargo and crippling of the war were the 2 most damaging effects.
Florida Purchase Treaty
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
6 foot tall man nominated for presidency in 1816 by Republican Party but lost. He strongly backed the colonization there of ex slaves, he was a co-purchaser of Louisiana.
In 1823 Adams won Monroe over to his way of thinking. Message stated warning to Europe of no colonization and nonintervention. Showed the fears about regions in the south and negative feeling of Europe monarchies. This offended the Europeans and their government.
When the 1824 election ended without any candidate receiving a majority in the Electoral College, the House of Representatives awarded the election to John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson’s outraged supporters claimed that a corrupt bargain had been struck whereby Henry Clay supported Adams in the House vote in return for the office of secretary of state. The corrupt bargain later resulted in Andrew Jackson being elected in the election of 1828 in a landslide because rigorous campaigning on how unfair it was that he had won the popular vote but Adams had been elected becoming the first minority president.
John Quincy Adams
He was the son of formal president John Adams and became president himself in the corrupt election of 1824. He was the first minority president and due to this was not liked by many and subjected him to many hostilities leaving it near impossible for him to accomplish much as president. Quincy’s election was said to have been accomplished by an agreement with Clay to make him ST. This form of corruption plagued the country in its early days, but an effort was made to end it when Jackson was elected in a landslide during the 1828 election
War hero and president who was elected in 1828 after being cheated out of the previous election, he was the only president, besides Washington, to be elected without a college education. Nicknamed “Old Hickory” due to his ruralness he was known as a very tough president. Jackson appeal to the American public was perfect for the day when they desired a commoner who also a rebellious American.
The name given to the transition between Jeffersonian simplicity and a Jacksonian vulgarity. It was first used to describe the style Jackson’s inauguration because the white house was thrown open to the masses which interwove the notables with the unknowns. This was a transition in American politics from a political genius to a president for the people. It further established America as an identity of capitalism where anyone can rise up to become anything even president.
The concept of political supporters with public office which was the tactic the Democrats used when Jackson was elected. The establishment of the spoils system cemented the influence of political parties showing that once of them is elected the entire government will transform into the ideals of the party. It was the first party overturn since the defeat of the Federalists in 1800 but this was even more drastic as Washington received a complete “house cleaning”.
Tariff of Abominations
This was an open protest of the new Tariffs established by Jackson by the south who felt that they were being cheated by the northern states. This was partly true as it heavily taxed the southern crops while not impacting the northern states very much. So protest broke out, especially in South Carolina, which went as far as threatening to separate from the Union. Although this bill angered the Southerners because of the finical impact, the real issue was further dividing between North and South. This time it was there economies because of the successful industries of the north the Southerners felt that the real issue behind the tariff was the abolition of slavery.
A free black from Charleston who led a rebellion which caused increasing anxieties in the south whose blame was outlet into protest of the tariffs. This slave rebellion showed that the time of slavery in America was coming to a crossroads where something must be done. They did not want it reach a level as it did in Haiti and along with increasing pressure from Britain, slavery was becoming redefined as immoral. Much of the South’s frustrations were outlet into tariff protests.
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
It became a formal proposal against the tariff secretly written by John C. Calhoun. The protests attempted to rally other states to their cause and to deem it as unconstitutional and to give them the right to nullify it. The rallying of the southern states together against Washington was an increasing theme leading to thee Civil War.
John C. Calhoun
One of the few topflight political theorists ever produced by America. Vice President to JQ Adams and Jackson, he was also the author of The Exposition. The Exposition went a stride beyond the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1789 and proposed that S. Carolinians should void the Tariff of Abominations.
Crisis during Andrew Jackson’s presidency that centered on the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law passed by Congress. Although the federal and state were able to compromise, this once again showed how the United States had a very delicate balance between federal and state power.
Tariff of 1833
Stated that import taxes would gradually decrease by about 10% over a period of eight years until they matched the levels of the Tariff of 1816. Although the state and federal governments were able to strike a compromise, Jackson’s near invasion of S. Carolina illustrated the federal government’s stance on the power of a state to annul federal laws.
Name given to the Bank of the United States because of its refusal to print paper money, which gave the paper printing private banks considerable power. The people’s unhappiness with the national bank led to the “bank wars”, which was a conflict between Jackson and Henry Clay over the constitutionality of the bank.
The banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States’ response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks.
The brilliant but arrogant president of the Bank of the United States. Many people believed he held an unconstitutional amount of power over the nation’s financial affairs. The power struggle between Biddle and Jackson led to Jackson depositing a large amount of investments into his pet banks.
Henry Clay’s party. Although the party enjoyed ample funds and media support, Jackson won the election by a landslide. The defeat of Clay allowed Jackson to move without opposition to bury the Bank of the United States.
Third political party that developed during the campaign of 1832 because of the debate between Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. This party also developed as opposition to the Masonic secret society. Although it gained support from evangelical Protestant groups and people who were neglected by Jackson, the defeat of this third party cemented the two party system that is present today.
“Five Civilized Tribes”
A terms used by whites referring to the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chicksaws, and Semonoles due to their “Americanization” These Indians make remarkable efforts to adopt the ways of the whites and even abandon their our culture, however this was still not good enough for the whites when in 1828 Georgia’s government declared their council illegal and asserted its own jurisdictions. These tribes also felt the heavy blows of the Indian Removal Act.
“Trail of Tears”
In the fall and winter of 1838-1839 the US forcibly removed about 15,000 Cherokees. They were marched to Indian territory (modern day Oklahoma) in freezing weather with inadequate food supplies. Shows the Indians’ complete loss of their homeland. They have by now realized that revolt is useless and they just get pushed around by the whites.
A Tennessee soldier and three-time congressman who was rejected in politics and left to Texas. Known for fighting, and dying, at the Alamo.
The main Indian tribe of the “Five Civilized Tribes”. In Georgia they made remarkable efforts to adopt the “white” ways of life as they abandoned their semi-nomadic life and formed a government. This tribe was the most important in the Indian attempts at “Americanization”. Although their efforts were remarkable, the white government declared their council illegal and took over.
The Mexican dictator and military leader in the time of the Alamo. When Stephen Austin went to negotiate with him, he shut him in jail for eight months. Was the opposition to American Texans. He wiped out Texans at the Alamo, however he surrendered to Sam Houston in 1836.
“Remember the Alamo”
A common Texan war cry that reminded Americans to remember the men that died at the Alamo. Not only was this a war cry, but a sort of guilt trip that got vengeful Americans to go fight for their country and for those who died at the Alamo.
A Tennessee lawyer, congressman, and governor who became the leader of the Texan rebels. He was also elected into the Senate and the governorship of Texas. It is due to this man that Texas is part of the United Sates today. His capture of Santa Anna forced Santa Anna to give up the land and sign a treaty stating that the Rio Grande was the southernmost border of the now American Texas.
A term for southern democracy by anti-slavery Union people. The term suggested that slavery dominated all southern politics, and Northerners believed that adding Texas to the United States was the attempts of the south to add one more slave state.
The opposing party side of the Democratic Party arguing over important issues of political powers fist emerged in senate. Name mocked American revolution opposing monarchy conservatives, form into today’s republicans, they welcomed market economy.
Martin Van Buren
The vice president of Jackson. When Jackson was unable to serve his 3rd term Buren took over for him as 8th president. Focused most of his energy on the panic of 1837, attempt to stay neutral with Canadians led to “woe to martin van Buren” he made divorce bill.
Van Buren tried to “divorce” the country of its bank, the money would be locked into vaults so it would be safe. It was not a popular idea and led to the Treasury bill passed by Congress in 1840.
The Two Party System
Both political parties had fully become, they were separated by philosophy and policy. The social diversity fostered the horse trading compromises that prevented either from taking extreme positions.
Indians from Florida joined by runaway black slaves, retreated to the everglades. For seven years they waged a guerilla war that killed 1500 soldiers. ¼ were moved to Oklahoma where several thousand still live.
Panic of 1837
A symptom of financial downfall because of the get rich system. This put America’s economy into great danger and many backs collapsed leading to the divorce bill.
Is the name given by historians to the aggressive and often heedless exploitation of the West’s natural properties. During this time buffalo hers were driven to near extinction along with the beaver and heavy lumberjacking. This was a time when there was little to no care for the environment and it triggered the first naturist movement in which George Catlin established the first national park of Yellow Stone.
The time in Ireland when the potato crop failed resulting in about 2 million people to parish causing people to flee the land. The Black Forties is the reason why there is such a large Irish population in today’s society as about a million in a half immigrated to America during this time adding the Irish to a short group of cultures to have experienced Diaspora.
“No Irish Need Apply” was a sign commonly posted at factory gates to restrict the increasing hire of Irish Immigrants. People were complaining that they were taking the “white mans” jobs. This public opinion placed the Irish in the basement of America’s social class beside the blacks. It resulted in the Irish becoming more independent within an American society and is a trend that repeats habitually every time a new group of immigrants migrates to America (Currently it is the Hispanic community).
Was the name given to the large amount of German immigrants filtering into America between 1830 and 1860. This was due to the failing of the revolutions of 1848 and they were more successful than the Irish. With the Germans came many brilliant German liberals who made contribution to the abolition movement and politics. The Germans were a more tightly knitted group with a higher emphasis on education so they established many public schools for their children.
The group of arrogant prejudice Americans, who had the audacity to refer to themselves as “native” Americans, who complained that the wave of immigrants was taking jobs away from well deserving Americans. This spawned groups like the Order of the Star- Spangled Banner which soon developed into the Know-Nothing party. It has continued to be a common trend in recent years with the increasing protests arising over immigrants taking the jobs of well deserving Americans. These “well deserving Americans” were once immigrants who had societies protesting against them for the same reasons. More or less it is vicious cycle that is likely to continue in our country to the extreme ignorance of the masses.
Were a group of people who opposed the increasing immigration levels and attempted to write legislation for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers. This was just an example of a group of people attempting to thwart the increase of immigration which has continued to make-up America.
Father of the factory system. A fugitive who built the first American cotton factory by memory. The factory system led to many social injustices. Child labor and horrible working conditions led to the formation of labor unions.
invented the cotton gin, which was 50 times more effective than the handpicking process. The cotton gin was so simple people were able to copy it without violating his patent. Thus, Whitney did not make much money off of his work. The implementation of the cotton gin in the southern economy made the south even more dependent on slave labor.
Elias How/Isaac Singer
The sewing machine, invented by Howe and perfected by Singer, gave a strong boost to the northern economy. The sewing machine became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry. Drove many a seamstress from their homes to the factories for work.
It basically makes it so that a business with public stock can fail without any one person losing all of their money. It lowered the risk of new business ventures. The Boston Associates, who developed one of the first investment capital companies, used limited liability to dominate their market.
Inventor of the telegraph allowing quick communication over large distances. The telegraph put distantly separated people in almost instant communication with each other. Made the U.S. seem a lot smaller.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
The case in which the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that they used “honorable and peaceful” methods. This case gave laborers more power in the US. It allowed them to boycott due to poor pay, long hours, or even the ability to smoke on the job. Although boycotts usually backfired, this still gave more power to laborers in unfavorable working conditions.
In a textile mill at Lowell, Massachusetts virtually all of the workers were New England farm girls. They were supervised on and off the job, and even escorted to and from church. They had few opportunities to express their discontentment regardiong their working conditions. Was one example of inhumane labor conditions in America during the Industrial Revolution.
“Cult of Domesticity”
A term used to convey the message that women were still meant to be housewives. Although many women began working at this time, most of those who did were single women, and married women did tend to stay home.
A name for women’s choice to have fewer children and smaller families and their growing power and independence. Was a turning point for women, whose role in society was rapidly progressing.
A Virginia-born who in the 1830s invented the mower-reaper. With the use of this tool a single man could do the work of five men with sickles and scythes. His invention was the equivalent in the west to the cotton gin to the south. This invention led to cash-crop culture dominating the west.
Paved highways and man-made waterways that connected the northwest to the Midwest. These new forms of transportation massively reduced shipping prices on good and cut shipping time in half, if not more than half.
An ambitious painter engineer who installed a powerful steam engine (the Clermont). It went from NYC to the Hudson River. 150 miles in 32 hours. Changes Americas Navigational streams into two way arteries.
Clintons Big Ditch
The Governor Clinton emptied a cask of water from the lake to symbolize the marriage of the waters. The water “baptized” the empire state and the cost of chipping fell from $100 to 4% and time dropped from 20 days to 6.
The greatest wire puller in history. It stretched a cable under deep North Atlantic waters to Ireland. Promotes shipping and transportation transportation revolution.
New ships made in the Golden Age. They were very fast and could outrun and steamer. These ships helped with the tea trade. Its efficiency boosted economy, better than British ships.
Established in 1860 to carry mail quickly from Missouri to Sacramento. Tiny people would ride ponies to stations ten miles apart and it would only take 10 days. The enterprise lost money and collapsed after 18 months, but it boosted technology later leading to machinery.
Rely on reason rather than revelation, science rather than the bible, as well as rejecting original sin and Christ’s divinity for their insight. However, they do believe in a supreme being who created the universe and created human beings a supreme race. Original members of the founding fathers including Jefferson and Franklin were deists. Deism helped to inspire an important spin-off from the severe Puritanism of the past with the birth of the Unitarian faith. This created a reaction from religious groups sparking the Second Great Awakening.
A religious cult constructed in New England at the end of the eighteenth century and believed G-d existed in only one person and not in the holy trinity. They focused more on the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness and pictured God as a loving father. The Unitarians were comprised of mostly the upper class and their contradicting beliefs began a reaction of revivals known as the Second Great Awakening.
The Second Great Awakening
This was the second religious revival in the United States in which masses of people would gather to pray and many souls were “saved”. The Methodists and Baptists became the most abundant religion from heavy recruiting. The Second Great Awakening renewed religion as the center of American culture and redefined American religions much as it had done a hundred years previous by reaching out to the masses.
Peter Catwright/ Charles Finney
They were both influential members of the Second Great Awakening. Peter was an uneducated Methodist who converted thousands of souls with his powerful speeches. Charles was a former lawyer who became and evangelist and held huge crowd spellbound with his powerful message, and led massive revivals in New York with his brand of old-time-religion. Both of these men were key contributors to the second Great Awakening with their distinct methods of rallying people for religious revival. They were two of many important members of the religious movement and influenced many to change their lives.
Burned Over District
A term that refers religious revivals to western New York. Puritan sermonizers were preaching “hell-fire and damnation.” The Mormon religion was established by Joseph Smith, who claimed to have had a revelation from angel and they faced much persecution from the people and were eventually forced to move west. (Salt Lake City) After the difficult journey they greatly improved their land through wise forms of irrigation. The establishment and persecution of the Mormon religion revisited old themes that were around from the original colonists. The Mormons migration westward brought new prosperity to the unpopulated west and has become a prominent part in American society today.
Founded the Mormon religion after reporting that he was visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; he ran into opposition from Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri when he attempted to spread the Mormon beliefs, but was killed by non believer. Smith establishment of the Mormon faith started a movement within America of values including no drinking, gambling, and an unorthodox view of marriage. His sacrifice for his religious beliefs is a symbol of what America was built on back in the colonial days.
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846 to escape persecution. Under Young’s management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons. Brigham Young led the Mormons essentially to their freedom y establishing a home in Utah. However, his untraditional beliefs caused many controversies and forced Washington to march a military campaign in order to contain the Young who was becoming to powerful.
Louis Agassiz was a professor at Harvard College. He was a student of biology who insisted on original research. He hated the overemphasis on memory work. Agassiz was one of the most influential American scientists in the nineteenth century and the first to gain international recognition since Benjamin Franklin.
John J. Audubon
1785 to 1851; He was an artist who specialized in painting wild fowl. He had such works as Birds of America. Ironically, he shot a lot of birds for sport when he was young. The Audubon Society for the protection of birds was named after him. His depictions of western wildlife contributed to the western population movements.
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
An anatomy teacher at Harvard Medical School was also a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, and lecturer. “The Last Leaf” in honor of the last “white Indian” at the Boston Tea Party, which really applied to himself. Made many contributions to American literature and medicine. Declared that if the medicine were to be thrown into the sea, humans would be better off and the fish worse off.
The Hudson River School
A painting type which was a romantic, heroic, mythic style that flourished in the 19th century. It tended to paint American landscapes as beautiful and brooding. The Hudson River School depictions of the western frontier contributed to the western expansion as well as the idea of Manifest Destiny.
An idealistic graduate of Brown University, Mann was secretary of the Massachusetts board of education. He was involved in the reformation of public education (1825-1850). Mann campaigned for better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. He caused a reformation of the public schools that led to educational advances in text books by Noah Webster and Ohioan William H. McGuffey.
Born in Connecticut and educated at Yale, Webster lived from1758-1843. Called “Schoolmaster of the Republic.” Wrote reading primers and texts for school use. He was most famous for his dictionary. His dictionary, first published in 1828, standardized the English language in America. His “reading lessons,” used by millions of children, promoted patriotism.
Written by influential Ohioan William McGuffey, a powerful teacher-preacher. The grade-school readers sold 122 million copies. McGuffey’s Readers hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism.
Lyceum Movement/ Circuits
Movement that emphasized the organization of adult education. Inspired by Aristotle’s Lyceum in ancient Greece. The Lyceum Movement contributed significantly to the education of adult Americans in the nineteenth century.
Cold Water Army
A name for anti-drinking children’s clubs organized by temperance crusaders. This was one of many tactics used by the American Temperance Society to reform the drunkard nation, by turning children against alcohol at a young age. This reform regarding alcohol was brought about through the Second great Awakening
Neal Dow/Main Laws
Dow was a blue-nosed reformer who was considered the “Father of Prohibition” who had experienced the negative effects of alcohol first hand. He sponsored the Maine Law, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of intoxicating alcohol. Dow was one of many foes of the Demon Drink, and one who believed the temptation should be removed altogether. His strong stand on the subject convinced other states in the North to follow the Maine Law.
The Knickerbockers Group
A group of American writers in New York that marked the start of American literature. This enabled America for the first time to boast of a literature to match its magnificent landscapes. Although Americans had been writing brilliant political essays and things of the sort, great American literature did not arise until this group was formed.
The theory that denounced the usual culture and way of life of the time, arguing that truth “transcends” the senses, rather than the largely accepted theory of the prevailing theory of John Locke, that all knowledge comes from the mind though the senses. This movement resulted in part from a liberalizing of the constricting Puritan theology and was influenced by German romantic philosophers and the religions of Asia. This movement was supported by writers in New England, especially near Boston.
Writers of the Transcendentalist movement. Emerson the best-known who was trained as a Unitarian minister but became a hailed poet and philosopher instead. Thoreau was Emerson’s close associate and was a poet, a mystic, and a non-conformist. Whitman was the bold, open collared figure from Brooklyn, famous for his collection of poems Leaves of Grass. His poems were highly unconventional, romantic, and handled sex with shocking frankness. These poets were the first of their kind in America and were the leaders of the Transcendentalist movement
“The Submerged Sex”
A derogatory term for women in the early 19th century, defining women as a lesser sex. Although women in America had more rights than those in Europe, they were still considered inferior to males and the burgeoning market economy further separated women fro men in economic roles.
Susan B. Anthony/”Suzy B’s”
A Quaker-reared militant lecturer for women’s rights. She became such a conspicuous advocate of female rights that women everywhere that held similar beliefs were called “Suzy B’s”. Was the most influential advocate of women’s rights in American history.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
In the spirit of the declaration of Independence declared that all men and women are created equal. One resolution demanded the ballot for women. This meeting launched the modern women’s rights movement.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
A women’s rights convention where feminists met and argued that all men and women are created equal. Demanded voting rights for females. Launches for women’s rights movements it was the 1st big convention for women.
Various reformers set up communities with equal rights and jobs. Utopian lifestyle. This idea was taken from manifest destiny, using socialist ideas, trying to remove a capitalist society.
Oneida &Brook Farm
Oneida from New York practiced free love birth control and the selection of parents for best offspring. Brook intellectuals committed to transcendentalism. These were some example of the utopian movement with communist societies in America.
In 1770 mother Anne Lee led the shakers, having 6,000 members prohibiting marriage and sexual relations. This group proved that a group must produce offspring to survive. It is one of the religious communities.
People who contributes to establishing American art and literature. Some were Thoreau, Whiteman, and Audubon. Contributes to idealistic thought and promoted American identity in art through new works.
Scarlett letter psychological effect of sin on the guilty conscience. Moby Dick was not popular at first but later was looked upon as a master piece. Reflected the continuing Calvinist obsession with the original sin and struggle between good and evil.
He was the secretary of the navy. Took part in the founding of Annapolis naval academy. The Father of American history because he published six volumes of US history showing patriotism and nationalism.