strong believer in strict construction, weak government, and anti-militarism who was forced to modify some of his principles in office
Swiss-born treasury secretary who disliked national debt but kept most Hamiltonian economic measures in effect
Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal efforts established the principle of judicial review and kept the Federalists ideals in place for another 30 years after their defeat
Marbury v. Madison
ruling based on a “midnight judge” case they established the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
Federalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 but acquitted by the Senate, with the result that his trial discouraged future attempts to impeach justices for purely political reasons.
Pasha of Tripoli
North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the US form 1801 to 1805, Significance: His aggression forced the pacifist Jefferson to reluctantly dispatch the infant navy to the shores of Tripoli. Jefferson succeeded in extorting a treaty of peace from the Pasha by paying him off.
French ruler who acquired Louisiana from Spain only to sell it to the United States
American minister to Paris who joined James Monroe in making a magnificent real estate deal, the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory
Gifted black revolutionary whose successful slave revolution indirectly led to Napoleon’s sale of Louisiana
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchased Louisiana Territory and Oregon. He served as the artist and cartographer.They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America’s claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
Former vice-president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes
incident in 1807 that brought on a war crisis when the British warship Leopard attacked the American warship Chesapeake; the British demanded to board the American ship to search for deserters from the Royal Navy. When the U.S. commander refused, the British attacked, killing or wounding 20 American sailors. Four alleged deserters were then removed from the Chesapeake and impressed. Many angry and humiliated Americans called for war.
Embargo Act of 1807
banned the exportation of any goods to any countries. With the act, Jefferson planned to force France and England, both of whom depended on American trade, to respect America and its citizens. The embargo did hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more.
Shawnee leader who organized a major Indian confederation against U.S. expansion.
William Henry Harrison
Military leader who defeated Tecumseh’s brother, “the Prophet,” at the Battle of Tippecanoe