AP Statistics Midterm Study Guide

Residual
Observed minus predicted.
Response variable
Measures the outcome of a study.
Explanatory variable
May help explain or influence changes in a response variable.
1
Area of a density curve.
68, 95, 99.7
Rule for area of normal distributions.
Cluster
A population divided into small groups ideally reflecting the characteristics of the population.
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Strata
Groups of the population with similar characteristics within each group.
Observational study
Observes individuals but does not make an attempt to influence the responses.
Experiment
Deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals to measure their responses.
Block
A group of experimental units known to be different before the experiment in a way that will affect the responses to the treatment.
Matched pairs design
Blocks created by matching pairs of similar experimental units. One member of each pair gets each treatment.