AP Psychology Myers – Chapter 15 Personality

Personality
An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Free Association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Psychoanalysis
Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Unconscious
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of whih we are unaware.
Id
Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy, that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.
operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
Ego
The largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the Reality Principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
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Superego
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Psychosexual Stages
The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Oedipus Complex
According to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
Identification
The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos.
Fixation
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved.
Defense Mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Regression
Defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
Reaction Formation
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
Projection
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Rationalization
Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
Displacement
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
Projective Test
A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger proaction of one’s inner dynamics.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projection test in which people explores their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.
Self-actualization
According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.
Unconditional Positive Regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Self-Concept
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
Trait
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Personality Inventory
A questionnaire (Often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
The most widely researched and clinically see of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Empirically Derived Test
A test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Views behavior as influence by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context.
Reciprocal Determinism
The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
Personal Control
Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.
External Locus of Control
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate.
Internal Locus of Control
The perception that one controls one’s own fate.
Learned Helplessness
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Spotlight Effect
Overestimating other’s noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
Self-esteem
One’s feelings of high or low self-worth.
Self-serving Bias
A readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
Individualism
Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals, and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
Terror-Mangement Theory
Proposes that faith in one’s worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
Oral Stage
When= birth- 18 months
Source= Mouth
relief= Sucking, Biting
Concern= with how a child is weened
Fixation Causes… May lack self confidence, gullible, obsessive eating or smoking
Anal Stage
When= 18 months-3
Source= Anus
Relief= expelling/retaining feces
Concern=with toilet training
Fixation Causes…obsession with neatness
Phallic Stage
When= 3-5
Source=genitals
Relief=discovery of own gender
Concern=attachment to mother, jealous of dad
Fixation Causes…improper identification
Latency Stage
When= 5-13
suppression of sexual instincts “natural homo stage”
Fixation Causes… homosexuality
Genital Stage
Sexual desires return for opposite sex except now outside the family. Ages 13-19
Preconscious
level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness
Compensation
a defense mechanism that conceals your undesirable shortcomings by exaggerating desirable behaviors
Intellectualization
avoiding emotions associated with anxiety-provoking experiences by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts
Sublimation
(psychology) modifying the natural expression of an impulse or instinct to one that is socially acceptable
Identification
bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
Denial
Refusing to accept reality or fact
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s theory… cannot skip… from top to bottom
Self Actualization
Esteem Needs
Belonging Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Deficit Needs