AP Psychology Module 11 Exam Review

•Definition of Psychology
Psychology is the scientific approach to answer questions about our actions, thoughts, and emotions.
•History of Psychology
◦What is the difference between structuralism and functionalism? Who were the important people in those early fields?
◦Who were the important people behind the Gestalt, psychoanalytic and behaviorism approaches?
The Greek philosophers Socrates (469-399 BC) and Plato (428-348 BC) believed that we are born with innate knowledge of the world and that the mind and the body exist as two distinct entities, a contention called dualism. Aristotle (384-322 BC), used careful observations to conclude that the mind is not separate from the body (monism) and that we accumulate knowledge through our experiences.
Rene Descartes (1595-1650) and John Locke (1632-1704), supported mind/body dualism (Cognito ergo sum – “I think, therefore I am.”) and maintained that humans are born with knowledge.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is credited with creating the first experimental psychology laboratory and trained his students to analyze their thoughts, sensations, and perceptions through objective introspection. To understand the elements of the mind, psychologists need to measure and analyze their own thoughts and perceptions. Along with his student, Edward Titchener (1867-1927), Wundt founded structuralism, the belief that every thought or perception can be broken down into separate emotions and sensations.
William James (1842-1910) expanded on Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection; he believed that certain physical traits helped an animal survive in their environment and because of their success, that animal would be more likely to mate and pass on these traits to their offspring.
•Modern Perspectives
◦What are the seven modern perspectives?
◦Describe the important contributions of Skinner, Maslow and Rogers.
psychoanalysis: An Austrian medical doctor specializing in disorders of the nervous system in late 1800s, Freud revolutionized psychology with his theories of the unconscious, a division of the mind that we are unaware of, nor do we have any control over. Despite our willful efforts, Freud believed the unconscious is what drives our thoughts and behaviors. His influence expanded as he gathered intellectual disciples and elaborated his theory of psychoanalysis. After his death in 1939, many of his inner circle of students revised his original ideas with their own perspectives, resulting in the more modern psychodynamic theories.
behavioral: This system of rewards and punishments to encourage and modify behavior is based on operant conditioning, a behaviorist conception that the consequences following a behavior will influence that behavior to be repeated, or never replicated again
humanistic: Psychologists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow championed the free will of individuals to choose their own destinies as the humanistic perspective prospered in the 1950s and 1960s. The humanists emphasized our social needs for acceptance, belonging, and self-esteem, principles that define many modern therapy techniques.
cognitive- The 1960s revitalized an interest in problem solving, memory, intelligence, language, learning and other mental processes. The cognitive revolution took a stance against limiting psychological research to just observable behaviors.
biological- The biological perspective of psychology is centered on understanding the physiology of our brain to decipher our thoughts and behaviors. With its intricate arrangement of specialized cells and chemicals, our nervous system harnesses the energy of electricity to enable our thoughts, control our muscles, and pilot every other human action. Biopsychologists study the healthy and diseased brains of patients to develop medical treatments, pharmaceuticals, and other biologically based therapies to treat psychological disorders.
sociocultural- The sociocultural perspective examines the influence of other people and cultural standards on our thoughts and behaviors.
evolutionary-For decades, biologists traced the characteristics of animal behaviors across the evolutionary tree, but psychologists began hypothesizing about the reproductive advantages and heritability of certain human traits like aggression, jealousy, language, and sexuality. Advances in contemporary neurology and brain imaging provide evolutionary biologists a vast resource of potential evidence to support the natural selection of behaviors in humans.
•Psychological Professions
◦How does a psychiatrist differ from a psychologist?
◦What are other types of professionals who work in various areas of psychology?
counseling- If the goal is to work directly with clients as a licensed therapist, mental health counselor, or clinical social worker, the next step is a 2-3 year Master’s degree in counseling psychology, social work, or mental health counseling. These programs include academic research, supervised practice with real clients, and the completion of a comprehensive licensing exam. Every state has different licensing requirements for therapists.
research- A psychologist holds a four year Ph.D doctorate degree focused in a specific area of psychology. The doctoral program will include academic research, laboratory experimentation, teaching, and a dissertation. Psychologists work in various settings such as universities, hospitals, private corporations, legal practices, and seminaries.
clinical- Clinical psychologists are trained at the doctoral level to research and help clients with mental disorders. If an individual is interested in a doctoral level degree without the emphasis in research, they may also pursue a Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. Similar to the applied degrees of dentistry, pharmacy, or veterinary medicine, the Doctor of Psychology sanctions a hands-on career treating clients. However, neither clinical Ph.D’s nor Psy.D’s are able to prescribe medicine. Only a medical doctor can prescribe pharmaceuticals.
psychiatry- A psychiatrist is a medical doctor specializing in studying and treating mental disorders, thus their path after a bachelor’s degree would lead to medical school. After an internship with other psychiatrists, these specialized doctors study and treat patients with mental disorders with medicines and other biological techniques.
The Experiment
•Two variables are studied for cause and effect.
•Independent variable -manipulated
•Dependent variable – the response; measured variable
•Confounding variable – other variables that may influence results
•Experiment group – exposed to manipulation of independent variable
•Control group – an unaffected comparison group
•Population – collection of all people in a given geographic area or space.
•Sample – chosen from a given population in hope representing everyone appropriately in a study or an experiment.
•Subject bias – a subject’s behavior changes due to believed expectations of experiment
•Researcher bias – expectations influence what is recorded
•Double-blind technique – control for bias by keeping placement of subject to BOTH experimenter and experimental subject secret
•Placebo – inactive substance unknowingly given in place of drug
•Null hypothesis – negatively expressed hypothesis; X will not change Y
Approaches
•Behaviorism-Environmental: learning; nurture
•Biological-Physiology; genetics; nature
•Cognitive-Mental Processes
•Psychoanalytical-Unconscious, childhood
•Humanistic-Freewill; basis goodness
•Multicultural-Socio-cultural; role of structure
•Gestalt-Emphasizes the organization process in behavior. Focuses on problem of perception.
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Neuroscience
•The neuron
◦Parts of the neuron/ types of neurons
-dendrite-Branching fibers or extensions of the neuron that receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons. Also conducts impulses toward the soma.
-soma(also known as the cell body-Central area of the neuron that contains the nucleus and other structures common to all cells such as mitochondria. It tells the neuron whether to fire or not.
-axon-Single, long fiber that extends from the soma to the terminal buttons. Information passes down the axon to other neurons or gland cells(Bundles of axons coming from many neurons are what we call nerves)
-myelin sheath-Layer of fatty tissue(lipids) that insulates and protects the axon, and speed up neural impulses.
-terminal buttons(also known as axon terminals, synaptic knobs, or axon buds)-The branches at the end of the axon, which contain the neurotransmitters, release them, and send them across the synapse.
-vesicles-Small, bubbly sacs located inside the terminal buttons that house the neurotransmitters and suck up excess neurotransmitters during the process of reuptake.
-synapse(also known as synaptic gap or synaptic cleft)-The space in between each neuron. Remember: neurons never touch.
-nodes of Ranvier-Gaps between the myelin sheath where sodium and potassium ions pass through during an action potential. Location where “electrical” conduction takes place.
◦Neurotransmission/ Neural communication (Action Potential)-Neural communication depends on the ability of our neurons to respond to incoming stimulation and then pass signals to other neurons. Neurons send information electrochemically, which means half of this process is electrical and the other half is chemical. The chemicals cause an electrical signal.
◦Neurotransmitters- various neurotransmitters do different things to our body. We cannot underestimate how important these chemicals, neurotransmitters, are to our body. Everything we do, we need a neurotransmitter to do it. Neurotransmitters are made in the cell body of the neuron and then transported down the axon to the terminal buttons (axon terminals). Molecules of neurotransmitters are stored in small “packages” called vesicles. Neurotransmitters are released from one neuron at the presynaptic terminal button into the synaptic gap due to action potential. Neurotransmitters then cross the synapse where they may be accepted by the next neuron (postsynaptic neuron) at a specialized site called a receptor. Neurotransmitters will bind only to specific receptors on the postsynaptic dendrite’s membrane that recognize them. The action that follows activation of a receptor site may be either depolarization (an excitatory postsynaptic potential) or an inhibitory postsynaptic potential. (This means once the neurotransmitter binds onto the receptor site of the dendrite, either action potential will take place, or it will not allow action potential to take place because it is an inhibitor.)Neurotransmission is then terminated by reuptake in which the neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons that released it.
•Parts of the Brain
◦The cerebral cortex-controls complex thought processes
Lobes: Frontal-areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech, Parietal-sections of the brain located at the top and back of each of cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations; Occipital-section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain; Temporal-areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech
Cortices: Motor Cortex-section of the frontal lobe located at the back, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system, Somatosensory Cortex-area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possible taste; Visual Cortex-part of the brain that helps identify and make sense of the visual information from the eyes
Broca’s Area-located in the left frontal lobe, are of the brain devoted to speech, allows a person to speak smoothly and fluently
Wernicke’s Area-located in the left temporal lobe, involved in understanding the meaning of words
◦Lower – level brain structures- includes medulla, hippocampus, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, pons, and reticular formation
◦Midbrain – Limbic System-a group of several structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation; includes amygdala, hypothalamus, mammillary body, thalamus, fornix, and hippocampus
•The Nervous System
◦The Central Nervous System (CNS)-the brain and spinal cord
◦The Autonomic Nervous System-automatically regulates glands, internal organs and blood vessels, pupil dilation, digestion, and blood pressure
-Sympathetic Nervous System-prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress
-Parasympathetic Nervous System-maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy
•The Endocrine System-collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards a distant target organ.
•Ways to Study the Brain (Imaging Techniques)
◦CT Scans-CAT/CT Scans or Computerized Axial Tomography Scans, are sophisticated x-rays of the brain. Cross-sectional 3-D images of the brain are taken and used to show the structure of the brain, but not activity or function. CAT/CT Scans are particularly useful in locating brain tumors damage to brain regions. CAT scans provide an image of the brain.
◦MRI vs. fMRI-The MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, provides neuroscientists with the most detailed picture/ image of the brain. MRI scans use magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish between the structures within the brain as well as different types of soft tissue. MRI provides the most detailed picture of the brain. The fMRI, functional MRI, is a technique that shows blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. The fMRI reveals brain structure as well as functioning and activity when areas light up due to increased blood flow while a subject is performing different mental functions.
◦PET-PET, positron emission tomography, scans depict brain activity by locating and measuring radioactivity after a person is given a radioactive form of glucose. The PET scan reveals areas of the brain that “light up” while using the glucose, allowing researchers to know which brain areas are most active during a specific activity. PET scans measure brain activity once radioactive glucose is injected.
◦EEG-Researchers position electrodes on the scalp of subjects to record the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. EEG or electroencephalogram measures brain activity to determine a relationship to cognitive or perceptual tasks. EEG measures waves of electrical activity in the brain.
•Our Divided Brain
◦Hemispheric specialization-the study and its attributes of each brain hemisphere
◦Split-brain operations-corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is severed to some degree, surgical operation to produce this condition results from transection of the corpus callosum, and is usually a last resort to treat refractory epilepsy
◦Left Brain vs. Right Brain-each side of the brain controls different types of thinking
sensation
Sensation-how we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals.
•Difference threshold (JND)-the smallest difference between two stimulus that is detectable 50 percent of the time
•Weber’s Law-whatever the difference between stimuli might be, it is always a constant
•Sensory adaptation-tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging
•Vision-wavelength determines color and amplitude determines brightness
◦Parts of the eye and how light travels through
◦Pupil-iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment
◦Lens (accommodates)-changes shape to bring objects into focus
◦Retina (where transduction takes place)-contains photoreceptor cells
◦Rods (dim light)-visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of light
◦Cones (Color, in center of retina, called the fovea)-visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision
◦Bipolar and Ganglion cells-process color
◦Optic Nerve-sends visual information to the brain
◦Optic chiasm-the point of crossover between right eye and left brain
◦Feature Detector cells-process by which the nervous system sorts or filters complex natural stimuli in order to extract behaviorally relevant cues that have a high probability of being associated with important objects or organisms in their environment, as opposed to irrelevant background or noise
◦Young – Helmholtz tri-chromatic theory – Cones sensitive to RGB
◦Opponent process theory – 3 pairs; psychological and neurological model that accounts for a wide range of behaviors, including color vision. This model was first proposed in 1878 by Ewald Hering, a German physiologist, and later expanded by Richard Solomon, a 20th-century psychologist
◦Additive color mixing vs. Subtractive color mixing
•Audition – Hearing ◦Parts of the ear and how sound travels through
◦Outer ear (tympanic membrane or eardrum)-pinna(visible, external part of the ear) funnels sound waves from outside into the structure of the ear, also entrance to auditory canal (ear canal; short tunnel that runs down to the tympanic membrane or eardrum)
◦Middle ear (hammer, anvil, stirrup aka: maleus, incus, stapes)-consists of three tiny bones, when they vibrate it amplifies the vibrations from the eardrum, stirrup causes a membrane covering the opening of the inner ear to vibrate
◦Inner ear (cochlea, basilar membrane, cilia)-membrane called the oval window whose vibrations cause fluid in the cochlea to vibrate, fluid in cochlea surrounds a membrane running through the middle of the cochlea called the basilar membrane, basilar membrane is resting place of organ of Corti which contains receptor cells for the sense of hearing; basilar membrane vibrates and makes organ of Corti vibrate and it brushes against the membrane above it
◦Sound localization-refers to a listener’s ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space
◦Place theory – high frequencies (where in cochlea); theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane
◦Frequency theory – low frequencies; explicates how the human brain basically experiences a representation system of hearing
◦Volley principle – middle range sounds; groups of neurons of the auditory system respond to a sound by firing action potentials slightly out of phase with one another so that when combined, a greater frequency of sound can be encoded and sent to the brain to be analyzed
•Touch – combinations of cold, pressure, warmth, and pain
◦Gate control theory of pain-Ronald Melzack, a Canadian researcher, proposed the gate control theory with Patrick David Wall in 1965. The gate control theory of pain asserts that non-painful input closes the “gates” to painful input, which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the central nervous system. Therefore, stimulation by non-noxious input is able to suppress pain
•Gustation – Taste (sweet, sour, salty, bitter)
•Olfaction – Smell (chemical sense) ◦Olfactory bulb and olfactory nerve
•Sensory information is not routed by thalamus
•Vestibular Sense – balance
◦Semi-circular canals in middle ear and vestibular sacs in inner ear
•Kinethesis – sense of where your body is in space
perception
Perception – how we select, organize, and interpret our sensations.
•Gestalt – organizational psychology
◦Proximity-the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
◦Similarity-the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group
◦Continuity-the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
◦Connectedness-the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related
◦Closure-the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete
•Depth perception-the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions
◦Monocular cues – relative size, interposition, relative clarity, texture gradient, relative height, relative motion, linear perspective, and light and shadow
◦Binocular cues – retinal disparity, convergence
◦Size-distance relationship
•Perceptual set-the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions
•Stroboscopic movement-a rapid series of still pictures will seem to be in motion
•ESP – telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, psychkinesis (all reinforce to be critical)
consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Identify the major figures in consciousness research.
Rene Descartes asserted that the mind is separate from the brain.
One of the first major theories of dreams came from Sigmund Freud. Freud argued that dreams contain hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts of our life. According to Freud, the dream that we remember, manifest content, differs from what the dream symbolizes or its underlying meaning, latent content. Although there is no scientific evidence to support Freud’s idea that dreams represents hidden conflicts, daily experiences do influence the content of dreams.
Alan Hobson proposed that the sleeping mind tries to make sense of random neural firings and therefore, dreams are side effects of our mental processes. The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis proposes that the neural stimulation from the Pons activates areas that normally interpret visual input, so our dreams are just another way of thinking. Recently, due to criticism, Hobson and his colleagues adjusted the Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis to explain dream meanings. In the new model, Activation-Information Model (AIM), dreams are explained as the brain’s way to make up a “story” about the experiences and events that took place during the day.
consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Describe various states of consciousness and their impact on behavior.
Sleep, an adaptive behavior, is a biological rhythm that our body goes through. The human circadian rhythm, or sleep-wake cycle, runs roughly 24.5 hours. A small neural area located in our hypothalamus, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is sensitive to light changes, controls our circadian rhythm. As the evening draws near and the light fades, our pineal gland, instructed by our SCN, accumulates and releases melatonin, a hormone that makes us sleepy. While we sleep, our body temperature decreases. As light starts to break during the morning hours, our SCN then instructs the pineal gland to stop secreting melatonin. Our brain is still aware of our environment while we sleep; it is still processing information. In fact, many regions of the brain are actually more active while we sleep than during wakefulness. The key here is that we process most information outside of our conscious awareness!
As you fall asleep, you enter stage 1, also known as hypnagogic sleep, characterized by theta waves on an EEG. In this stage, you may have the sensation that you are floating, falling, or feel your limbs jerking. You may even experience images resembling hallucinations. As you progress in your sleep, you reach stage 2, where your breathing becomes more regular and you become less sensitive to external stimuli such as the fan or air conditioner running. Stage 2 is characterized by theta waves with sleep spindles, occasional bursts of activity, on an EEG. You are now really asleep. The progression to deep sleep occurs in stages 3 and 4, also known as slow-wave sleep, which are both marked with delta waves on an EEG. It is extremely hard to awaken during this deep sleep; however, we can still process some information in stage 4. After roughly ninety minutes of sleep, our sleep cycle reverses, returning back to stage 3, and then to stage 2. Then, instead of moving back to stage 1, beta-wave activity is present on an EEG, which indicates an alert mind. Eyes are rapidly moving back and forth beneath the eyelids, as muscles and limbs are almost in a paralyzed state, except for the arousal in the genital region. This REM sleep, also known as paradoxical sleep, is when the brain, especially the occipital lobe and brainstem, is most active during the sleep stages. It is during REM that our most vivid dreams occur.
Sleep deprivation leads to problems with mood and cognitive performances. People who suffer from chronic sleep deprivation, such as college students, may experience lapses in attention, reduced short-term memory, slower reaction times, increased errors on visual tasks such as reading an X-ray or sign, and microsleeps, brief unintended sleep episodes. Studies have shown that extended sleep deprivation in rats compromises the immune system and leads to death.
Insomnia is a reoccurring problem of either staying asleep, falling asleep, or getting a good quality of sleep. Causes of insomnia vary from psychological factors such as nervousness, anxiety, trying too hard to sleep, to physical factors such as caffeine intake, body aches, or indigestion.
People who suffer from narcolepsy experience uncontrollable sleep attacks where they may lapse directly into REM sleep and lose muscle tension. Although more rare than insomnia, narcolepsy can occur at the most inopportune times.
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by temporary pause from breathing during sleep and repeated awakenings. Reports show that one in every 20 people suffers from sleep apnea and occurs most frequently in overweight men. While sleeping, these individuals intermittently stop breathing, and after receiving no oxygen, the individual awakens to snort in air. Apnea sufferers are often unaware of their disorder except for their complaints of irritability and sleepiness. The most effective and least invasive means of treating sleep apnea is with positive airway pressure (PAP), provided by a variety of sleep apnea therapy equipment.
Night terrors usually occur during the first few hours of Stage 4 sleep. Unlike nightmares, night terrors are prevalent in young children and they recall little or nothing the next morning. Night terrors are characterized by a sudden arousal where the child may sit up or walk around, speak incoherently, appeared terrified, and have a racing heart.
Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is most prevalent in young children and occurs in Stage 4 sleep. Usually harmless and unrecalled the next day, the sleepwalker typically returns himself or herself to bed. As we grow older, sleepwalking is rare due to our Stage 4 sleep diminishing. The same is also true for sleep talking.

Dreams are the products of our altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are usually confused with reality until we wake up. People typically dream about events that occur in everyday life. The average person spends roughly six years of their life dreaming. Some people claim not to remember their dreams, however, everyone dreams unless a person has a specific brain injury. Dreams during REM are vivid, colorful, and story-like, with a thematic structure. the dream that we remember, manifest content, differs from what the dream symbolizes or its underlying meaning, latent content. Although there is no scientific evidence to support Freud’s idea that dreams represents hidden conflicts, daily experiences do influence the content of dreams. The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis proposes that the neural stimulation from the Pons activates areas that normally interpret visual input, so our dreams are just another way of thinking. In the new model, Activation-Information Model (AIM), dreams are explained as the brain’s way to make up a “story” about the experiences and events that took place during the day.

consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Discuss hypnosis, noting the behavior of hypnotized people and claims regarding its uses.
•Discuss the controversy over whether hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
Discovered by Austrian physician Anton Mesmer, hypnosis is a resource a psychiatrist uses to interact with a client’s innermost thoughts. During the interaction the client, in a trance-like state, concentrates and shares certain feelings, thoughts and sometimes spontaneous actions.
In general, hypnosis is a useful tool to help people relax, but the jury is still out on how effective it is as a therapeutic tool. Posthypnotic suggestions, used by clinicians to help control undesired behaviors or conditions, have helped to relieve migraines, stress related skin disorders, and even pain. The unanswered question is how hypnosis does this – by focusing attention elsewhere or dissociating the pain from our conscious awareness.
Ernest Hilgard explained that hypnosis involves a divided consciousness, hypnotic dissociation. This divided consciousness theory states that a part of a person’s mind, the hidden observer, is aware of all things going on while a person is under hypnosis.
The social-cognitive theory of hypnosis suggests that people who believe they are hypnotized are merely just playing the role as a good subject, and that even they are unaware of their role-playing.
consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Discuss the nature of drug dependence and identify some common misconceptions about addiction.
Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that change our perceptions and moods. Changes to our mental and physical being are a result of our neurotransmitters being manipulated and causing our neurons to either fire or not, releasing or inhibiting our neurotransmitters. This manipulation occurs as the drugs cross the blood brain barrier, blood vessels that cover our brain.
Continued use of caffeine and other psychoactive drugs such as nicotine produce tolerance. The biological explanation of tolerance is that over time, our brain adapts its chemistry to offset the drug effects, requiring users to take larger and larger doses in order to experience the drug’s effect.
Someone who suddenly stopped taking the drug would most likely suffer from headaches, fatigue, and irritability. This discomfort and distress is known as withdrawal. These withdrawal symptoms indicate a physical dependence, or a physiological need for the drug. Some people also may develop a psychological dependence, or psychological need to use the drug to alleviate negative emotions or feelings.
Addiction goes beyond physical or psychological dependence. Addiction is compulsive cravings and use, despite adverse consequences.
Narcotics, also known as opiates, are a derived from opium. Opiates suppress the sensation of pain by binding to the receptor sites for endorphins and act as agonist to increase the effects of the body’s natural painkillers. These include opium, morphine, and heroin.
consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Describe the physiological and psychological effects of stimulants.
Stimulants excite neural activity and arouse body functions, temporarily. These drugs actually cause the sympathetic nervous system or central nervous system to “speed up” or increase functioning. Stimulants increase heart rate, cause pupils to dilate, appetite to suppress, and breathing rates and energy to rise. Stimulants may be used to lose weight, become aroused or stay awake, and even boost performance.
The most popular stimulant, caffeine, is a mild stimulant used to increase alertness and the effectiveness of some pain relievers.
A mild stimulant, nicotine is a natural substance that accelerates the heart, raises blood pressure, and stimulates the release of adrenalin. Most nicotine users report it also has a relaxing effect and helps in reducing stress.
Amphetamines are stimulants made in a laboratory and are used to help patients stay awake, diet, treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (6ADHD), and even treat narcolepsy. Amphetamines cause the sympathetic nervous system to “speed up” and burn energy reserves. When the drug wears off, users usually “crash”. There is often a high risk of physical dependence and users typically develop a tolerance. Methamphetamine and “crystal meth” are forms that are used as recreational drugs for pleasure and are extremely toxic and deadly. Overtime, the use of meth reduces dopamine levels.
A natural stimulant, cocaine produces feelings of euphoria, pleasure, energy, and also works to suppress the appetite and relieve pain. Cocaine is extremely addictive because it enters the bloodstream quickly creating a rush of euphoria and acts as an agonist, depleting the brain’s supply of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The absence of these neurotransmitters then causes a crash, causing the user to be physically and psychologically dependent for the next dose. Cocaine use can cause emotional disturbances, convulsions, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.
consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Describe the physiological and psychological effects of depressants.
In contrast to stimulants, depressants are drugs that calm neural activity and slow body functions. Depressants slow down our brain processes, disrupt our cerebellum, and can actually slow our heart rates down to the point where death occurs. These include drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers and other anti-anxiety drugs.
The most frequently used and abused depressant, alcohol, often confused as a stimulant, makes people feel euphoric. Alcohol depresses an individual’s natural inhibitions and judgments by slowing down brain activity in the frontal lobe. Alcohol stimulates the release of GABA, the brain’s neural inhibitor. Low doses of alcohol relax a drinker by slowing sympathetic nervous system activity; however, with large doses, reaction time is slowed, speech slurred, and performance of skills is lessened. Alcohol does not only impair our judgments, it also disrupts the processing of recent events into our long-term memory, affects cognition by shrinking the brain, and shifts attention from consequences of actions.
Also known as major tranquilizers, barbiturates are depressants that have a sleep-effect. These sleeping pills mimic the effects of alcohol, by depressing the nervous system. Common names include Amytal, Nembutal, and Seconal. Large doses can lead to impaired memory and even death as the heart and breathing stop.
These mild tranquilizers, benzodiazepines, have a relatively mild depressant effect and are used to treat anxiety, sleep problems, stress, or nervousness. Common names include Valium, Xanax, and Librium.
consciousness and altered state of consciousness
•Describe the physiological and psychological effects of hallucinogens.
Hallucinogens distort our perception of reality and cause our brain to produce distorted sensations such as visual hallucinations. Examples of hallucinogens are LSD, PCP, MDMA, and marijuana, drugs which tend to spend longer times in our body than other drugs. From hallucinogens some people even display aspects of reverse tolerance, meaning the second dose taken may be smaller in quantity to feel the same effects of the first larger dose.
First created in a laboratory by Albert Hoffman, LSD, also known as acid, is chemically similar to serotonin. Emotions of an LSD trip can vary from euphoria to panic to detachment. Users report that LSD helps them to expand their mind; however, LSD removes people from the real world and leads a person to perceptual distortions and hallucinations.
Technically classified as a stimulatory hallucinogen, MDMA, also known as Ecstasy, produces a euphoric high, feelings of intimacy, and mild hallucinations. MDMA triggers the release of dopamine and serotonin, blocking the serotonin from reuptake, and causing the prolonged feel-good high. Repeated use destroys the serotonin-producing neurons and permanently depresses the mood, suppresses the immune system, and impairs cognitive faculties and memory. MDMA can also be extremely deadly, since it dehydrates the body and raises body temperature.
The most commonly abused hallucinogen, marijauna, contains the active ingredient THC. The THC binds onto receptor sites located in the frontal lobes, motor cortex, and limbic system. As a mild hallucinogen, marijuana amplifies the sensitivity to sounds, tastes, colors, and smells. It also impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction time. Users report enhanced sensations, relief of pain, and relaxation; however, adverse effects include impaired learning and memory, lung damage, and increased risk of psychological disorders. Chronic use can also lead to cardiovascular disease and chronic bronchitis.
Developmental Psychology
•Nature-the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, intellectual growth, and social interactions
◦Genes-section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements
◦chromosomes (46)-tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA
◦genome-genetic material of an organism
◦Evolutionary perspective-perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
◦Natural selection-gradual process by which heritable biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environment
◦Twin studies-studies behavior traits of twins
◦Fraternal twins versus identical twin- fraternal twins share 50% of DNA while identical share 100%
◦Adoption studies-support the genetic basis of schizophrenia

•Nurture-the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
◦environment
◦culture
◦prenatal environment

•Development issues ◦stability vs. change-As individuals develop, do their characteristics remain stable over time or do they change? For example, if an individual is very talkative and outgoing as a child, will this trait remain constant into adulthood?
◦nature vs. nurture-Are developmental changes the result of innate characteristics (nature) or environmental influences (nurture)?

•Prenatal development-process in which a baby develops from a single cell after conception into an embryo and later a fetus
◦Zygote-cell resulting form the uniting of ovum and sperm, Embryo-name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization, Fetus-name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby (ZEF)
◦teratogens-any factor than can cause a birth defect.
◦Fetal alcohol syndrome-pattern of physical and mental defects that can develop in a fetus in association with high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

•Cognitive development
◦Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development-believe children form mental concepts or schemes as they experience new situations and events, also believed children first try to understand new things in terms of schemes they already possess, a process called assimilation(Sensorimotor-birth to two years old; children explore the world using their senses and ability to move. They develop object permanence and the understanding that concepts and mental images represent objects, people, and events, Preoperational-2 to 7 years old; young children can mentally represent and refer to objects and events with words or pictures and they can pretend. However, they can’t conserve, logically reason, or simultaneously consider many characteristics of an object, Concrete operations-7 to 12 years old; children at this stage are able to converse, reverse their thinking, and classify objects in terms of their many characteristics; they can also think logically and understand analogies but only about concrete events, Formal operations-12 years old to adulthood; people at this stage can use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events or situations, think about logical possibilities, use abstract analogies, and systematically examine and test hypotheses; not every one can eventually reason in all these ways)
◦Object permanence-the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight
◦Conservation-in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature
◦Schemas-generalizations about objects, places, events, and people
◦Assimilation vs. Accomodation-two complementary processes of Adaptation described by Piaget, through which awareness of the outside world is internalized,

•Social development
◦Harry Harlow and Attachment-felt that attachment had to be influenced by more than just the provision of food
◦Mary Ainsworth and Attachment Studies (Stranger-situation)-cam up with a specialized experiment to erasure he attachment of an infant to the caregiver called the Stranger Situation; identified four attachment styles: secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized-disoriented

◦Lorenz and imprinting. Critical period
◦Eric Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development.

•Moral development-focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood
◦Lawrence Kholberg’s Stages of Moral Development (Pre-conventional-Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences, Conventional- judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society’s views and expectations, Post-conventional-marked by a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society, and that the individual’s own perspective may take precedence over society’s view; individuals may disobey rules inconsistent with their own principles)
◦Gilligan’s argument against Kholberg’s theory (Girls)

•Adolescence- transitional stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood
◦Puberty-process of physical changes through which a child’s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization
◦Primary sex characteristics vs. Secondary sex characteristics-primary characters are the sexual organs, but secondary characteristics are the sexual hormones and other related functions
◦Social issues teens face
◦Parenting styles (Authoritative-style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child’s behavior, Permissive-style of parenting in which parent makes few, if any demands on a child’s behavior, Authoritarian-style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child)

•Adulthood
◦Early adulthood vs. Middle adulthood-In early adulthood, an individual is concerned with developing the ability to share intimacy, seeking to form relationships and find intimate love. Long‐term relationships are formed, and often marriage and children result. The young adult is also faced with career decisions. In middle adulthood, an important challenge is to develop a genuine concern for the welfare of future generations and to contribute to the world through family and work. Erik Erikson refers to the problem posed at this stage as generativity vs. self‐absorption.
◦Menopause-the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a women’s reproductive capability
◦Mid-life issues-While a midlife crisis is not regarded as a universal phenomenon, during one’s 40s and 50s comes the recognition that more than half of one’s life is gone. That recognition may prompt some to feel that the clock is ticking and that they must make sudden, drastic changes in order to achieve their goals, while others focus on finding satisfaction with the present course of their lives
◦The Elderly
◦Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s disease-Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 60 to 80% of all cases. Dementia is a broad term for neurological conditions that involve some form of serious mental impairment, such as memory loss, confusion, and/or personality changes
◦Kubler-Ross Death and Dying (DABDA)-Denial(survivor imagines a false, preferable reality), anger( individual recognizes that denial cannot continue, it becomes frustrated, especially at proximate individuals), bargaining(hope that the individual can avoid a cause of grief. Usually, the negotiation for an extended life is made with a higher power in exchange for a reformed lifestyle. Other times, they will use anything valuable against another human agency to extend or prolong the life), depression(individual becomes saddened by the certainty of death. In this state, the individual may become silent, refuse visitors and spend much of the time mournful and sullen.), acceptance(individuals embrace mortality or inevitable future, or that of a loved one, or other tragic event. People dying may precede the survivors in this state, which typically comes with a calm, retrospective view for the individual, and a stable condition of emotions)
◦Crystallized(refers to the knowledge and skills that are accumulated over a lifetime. This type of intelligence tends to increase with age) vs. Fluid Intelligence(ability to reason quickly and to think abstractly)
•Longitudinal(A longitudinal survey is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time — often many decades. It is a type of observational study.) vs. Cross-sectional Studies(In medical research and social science, a cross-sectional study is a type of observational study that involves the analysis of data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional data)

learning
•Classical Conditioning-process of behavior modification in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus
◦UCS-A stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response
◦UCR-the unlearned response that occurs naturally in reaction to the unconditioned stimulus
◦CS/NS-A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response effected by the unconditioned stimulus itself
◦CR-A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response effected by the unconditioned stimulus itself
◦Stimulus Generalization-tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned
◦Stimulus Discrimination- phenomenon identified in behaviourist learning theory: the individual learns to distinguish, for response purposes, between similar stimuli.
◦Extinction-Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior. When operant behavior that has been previously reinforced no longer produces reinforcing consequences the behavior gradually stops occurring
◦Spontaneous Recovery- phenomenon of learning and memory which was first seen in classical conditioning and refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay
◦Higher Order Conditioning-situation in which a stimulus that was previously neutral is paired with a conditioned stimulus to produce the same conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus
◦Stimulus Substitution-Is when one stimulus takes the place of another stimulus and response is similar in both
◦Pavlov-(1849-1936) A Russian physiologist. Ivan Pavlov attained a medical degree from the Military-Medical Academy of Saint Petersburg in 1833. He went on to work in the labs of the German physiologists Carl Ludwig and Rudolph Heidenhain. He then spent the remainder of his working years back at his alma mater.
◦Watson-an American psychologist. Watson attained his PhD from the University of Chicago, where he studied biology and neurophysiology, in addition to philosophy and psychology.
◦Garcia-discovered Garcia effect-the name of a conditioned taste aversion that is achieved rapidly by a single pairing of illness such as nausea with the consumption of a specific food.
◦Rescorla-founder of rescorla-wagner theory-Model of classical conditioning where the speculation is that an animal will learn when there is a discrepancy between what the animal expects to happen next, and what actually happens next. Trial-level model wherein each stimulus is either present or not at some point during the trial.

•Operant Conditioning-learning of voluntary behavior
◦Law of Effect-law stating that if an actions is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated
◦Reinforcement-any event or stimulus, that when following a response increases the probability that the response will occur again
◾Positive-addition, or experiencing, of a pleasurable stimulus/Negative-removal, escape, or avoidance of unpleasant stimulus
◾Primary-satisfy basic biological needs/Secondary-gain reinforcing properties through previous association with primary reinforcers

◦Shaping/Chaining-the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior
◦Punishment-any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again
◾Positive/Negative
◾Application-the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus
◾Removal-the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus

◦Discriminative Stimulus-any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
◦Instinctive Drift-tendency for an animal’s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns
◦Schedules of Reinforcement ◾Variable Interval-schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event
◾Variable Ratio-schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event
◾Fixed Ratio-schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same
◾Fixed Interval-schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same

◦Behavior Modification-the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior
◾Token Economy-type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens
◾Biofeedback-using of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control
◾Neurofeedback-form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior
◾ABA(applied behavior analysis)-modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold desired behavior or response

◦Thorndike (1874-1949)-one of the first researchers to explore and attempt to outline the laws of learning voluntary responses, although the field was not yet called operant conditioning
◦Skinner (1904-1990)-behaviorist who gave the learning of voluntary behavior a special name: operant conditioning

•Cognitive Learning ◦Latent Learning-learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful
◦Cognitive Maps
◦Insight-the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly
◦Learned Helplessness-the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past
◦Seligman-founded the field of positive psychology, new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health and therapy
◦Köhler (1887-1967)- Gestalt psychologist who studied animal learning
◦Tolman-Gestalt psychologist, experiments in learning involved teaching three groups of rats the same maze, one at a time

•Observational Learning-learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
◦Learning/performance distinction-referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior
◦Bandura-classic study in observational learning involved having a preschool child in a room in which the experimenter and a model interacted with toys in the room in front of the child

Memory
•Information-Processing Model of Memory (Attinson and Shiffrin)-model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.
◦Sensory Memory (iconic-visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second vs. Echoic-the brief memory of something a person has just heard)-the very first stage of memory at the point which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems
◦Short-term Memory (working memory-an active system that process the information in short-term memory)-the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used
◦Long-term Memory-the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently

•Declarative-type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known vs. Non-declarative memory-implicit memory for skills, habits, and learned responses; likely involves amygdala and cerebellum
• Episodic-memory that is consciously known, such as declarative memory vs. Implicit memory-memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory
•Hippocampus vs. Cerebellum in regards to memory-involved in consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory
•Level of processing model-model of memory that assumes information that is more “deeply processed,” or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound of physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time
•Overlearning-practicing newly acquired skills beyond the point of initial mastery leads to automaticity
•Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve-a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually
•Recall-type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues vs. Recognition-the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact
•Retrieval(getting information that is in storage into a format that can be used), primacy effect(tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows), recency effect(tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information at the beginning of it), flashbulb memories(type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it)
•Mood-congruent memory-indicates that, when humans store memories, they not only store the event, but they also store a memory of the mood they were in at the time
•Constructive memory-referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information
•Elizabeth Loftus and eyewitness testimony-false memories are created by a person being exposed to information after the event
•Retroactive-memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents of interferes with the retrieval of older information vs. Proactive Interference-memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information
•Long-term potentiation-persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity
•Forgetting
•Anterograde-loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward vs. Retrograde Amnesia-loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past
•Alzheimer’s Disease-most common type of dementia found in adults

Cognition
•Cognitive maps-mental map
•Imagery-representations for objects or events used in mental activities, interacted with in similar ways as physical objects, processed in the brain slightly different than actual objects
•Cognition-mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organization and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others
•Schemas-generalizations about objects, places, events, and people vs. Concepts-ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities vs. Prototypes-an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept
•Divergent thinking-type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or probabilities based on that point vs. Convergent thinking-type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
•Problem Solving-process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
•Algorithms-very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems vs. Heuristics-an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. also known as rule of thumb
•Heuristics
◦Anchoring heuristic-refers to the human tendency to accept and rely on, the first piece of information received before making a decision
◦Availability heuristic- mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person’s mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision
◦Representative heuristic-categorizing objects; assumes that any object or person shares similar characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category

•Constraints in problem solving
◦overconfidence-well-established bias in which a person’s subjective confidence in his or her judgments is reliably greater than the objective accuracy of those judgments, especially when confidence is relatively high
◦belief bias-tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on the plausibility of their conclusion rather than how strongly they support that conclusion
◦belief perseverance-some people have a tendency or unwillingness to admit that their foundational premises are incorrect even when shown convincing evidence to the contrary
◦overjustification effect-expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person’s intrinsic motivation to perform a task.

•Impediments to Problem Solving ◦rigidity (mental set) tendency to fall into established thought patterns
◦functional fixedness – the inability to see a new use for an object not breaking the problem into parts
◦confirmation bias – we tend to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs
◦Framing – the way a problem is presented

•Creativity-the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways

Intelligence
•Theories of Intelligence ◦Spearman’s G factor-the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence; s factor-the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence
◦Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence-verbal/linguistic-ability to use language; musical-ability to compose and/or perform music; logical/mathematical-ability to think logically and to solve mathematical problems; visual/spatial-ability to understand how objects are oriented in space; movement-ability to control one’s body motions; interpersonal-sensitivity to others and understanding motivation of others; intrapersonal-understanding of one’s emotions and how they guide actions; naturalist-ability to recognize the patterns found in nature; existentialist-ability see the “big picture” of the human world by asking questions about life, death, and the ultimate reality of human existence
◦Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory-there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
◦Emotional Intelligence-ability to recognize one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior

•Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence
•Alfred Binet-French psychologist who invented the first practical intelligence test, the Binet-Simon scale
•Measuring Intelligence ◦Standford-Binet- cognitive ability and intelligence test that is used to diagnose developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. and IQ-score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence
◦Wechsler and WAIS-IV- test designed to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents vs. WISC-IV-individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing

•Test Construction ◦Standardization-refers to the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the king of people for whom the test is designed
◦Reliability-the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people (test-retest reliability-Used to assess the consistency of a measure from one time to another vs. alternate-form reliability-authenticity established by carrying out two different forms of the same test to the same individuals vs. split-half reliability-the measure of the internal consistency of a test, obtained by correlating responses on one half of the test with responses on the other half
◦Validity-the degree to which a test actually measures what it’s supposed to measure (content validity-the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social construct vs. predictive validity-extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure)

•Normal Bell Curve
•Aptitude-a test designed to determine a person’s ability in a particular skill or field of knowledge vs. Achievement Tests-test of developed skill or knowledge
•Mental retardation-generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning vs. Giftedness- intellectual ability significantly higher than average
•Nature vs. Nurture in Intelligence-identical twins reared together show a correlation of .86 between their IQs; heritability estimates apply within groups of people, not between groups, not to individuals, and only in a general sense

Language
•Phonemes-the basic units of sound in language, morphemes-the smallest units of measurement within a language, syntax-the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language, semantics-the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences
•Language acquisition-humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language
•Babbling stage-infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but not yet producing any recognizable words, telegraphic speech-speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient
•B.F. Skinner-founded operant conditioning
•Noam Chomsky and language-acquisition device-contains schema for language
•Benjamin Whorf and linguistic relativity hypothesis-the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language
Motivation
•Motivational Concepts ◦Define motivation and identify several theories of motivated behavior.
motivation-the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met
drive-reduction theory-approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal

◦Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of motives.
1: physiological needs-to satisfy hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc
2: safety needs-to feel secure and safe, out of danger
3: belongingness and love needs- to be with others, be accepted, and belong
4: esteem needs-to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition
5: cognitive needs- to know, understand, and explore
6: aesthetic needs-to appreciate symmetry, order, and beauty
7: self-actualization needs-to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential
8: transcendence needs- to help others achieve self-actualization

◦Describe the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
extrinsic motivation-type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person
intrinsic motivation-type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner

•Hunger
◦Describe the physiological determinants of hunger.
insulin-a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the levels of glucose in the bloodstream
glucagons-hormones that are secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstream
leptin-a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full

◦Discuss the psychological and cultural influences on hunger, and describe the symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
convention of eating times, appeal of food, emotions, Americans like to eat
anorexia nervosa-an eating disorder in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs
bulimia-a condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging,” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and “purging,” or deliberately vomiting after eating

•Sexual Motivation
impulse to gratify sexual needs, either through direct sexual activity or through apparently unrelated activities
◦Describe how researchers have attempted to assess common sexual practices.
sexual deviance-behavior that is unacceptable according to societal norms and expectations

◦Describe the human sexual response cycle, and discuss the impact of both hormones and psychological factors on sexual motivation and behavior.
four-stage model of physiological responses to sexual stimulation, which, in order of their occurrence, are the excitement phase-result of physical or mental erotic stimuli,body prepares for sexual intercourse; plateau phase-period of sexual excitement prior to orgasm. The phase is characterised by an increased circulation and heart rate in both sexes, increased sexual pleasure with increased stimulation, and further increased muscle tension. Also, respiration continues at an elevated level. Both men and women may also begin to vocalize involuntarily at this stage; orgasmic phase-conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle and is experienced by both males and females. It is accompanied by quick cycles of muscle contraction in the lower pelvic muscles, which surround both the anus and the primary sexual organs. Women also experience uterine and vaginal contractions. Orgasms are often associated with other involuntary actions, including vocalizations and muscular spasms in other areas of the body, and a generally euphoric sensation. Heart rate is increased even further; and resolution phase-occurs after orgasm and allows the muscles to relax, blood pressure to drop and the body to slow down from its excited state. The refractory period, which is part of the resolution phase, is the time frame in which usually a man is unable to orgasm again, though women can also experience a refractory period

◦Identify factors contributing to increased rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease among today’s adolescents.
increased practice of unprotected sexual contact

◦Describe research findings on the nature and dynamics of sexual orientation, and discuss the place of values in sex research.
heterosexual-person attracted to the opposite sex
homosexual-person attracted to the same sex
bisexual-person attracted to both men and women

•The Need to Belong ◦Describe the adaptive nature of social attachments, and identify both healthy and unhealthy consequences of our need to belong.
adaptive behavior-type of behavior that is used to adjust to another type of behavior or situation

•Motivation at Work ◦Discuss the importance of various motives for working, and identify the aims of industrial-organizational psychology.
you can work because you enjoy what you are doing or because you want to get paid
industrial-organizational psychology-scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations
◦Describe how personnel psychologists seek to facilitate employee selection, work placement, and performance appraisal.
area of industrial/organizational psychology that primarily deals with the recruitment, selection and evaluation of personnel, and other job aspects such as morale, job satisfaction, and relationships between managers and workers in the workplace. It is the field of study that concentrates on the selection and evaluation of employees; this area of psychology deals with job analysis and defines and measures job performance, performance appraisal, employment testing, employment interviews, employee selection and employee training, and human factors and ergonomics
◦Define achievement motivation, and discuss the impact of employee satisfaction and engagement on organizational success.
psychological drive to excel, a social form of motivation to perform at a high level of competence
employees want to be good at their jobs
◦Describe how effective managers seek to build on their employees’ strengths, set specific goals, and utilize an appropriate leadership style.
Being able to appreciate some of this complexity will help make otherwise unintelligible behaviors understandable. Using this knowledge to then shape employee behavior will not only take some of the stress out of managing people, it will lead to greater rewards as employees begin to work with you and not against you

Emotion
•Theories of Emotion ◦Identify the three components of emotions, and contrast the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard.
emotion is “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by physiological arousal, specific expressive behavior, and inner awareness of feelings
James-Lange theory-suggests that specific stimuli result in physical arousal and leads to labeling of the emotion
Cannon-Bard theory-suggests that emotion and physiological arousal occur simultaneously
◦Describe Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion, and discuss evidence suggesting that some emotional reactions involve no conscious thought.
cognitive arousal theory-suggests that physiological arousal and the actual interpretation of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion itself is experienced
◦Describe how emotions can be differentiated along the dimensions of valence and arousal level.
emotions and arousal level interact inversely to produce a level of performance

•Physiology of Emotion ◦Describe the physiological changes that occur during emotional arousal, and discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.
the arousal of strong emotions and emotional behavior
inverse relationship
◦Describe the relationship between physiological states and specific emotions, and discuss the effectiveness of the polygraph in detecting lies.
Neuroticism or emotional instability and extraversion are two factors of the Big Five Personality Index. These two dimensions of personality describe how a person deals with anxiety-provoking or emotional stimuli as well as how a person behaves and responds to relevant and irrelevant external stimuli in their environment. Neurotics experience tense arousal which is characterized by tension and nervousness. Extraverts experience high energetic arousal which is characterized by vigor and energy. Gray (1981) claimed that extraverts have a higher sensitivity to reward signals than to punishment in comparison to introverts. Reward signals aim to raise the energy levels. Therefore extraverts typically have a higher energetic arousal because of their greater response to rewards
The efficacy of polygraphs is debated in the scientific community. In 2001, a significant fraction of the scientific community considered polygraphy to be pseudoscience. In 2002, a review by the National Academies of Science found that in populations untrained in countermeasures, polygraph testing can discriminate lying from truth telling at rates above chance, though below perfection. These results apply only to specific events and not to screening where it is assumed that polygraph would work less well. Effectiveness may also be worsened by countermeasures

•Expression of Emotion ◦Describe some nonverbal indicators of emotion, and discuss the extent to which people from different cultures display and interpret facial expression of emotion in a similar manner.
information is conveyed by intention movements that accompany the expression of emotions
different cultures use different facial expressions to mean different things
◦Describe the effects of facial expressions on emotional experience.
used to convey emotions

•Fear, Anger, & Happiness
◦Discuss the significance of environmental and biological factors in the acquisition of fear.
fear is a result to event that shock or surprise the individual in a negative way
◦Discuss the catharsis hypothesis, and identify some of the advantages and disadvantages of openly expressing anger.
purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration
releases built-up tensions but people think you’re crazy
◦Identify some potential causes and consequences of happiness, and describe how happiness is influenced by our prior experiences and by others’ attainments.
mental or emotional state of well-being defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy

Personality
•Personality Perspectives/ Theories:
◦Psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic perspective – unconscious conflicts-A link between unconscious conflicts and conscious anxiety disorder symptoms have been shown, lending empirical support to psychoanalysis
◦Freud’s iceberg theory-writing style of American writer Ernest Hemingway. As a young journalist, Hemingway had to focus his newspaper reports on immediate events, with very little context or interpretation
◦Id-unorganized part of the personality structure that contains a human’s basic, instinctual drives, ego-acts according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bring grief. At the same time, Freud concedes that as the ego “attempts to mediate between id and reality, it is often obliged to cloak the Unconscious commands of the id with its own Preconscious rationalizations, to conceal the id’s conflicts with reality, superego-] reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly taught by parents applying their guidance and influence
◦Freud’s psychosexual stages-In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages. Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive. Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis, a functional mental disorder
◦Defense mechanisms-A defense mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies. Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct
◦Neo-Freudians: Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson-psychiatrists and psychologists were a group of loosely linked American theorists of the mid-twentieth century, who were all influenced by Sigmund Freud, but who extended his theories, often in social or cultural directions. They have been defined as ‘American writers who attempted to restate Freudian theory in sociological terms and to eliminate its connections with biology’
◦Jung – collective unconscious and archetypes -Collective unconscious, a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species. According to Jung, the human collective unconscious is populated by instincts and by archetypes: universal symbols such as the Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, the Shadow, the Tower, Water, the Tree of Life, and many more
◦Adler – inferiority complex-lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty, and feelings of not measuring up to standards. It is often subconscious, and is thought to drive afflicted individuals to overcompensate, resulting either in spectacular achievement or extreme asocial behavior◦Horney – womb envy-unexpressed anxiety that some men feel in natural envy of the biological functions of females (pregnancy, parturition, breast feeding) — emotions which impel their social subordination of women, and to drive themselves to succeed in perpetuating their names via material legacies
◦Evaluations and criticisms of the psychodynamic perspective-unscientific in its analysis of human behavior

•Humanistic Perspective:
◦Abraham Maslow-Abraham Harold Maslow was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization. Maslow was a psychology professor at Brandeis University, Brooklyn College, New School for Social Research and Columbia University. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a “bag of symptoms.”
◦Carl Rogers-Carl Ransom Rogers was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956
◦Self-concept-collection of beliefs about oneself that includes elements such as academic performance gender roles and sexuality, and racial identity
◦Ideal self-idealized version of yourself created out of what you have learned from your life experiences, the demands of society, and what you admire in your role models
◦Unconditional positive regard-Unconditional positive regard, a concept developed by the humanistic psychologist, Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy
◦Self-actualization-Expressing one’s creativity, quest for spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, and the desire to give to society are examples of self-actualization
◦Evaluations of the humanistic perspective-
As with any viewpoint, humanistic psychology has its critics. One major criticism of humanistic psychology is that its concepts are too vague. Critics argue that subjective ideas such as authentic and real experiences are difficult to objectify; an experience that is real for one individual may not be real for another person. For this reason, critics believe that conclusions drawn from subjective experiences are almost impossible to verify, making research in humanistic psychology unreliable. In addition, critics claim that humanistic psychology is not a true science because it involves too much common sense and not enough objectivity.

•Social Cognitive Perspective
◦Bandura and reciprocal determinism-theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura that a person’s behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment
◦Personal control-Emotional needs and issues around self-identity and threats to basic security in everyday life. The self as executive center and social agent
◦Julian Rotter – external locus of control vs. internal locus of control-internal (the person believes they can control their life) or external (meaning they believe their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence, or by chance or fate)
◦Martin Seligman and positive psychology-Martin E. P. “Marty” Seligman is an American psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books. Since the late 90’s, Seligman has been an avid promoter within the scientific community for the field of positive psychology. His theory of learned helplessness is popular among scientific and clinical psychologists.
◦Learned helplessness-behavior in which an organism forced to endure aversive, painful or otherwise unpleasant stimuli, becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are escapable
◦Optimism-hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of something vs. Pessimism-state of mind in which one anticipates undesirable outcomes or believes that the evil or hardships in life outweigh the good or luxuries
◦Evaluations of the social cognitive perspective-Because social cognitive theory is so broad, it has been criticized for lacking any one unifying principle or structure. People are viewed as so dynamic that it is difficult to implement the theory in its entirety. Instead, implementation is likely to focus on one or two concepts, such as self-efficacy

•Trait Perspective
◦Traits-a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person
◦Hans Eysenck and factor analysis
◦Allport-Gordon Willard Allport was an American psychologist. Allport was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. He contributed to the formation of Values Scales and rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often went too deep, and a behavioral approach, which he thought often did not go deep enough. He emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, and the importance of the present context, as opposed to past history, for understanding the personality.
◦Cattell and his self-report inventory-questionnaire developed by Raymond Cattell to assess individuals based on his trait theory of personality. This test is used to generate personality profile of the individual and is often used to evaluate employees and to help people select a career
◦The Big Five (five-factor model) O.C.E.A.N.-In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality, the five-factor model (FFM) The five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE. Beneath each global factor, a cluster of correlated and more specific primary factors are found; for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity, and positive emotions
◦Evaluations of the Trait theories
Did not recognize the specific effects of different environmental situations
Traits are seen as poor predictors of behavior.
Although people have certain core tendencies, or are disposed to act in certain ways, these behaviors are not general but specific to certain situations
Therefore interactionist approaches would be more efficient in predicting behavior

•Biological Perspective:
◦Behavior genetics-An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interviews are a standard part of qualitative research. They are also used in journalism and media reporting and in various employment-related contexts

•Assessing Personality
◦Interviews-An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interviews are a standard part of qualitative research. They are also used in journalism and media reporting and in various employment-related contexts
◦Projective Tests -In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test. This is sometimes contrasted with a so-called “objective test” or “self-report test” in which responses are analyzed according to a presumed universal standard, and are limited to the content of the test. The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness
◾Rorschach Inkblot-The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects’ perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person’s personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. The test is named after its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach
◾TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)-The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective psychological test. Proponents of this technique assert that a person’s responses reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people. Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests

◦Personality Inventories
◾Myers-Briggs (MBTI)-The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. The questionnaire was created by Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers based on an extrapolation from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung’s 1921 book Psychological Types. Jung had theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which humans experience the world – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant most of the time
◾MMPI-The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is the most widely used and researched standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology. Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI to develop treatment plans; assist with differential diagnosis; help answer legal questions; screen job candidates during the personnel selection process; or as part of a therapeutic assessment procedure
◾NEO-PI- psychological personality inventory, first published in 1990 as a revised version of inventories dating to 1978. The NEO PI-R consists of 240 questions intended to measure the Big Five personality traits: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience

Psychological Disorders
•The DSM-IV and Classifications of Disorders
◦Identify the criteria for judging whether a behavior qualifies as a psychological disorder.
A psychological disorder, also known as a mental disorder, is a pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple life areas and/or create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms
◦Describe the medical model of psychological disorders, and discuss the bio-psycho-social perspective offered by critics of this model.
set of procedures in which all doctors are trained
general model or approach stating that biological, psychological, and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness
◦Describe the aims of DSM-IV, and discuss the potential dangers associated with the use of diagnostic labels.
the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals
They have helped professionals keep track of the types of problems children are having and helped researchers study the causes of and some treatments for those problems. But diagnostic labels also have significant limitations. First, in trying to group different individuals together under a large category of what they appear to have in common, we risk grouping together children who are actually quite different from one another

•Anxiety Disorders
◦Describe the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities
type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational
anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear or worry, repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety, or a combination of such obsessions and compulsions

◦Explain the development of anxiety disorders from both a learning and a biological perspective.
common, chronic disorder characterized by long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any one object or situation
conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning
approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory

•Dissociative Disorders
◦Describe the characteristics and possible causes of dissociative identity disorder.
mental disorder on the dissociative spectrum characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that alternately control a person’s behavior, and is accompanied by memory impairment for important information not explained by ordinary forgetfulness. These symptoms are not accounted for by substance abuse, seizures, other medical conditions, nor by imaginative play in children. Diagnosis is often difficult as there is considerable comorbidity with other mental disorders. Malingering should be considered if there is possible financial or forensic gain, as well as factitious disorder if help-seeking behavior is prominent

•Mood Disorders
◦Describe major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities
disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression
◦Explain the development of mood disorders, paying special attention to the biological and social-cognitive perspectives.
group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classification system where a disturbance in the person’s mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature
theory that personality is influenced by the biology of the brain
holds that portions of an individual’s knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences

•Schizophrenia
◦Describe the various symptoms and types of schizophrenia, and discuss research on its causes.
mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person’s reported experiences

•Somatoform Disorders
◦Discuss the various somatoform disorders.
a mental disorder in which patients experience pain that can’t be traced to any physical cause

•Personality Disorders
◦Describe the nature of personality disorders, focusing on the characteristics of the antisocial personality disorder.
class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual’s culture
characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others
◦Describe the prevalence of various disorders and timing of their onset.
nine percent of U.S. adults have a personality disorder

Treatment of psychological disorders
•Explain the rationale of preventative mental health programs.
Although current prevention programs target services to high‐risk groups, targeting can stigmatize families and miss many children in need. The addition of universal prevention programs for all families could address these concerns
•Explain the various categories of therapy.
Therapy is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis
term may refer specifically to psychotherapy or talking therapies
•Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Approach and Humanistic Approach
◦Discuss the aims and methods of psychoanalysis, and explain the critics’ concerns with this form of therapy, noting how psychodynamic therapists have tried to answer the criticisms.
set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others
These critics of Freud stressed the interpersonal aspect of the analyst-patient relationship (transference), and placed more emphasis on the processes of the ego. Despite a number of detractors and a lack of controlled research, Freudian psychoanalysis remained the most widely used method of psychotherapy until at least the 1950s
◦Identify the basic characteristics of the humanistic therapies as well as the specific goals and techniques of client-centered therapy.
focus on self-development, growth and responsibilities. They seek to help individuals recognize their strengths, creativity and choice in the ‘here and now’
provide clients with an opportunity to develop a sense of self where they can realize how their attitudes, feelings and behavior are being negatively affected

•Behavioral Approach and Cognitive Approach
◦Identify the basic assumptions of behavior therapy, and discuss the classical conditioning techniques of systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning.
goal is to reinforce desirable behaviors and eliminate unwanted or maladaptive ones
he first step of systematic desensitization is the identification of an anxiety inducing stimulus hierarchy. The second step is the learning of relaxation or coping techniques. Once the individual has been taught these skills, he or she must use them in the third step to react towards and overcome situations in the established hierarchy of fears. The goal of this process is for the individual to learn how to cope with, and overcome the fear in each step of the hierarchy.
the process by which an unwanted behavior is paired with a noxious or unpleasant stimulus, with the intention to reduce the undesired behavior
◦Describe the therapeutic applications of operant conditioning principles, and explain the critics’ concerns with this behavior modification process.
Using the principles of operant conditioning (reward and punishment), psychologists can set up token economies with their client. Tokens (objects with no worth) are rewarded for good behavior and can be exchanged for something in the future. This is often a technique used with children
behavioral therapy is generally not the best approach when treating more serious psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia
◦Describe the assumptions and goals of the cognitive therapies and their application to the treatment of depression.
Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model, which states that thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected, and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses
depressed people acquire a negative schema of the world in childhood and adolescence; children and adolescents who experience depression acquire this negative schema earlier. Depressed people acquire such schemas through a loss of a parent, rejection by peers, bullying, criticism from teachers or parents, the depressive attitude of a parent and other negative events. When the person with such schemas encounters a situation that resembles the original conditions of the learned schema in some way, the negative schemas of the person are activated
◦Discuss the rationale and benefits of group therapy, including family therapy.
.Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working with several people at the same time. Group therapy can be very effective, especially in certain situations. Studies have shown that group therapy can be an effective treatment choice for depression and traumatic stress
branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development

•Psychotherapy
◦Describe the commonalities among the psychotherapies, and discuss the role of values and cultural differences in the therapeutic process.
therapy in which a person with mental or emotional problems talks with another person (talking therapies). This other person may be a psychiatrist, psychologist, counselor, clinical social worker, member of the clergy, alternative practitioner, or (to use the concept in its broadest sense) any helpful person. With successful psychotherapy, a client experiences positive change, resolves or mitigates troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions. Ideally, these are replaced with more pleasant and functional alternatives.
◦Identify the common forms of drug therapy.
Drug therapy may involve various treatment options depending upon the illness or disease it is used to treat. Some common types of drug therapy include chemotherapy typically used for treating cancer, antidepressant medications, and steroid drugs for inflammatory diseases. Drug therapy can also involve treatment for drug addiction. This type of therapy is typically known as a drug rehabilitation program.
◦Describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery in the treatment of psychological disorders.
formerly known as electroshock therapy and often referred to as shock treatment, is a standard psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from psychiatric illnesses.
Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder, is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.

Stress and Health
•Identify the major concerns of health psychology.
with understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness
•Describe the biology of the “fight-or-flight” response to stress and the physiological characteristics and phases of the general adaptation syndrome.
physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival
describe the body’s short-term and long-term reactions to stress
•Discuss the health consequences of catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles.
cause an increase in stress
•Discuss the role of stress in causing coronary heart disease, and contrast Type A and Type B personalities.
The incidence of heart attacks and sudden death have been shown to increase significantly following the acute stress of natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis and as a consequence of any severe stressor that evokes “fight or flight’ responses
Type A and Type B personality theory describes two contrasting personality types that could either raise or lower, respectively, one’s chances of developing coronary heart disease. There is considerable controversy about the role of these personality types in coronary heart disease and the role of tobacco industry funding of early research in this area.
•Describe how stress increases the risk of disease by inhibiting the activity of the body’s immune system.
stress weakens immune system
•Describe the impact of learning on immune system functioning.
Immune system cells of the brain, which scavenge pathogens and damaged neurons, are also key players in memory and learning
•Identify and discuss different strategies for coping with stress.
Avoid the stressor, Alter the stressor, Adapt to the stressor, Accept the stressor
Social thinking
•Fritz Heider – Attribution Theory – disposition vs. situation-Dispositional attribution is the assumption that an individual’s behavior is influenced by his internal characteristics. Whereas situation attribution, is analyzing a person’s action with regards to the situation that he or she is in
•Fundamental Attribution Error-people’s tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else’s behavior in a given situation, rather than considering external factors
•Attitudes-expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event
•Social Roles-the part people play as members of a social group.
•Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment-The Stanford prison experiment was a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. The experiment was conducted at Stanford University from August 14-20, 1971, by a team of researchers led by psychology professor Philip Zimbardo. It was funded by the US Office of Naval Research and was of interest to both the US Navy and Marine Corps as an investigation into the causes of conflict between military guards and prisoners. The experiment is a classic study on the psychology of imprisonment and is a topic covered in most introductory psychology textbooks
•Leon Festinger – Cognitive Dissonance-mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values
•Self-serving Bias-any cognitive or perceptual process that is distorted by the need to maintain and enhance self-esteem
Social influence
•Conformity-act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms
•Solomon Ashe’s Study on Conformity-In psychology, the Asch conformity experiments or the Asch Paradigm were a series of laboratory experiments directed by Solomon Asch in the 1950s that demonstrated the degree to which an individual’s own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group
•Normative Social Influence-the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them
•Informative Social Influence-you look to the behaviors of others who are also in the same or similar situation to see how they behave
•Obedience-the act or practice of obeying; dutiful or submissive compliance
•Compliance-the act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding
•Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon-compliance tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request
•Self-fulfilling Prophecy-prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior
•Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study-They measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience
•Social Facilitation-tendency for people to do better on simple tasks when in the presence of other people
•Social Loafing-phenomenon of people exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone
•Deindividuation-concept in social psychology that is generally thought of as the losing of self-awareness in groups, although this is a matter of contention
•Group Polarization- tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
•Groupthink-occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome
Social relations
•Prejudice-preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience
•Stereotypes-a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing
•Discrimination-the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex
•In-group-an exclusive, typically small, group of people with a shared interest or identity vs. Out-group-those people who do not belong to a specific in-group
•In-group Bias-tendency to favor one’s own group
•Scapegoat Theory-Refers to the tendency to blame someone else for one’s own problems, a process that often results in feelings of prejudice toward the person or group that one is blaming
•Just-world Phenomenon- cognitive bias that a person’s actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, to the end of all noble actions being eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished
•Aggression-hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another; readiness to attack or confront
•Frustration-aggression Principle-aggression is the result of blocking, or frustrating, a person’s efforts to attain a goal.
•Social Traps-a situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole
•Mere-exposure Effect-psychological tendency causes individuals to prefer an option that they have been exposed to before to an option they have never encountered, even if the exposure to the first option was brief
•Factors of Attraction – Proximity-physical or geographical nearness, Attractiveness-refers to a quality that causes an interest or desire in something or someone, Similarity-having characteristics in common
•Passionate-type of love consisting of intimacy and passion vs. Companionate Love-type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment
•Altruism-the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others
•Bystander Effect-the reluctance of members of a crowd to intervene in an incident they are witnessing
•Diffusion of Responsibility-a person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present
•Kitty Genovese Case-woman was stabbed to death and no one helped
•Superordinate Goals-where two or more people or groups must be involved to achieve a specific goal
•Robber’s Cave Experiment-The events at Robbers Cave mimicked the kinds of conflict that plague people all over the world. The simplest explanation for this conflict is competition. Assign strangers to groups, throw the groups into competition, stir the pot, and soon there is conflict