Ap Psychology Intelligence
Intelligence In my high school your intelligence level is based on your ability to master material in difficult courses, which is quite different to people the same age in the Amazon rain forest. Their intelligence level is based on their knowledge of the medicinal properties of local plants. In both of these very different locations intelligence is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
General intelligence is also known as the g factor. To be labeled as intelligent would correlate with a high g factor.
There are also the theories of multiple intelligences, which include Gardner’s eight intelligences and Sternberg’s three intelligences. Gardner’s eight intelligences include abilities in linguistics, logical-mathematics, music, spatial awareness, body-kin esthetics, interpersonal relations, interpersonal relations, and nature. Gardner views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in different packages. For example, in the cases of people with Savant Syndrome who often score low on intelligence testing, yet have one area of intense brilliance, such as the Rain Man.
Sternberg’s three intelligences include Analytical(academic problem-solving), Creative intelligence, and Practical intelligence. Analytical intelligence is assessed by intelligence testing, with question having only one correct answer. Creative intelligence is shown by how people react to new situations and create new ideas. Practical intelligence is needed for every day problem-solving, with problems having many possible answers. Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. Exceptionally high scores on intelligence tests support the presence of high creativity.
Sternberg identified five components of creativity, which include; Expertise(well developed knowledge base), Imaginative thinking skills, A venturesome personality, Intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment. To boost your creativity it is best to develop your expertise by finding something that you are passionate about and become an expert on it. Next, you need to allow time for incubation, which means, give your mind plenty of time and rest to make connections with the wealth of knowledge you have exposed yourself to. Then, you need to set aside time to let your mind roam freely.
That means television, computers, and video games are off the table. Instead, go for a walk, jog, or meditate. Lastly and most importantly, experience other cultures and ways of thinking. Travel to many different countries and soak up the culture through common activities and quality time spent with native peoples. Emotional intelligence has four main components, which include, perceiving emotions(to recognize them in faces, music, and stories), understanding emotions(to predict them and how they change and blend), managing emotions(to know how to express them in varied situations), and using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking.
Those who are emotionally intelligent are often more successful in careers, marriage, and parenting situations, as compared to academically smart people. It is believed that there is a strong correlation between brain size and intelligence. For example, Lord Byron’s brain was approximately two pounds heavier than the normal three pound brain. In another case Albert Einstein’s brain was studied and was found to be 15% larger in the parietal lobe’s lower region, which is the area for mathematical and spatial processing. How fitting!
Another strong correlation lies between neural processing speed and intelligence. This correlation is the result of one of two possibilities. Perhaps people who process more quickly accumulate more information, or processing speed and intelligence share an underlying genetic influence. How is intelligence determined, and then given a numerical value? Tests are made by psychologists, but what makes the tests themselves credible? The whole idea of testing intelligence came about around the same time that France made it mandatory for children to attend school.
To know what children needed special schooling, a test to determine mental age was created by Binet. Mental age is the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance, typically associated with a certain chronological age. For example, an average seven year old would have a mental age of seven, but if a seven year old is above average he/she may have a mental age of eight or above. The test created to determine mental age is referred to today as the Stanford-Binet, it is the American revision of the original intelligence test.
Using the mental age a person’s intelligence quotient(I. Q. ) can be determined. I. Q. Is the ratio of mental age to chronological age all multiplied by 100. There are two main types of modern tests to test mental abilities, and they are achievement tests and aptitude tests. Achievement tests are designed to assess what a person has learned. Examples of achievement tests include course exams, intelligence tests, and driver’s license exams. Aptitude tests are designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
Examples of aptitude tests are the S. A. T. and the A. C. T. What are the principles of intelligence test construction? To understand this we first need to understand standardization and the normal curve. Standardization is defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. The normal curve is the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. Next, we need to understand reliability and validity.
It is very important to have reliability in standardized testing. Reliability is the extent to which a test gives consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting. High reliability does not promise a test’s validity. Validity is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. What are dynamics of human intelligence? They are about the stability over the life span of a person, and about the extremes of intelligence. As you age your intelligence can either increase or decrease, as it is all in your power.
Intelligence in correlation with aging comes in three stages: Phase I: Cross-Sectional Evidence for intellectual decline, Phase II: Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability, and Phase III: It all Depends. Phase I concludes that the decline of mental ability with age is part of the general aging process of the organism as a whole. Phase II concluded that until late in life, intelligence remained stable, sometimes even increasing. For example, John Rock developed the birth control pill at age 70, and Frank Lloyd Wright designed N. Y. C. ‘s Guggenheim Museum at age 89!
Phase III concluded a person’s crystallized intelligence increases until you die, but a person’s fluid intelligence decreases beginning shortly after the twenties and very rapidly after age 85. The correlation between intelligence and age all comes down to phase III… it really does all depend! In conclusion, there are many factors when determining the levels of intelligence of human beings. Some of them are creativity, emotional intelligence, testing methods, age, and many more. Whether you are an American high school student, or a teenager in the Amazon rainforest determining intelligence is very much the same.