AP Psych Ch.7- Meek

cognition
mental activities associated with thinking, processing, understanding, remembering and communication
cognitive psychologists
these people study mental activities such as concept formation, problem solving, decision making, and judgment formation
mental imagery
procedural memory, mental images (pictures), visualization in mind (mental maps)
concept (schema)
ideas or mental groupings
superordinate
general concepts
subordinate
specific concepts
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formal
concepts with rules
natural
concepts formed from experience
prototype
mental image that best represents a category
trial-and-error
try a method continuously until there is a solution by chance
algorithm
every possibility is tried; methodical, step-by-step. can take lots of time
heuristics
“rule-of-thumb” shortcut, thinking strategies to help come to a quick solution. Not completely accurate
representative
heuristic that uses a prototype to sort objects and ideas. can lead one to ignore relevant information
availability
heuristic. first thing that pops into mind. what comes most readily (ex/plane crash)
insight
sudden moment of clarity, “aha”
mental set
tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if it was successful in the past
confirmation bias
tendency to search for information confirming one’s beliefs
fixation
refusal to think of one’s ideas in a different way
functional fixation
tendency to think of objects in terms of how they are usually used/original functions
overconfidence
tendency to be more confident than correct; overestimate accuracy of self
belief bias
distort one’s thinking to prove that self is right; affects one’s thinking patterns
framing
the way a question is asked affects decisions and judgments
creativity
new, novel, and valuable way to solve problems; requires expertise, imaginative thinking, adventurous personality, intrinsic motivation, and the right environment
divergent thinking
many solutions from one point
csikszentmihaly
flow: describes creativity, says that creative people are often contradictory
creative process
pave the way, incubation, illumination, translation
language
system for combining statements so unlimited number of meanings can be used to communicate with others. Spoken, written, gestures
semantics
study of the meaning of language.
syntax
how words are combined to produce a phrase
grammar
how phrases are structured and how sentences work
phoneme
smallest unit of language: letter sounds
morpheme
smallest unit of language with meaning
pragmatics
the politeness, courtesy, and social rules of a language
cognitive universalism
rosch-heider. theory that concepts are worldwide and influence the developments of a language. semanticity, arbitrariness, flexibility, naming, displacement, productivity
skinner; chomsky
___ believed that operant learning and experiences defined language, ___ believed that brain was pre-wired to learn language; all biological
cognitive neuroscience
gradual changes in neuro-network based on experience. throw on switches during infancy. language critical period: firsts 7 years
babbling, one word stage, two word stage, telegraphic stage
stages of language
10
at __ months an infant’s language sounds like their home language(s)
linguistic relativity hypothesis (sapir-whorf)
theory that states thought process and concepts are controlled by language
intelligence
the ability to learn, adapt, solve porblems
reification
reasoning error: a number (such as IQ or ACT) is thought to measure success in life and intelligence completely, accepted as the standard for success though this is not true
spearman
theory that there is only one intelligence, the g factor (general intelligence), which is made up of s factors (specific intelligence)
gardner
theory that there are multiple intelligences; 8 to begin with, now there are more
linguistic, logical/math, visual/spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, existential
9 intelligences of spearman
sternberg’s triarchic theory
analytic, creative, and practical make up intelligence – three aspects of intelligence
social intelligence
ability to understand people, react well in a social situation, and manage oneself
emotional intelligence
Saloney and Mayor. EQ, ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate one’s feelings, thoughts, and moods, empathy
adults
David Wechsler was the first to design an IQ test specifically for:
visual-spatial intelligence
Gardener would say that an astronaut is high in:
emotional intelligence
_________ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled
validity
If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has:
a way to identify students in need of more help with learning
Intelligence testing began in France because French educators wanted:
analytical, creative, practical
Sternberg’s three types of intelligence are
cultural bias
The Dove Counterbalance General Intelligence Test was designed to highlight:
environmental factors
Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with:
ecological validity
___________ is the extent to which a test score accurately reflects the intended skill or outcome in real-life situations
intelligence is largely inherited
In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray made the unfounded claim that:
emotional intelligence
_________ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled
schizophrenia
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with ________, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial
linguistic relativity hypothesis
Whorf used the now-famous example of the Inuits’ many words for snow to support the:
syntax
The system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences is:
syntax
“Michael painted the picture” and “the picture was painted by Michael” have the same semantic meaning but different:
books and bookshelves
a person’s schema for a library would most likely include:
a mental set
when solving a problem, if a person is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in:
creative people are not necessarily unconventional in all aspects of their lives
Csikszentmihalyi found that:
natural concepts
________ form as the result of people’s experiences in the real world
divergent thinking
Making a list of all the ways one could use a butter knife requires:
WAIS-IV
Brian is 25 years old and wants to take an intelligence test. Which of the following tests would be best for Brian to complete?