AP Human Geography Exam

To write about the earth
Purpose of Early Geography
Studied places and regions for practical purposes
-One of the world’s first cartographers
-Head librarian at Alexandria
-Coined the term geography
-Computed the Earth’s circumference
-Efforts represent a significant early contribution to both geography and the technical aspects of early cartography
-Published his Guide to Geography, which included rough maps of the landmasses as he understood them, at the time, and a global grid system
-Began in 1400 A.D.
-Knowledge of the globe began to expand rapidly as explorers traveled the Earth mapping landforms, climates, indigenous cultures, and the distribution of plants and animals
George Perkins Marsh
-Wrote Man and Nature, which provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions
-Warned that people’s willful destruction of the environment could have disastrous consequences like the desertification he witnessed int he Fertile Crescent
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-A fact or event which can be observed and/or documented
Carl Sauer
-One of the first modern geographers
-In 1925, he argued that cultural landscapes should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry
-Argued that even landscapes appearing to be natural had experienced some form of alteration as a result of human activity
-Proposed a method of landscape analysis that allowed geographers to understand and interpret the complex relationship between humans and the environment
Quantitative Revolution
-Movement in the 1950s & 1960s among social scientists that stressed use scientific programs to explain geographic patterns
-Reflected influences of both modernist philosophy and technological innovation in the social sciences during this time
-Many geographers credit it for bringing geography into the mainstream of modern science
Remote Sensing
-Process of capturing images from Earth’s surface from airborne platforms
-Allowed modern geographers access to landscapes otherwise somewhat inaccessible
Global Positioning System (GPS)
-An integrated network of satellites that orbit the Earth
-Broadcasts location information to handheld receivers on Earth’s surface
Geographical Information System (GIS)
-Allows geographers to map, analyze, and modern spatial data
-Use thematic layers, consisting of individual maps that contain specific features such as roads, stream networks, or elevation contours
-Multiple layers may be combined into one comprehensive map, which can help a geographer understand and analyze spatial relationships between different phenomena
Divisions of Geography
-Three major areas
-Each consisting of several sub-sections
1) Human Geography
2) Physical Geography
3) Earth System Science (intersection of the other two) or human environment relationships (HER) or environmental geography
Human Geography
-Study of human activities on the Earth’s surface
Physical Geography
-Study spatial characteristics of the Earth’s physical and biological systems
Earth System Science
-Study interactions between physical systems on a global scale
Systematic Geography
-Study of the Earth’s integrated systems as a whole
Environmental Geography
-Results from the intersection of human and physical geography
-Earth System Science
W.D. Pattison’s Four Traditions of Geography
-The Earth: science tradition is essentially physical geography
-The Culture: environment tradition is essentially the same thing as HER
-The location tradition relates to the analysis of spatial data through cartography
-The area: analysis tradition refers to regional geography, which involves an investigation and description of a unique piece of the Earth’s surface
Five Themes of Geography
-Location = position on Earth’s surface
-Human/environment interaction refers to cultural ecology or the relationship between culture and environment
-Regions are ways to organize or compartmentalize space
-Place differs from location in that it refers to associations among phenomena within a particular area
-Movement describes the interconnections between areas
Thinking Geographically
-Involves developing a spatial perspective
-An appreciation of scale
-Ability to analyze and interpret varied forms of geographic data
Spatial Perspective
-Intellectual framework that allows geographers to look at the earth in terms of the relationships between various places
Importance of Scale
-Reflects actual levels of organization in the real world
-Small to large
-Helps to understand how the processes that occur at one may affect activities at others
-Geographers understand that patterns or analysis presented at on may not reflect apparent spatial differences at others
Region as a Concept
-Fundamental units of analysis
-Allows geographers to group pieces of the Earth’s surface area together according to certain similarities
-Don’t exist as well-defined units in the landscape
-Use for convenience and comparison
Regional Geography
-Study of Regions
-Regions vary in size
-No matter the size of the region under study, geographers investigate the unique characteristics, patterns, and processes existent within that place
Qualitative Data
-Cultural or regional geography
-More unique to and descriptive of particular places and processes
-Not suited to statistical analyses and modeling
Quantitative Data
-Use rigorous mathematical techniques
-Important in economic, political, and population geography, as well as physical geography
-Refers to facts or features unique to a particular place or region
-Refers to concepts that are universally applicable
-Bumpy oblate spheroid that is the Earth’s surface
-Slightly bigger horizontally than vertically
-Refers to the process by which 3-dimensional Earth surface is transferred to a 2-dimensional map
Map Distortion
-Result of projecting 3-dimensional surface onto a 2-dimensional surface
Mercator Projection
-Preserves accurate compass direction but distorts area of landmasses relative to each other
-Landmasses become increasingly distorted at high latitude near the North and South Poles
Peters Projection
-Cylindrical projection that retains accurate sizes of all the world’s landmasses
-Reveals how large the landmasses near the equator actually are
-An attempt to focus attention on the world’s poorest countries
Fuller Projection
-Maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction
-Cardinal directions have no meaing
Robinson Projection
-An attempt to balance projection errors
-Doesn’t maintain accurate area, shape, or direction, but minimizes errors in each
Azimuthal Projections
-Planar projections, formed when a flat piece of paper is placed on top of the globe and a light source projects the surrounding areas onto the map
-The North or South Pole is the center of the map, given that you are looking down or up at the Earth
Cartographic Scale (map)
-Refers to the ratio between distance on a map and the actual distance on the Earth’s surface
-Ratio remains constant
-Refers to a map’s smallest discernable unit
-Smallest thing visible on a map
-Averaging over details
-Results from scaling changes
-High = less detail
-Low = more details
Reference Maps
-Used to navigate between places and include topographic maps, atlases, road maps, and other navigational maps
Thematic Maps
-Display one or more variables across a specific space such as population variables, voting patterns, or economic welfare
Isoline Maps
-Uses lines that to represent quantities of equal value
-A line spaced close together indicates a rapidly changing value
-A line far apart indicates little change over space
Proportional Symbols Maps
-Size of the chosen symbol indicates relative magnitude of some value for a given geographic region
-Flow lines are often used to show movement of goods or people over space
Dot Maps
-Use points to represent particular values
-Value comes from the ability to facilitate perception of spatial pattern
-Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population
Choropleth Maps
-Use colors or tonal shadings to represent categories of data for given areas
-Transform space so that the political unit, such as a state or country, with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area and all other polygons are represented proportionately to that largest polygon
-Exists digitally and use sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are 3-dimensional or interactive
-Some allow geographers to investigate features that can’t be seen with the naked eye
-Other use models to show how landscapes change over time
-Refers to level of detail portrayed on a map
-Refers to the size of the unit under investigation
-Like simplification, completely depends on the purpose of the map
-Level also depends on the data geographers have access to
Power of Maps
-Ability to make something non-spatial (e.g. population rates), spatial, thereby facilitating the perception of spatial relationships
-Ability to simply display a large amount of information, for example, the only way to see the entire Earth’s surface at once
Deception of Maps
-Can be bad through simplification and generalization by excluding or generalizing important details
-Projection makes no map give an accurate picture of size, shape, and direction of land features in relation to one another
Cognitive Maps (mental)
-Internal representation of a place or environment
-“Sketch Map”
-Each is highly individual, dependent on information an individual deems important
-Limited by the amount and type of experience an individual has with a place
Preference Maps
-Show people’s ideas about environment, social, or economic quality of life in various places
Absolute Location
-Precise location of any object or place on the Earth’s surface as determined by a standard grid or coordinate system
-Most common system used to determine this location is latitude and longitude
Relative Location
-Describes a place’s location in terms of its relationship to places around it
-More common in everyday language
-Think about industries and its proximity to either the market or the resources (bulk-gaining/reducing industries)
-Originate at the Equator
-Terminate at the poles
-Originate at the prime meridian (which passes through Greenwich, England) and ends at the International Date Line
-Meet at the poles
-Time zones every 15 degrees (one hour every fifteen degrees)
-Refers to the physical and cultural features of a place, independent to other places around it
-Describes a place’s relationship to other places around it
Absolute Distance
-An exact measure of the separation between two points using a standard measure
Relative Distance
-When less precise but often meaningful measures are used to describe separation between two points
-Most common one is the measure of time
-Amount of a particular feature within a given area
-Not the same thing as dense, which implies a cluster
-Describes the features that are spread out from one another
-Features that are clumped
Spatial Association
-Describes the distribution of two or more features and how they do or do not correspond to one another
Distance Decay
-Describes the pattern of diminishing likelihood of interaction with a place with increasing distance from that place
First Law of Geography
-Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more closely related than far things
-Describes “the friction of distance,” meaning that the farther away something is, the less likely someone is to interact with it
Gravity Model
-1st described in the 1850s
-Describes the interaction between places
-Based off of the population of each place and the distance between the two places
-Example: can know the interaction between two areas that are 20 miles apart while one area has one million people and the other area has half a million people; also, can know the interaction if there is a third area; differences might be goods and services offered
-A measure of all the means of connection and communication between places
-Virtually synonymous with relative distance as some places are highly connected to one another yet separated by significant distances
-Relative ease with which you can reach a destination
-Determined by a place’s connectivity
-The more means there are for interacting with a place, then the higher its accessibility
-Areal pattern of connections between places
Time-Space Compression
-Idea that with increasing transportation and communications technology, absolute distance between certain places is, in effect, shrinking
-Increased communications technology allows places to communicate instantaneously with each other, which, in effect, completely negates distance’s effect on interaction
Spatial Diffusion
-The ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or outbreaks of disease, travel over space
-Two main processes spread phenomena across space: expansion diffusion and relocation diffusion
Relocation Diffusion
-Physical movement leads to spread, usually as a result of migration
-Number of adopters is relatively small
Expansion Diffusion
-Interaction leads to spread
-Number of adopters grow rapidly before stabilizing
Contagious (Expansion) Diffusion
-Describes diffusion resulting from direct contact with an individual
-All infectious diseases, such as AIDS, are spread by contagious diffusion
Hierarchical (Expansion) Diffusion
-Describes the spread first to major nodes and then down to smaller nodes
-Within major nodes, a phenomenon spreads, typically, by contagious diffusion
-For example, a fashion trend will first appear in major fashion nodes (e.g. London, Milan, and Paris) and then spread from there
-For example, leaders of a kingdom start practicing a certain religion, then the upper-class, then the middle-class, and finally the lower-class
Stimulus (Expansion) Diffusion
-Describes the pattern by which a concept is diffused but not in the same form as in original contact
-For example, some Native Americans groups developed their own written language based on exposure to written English
Barriers to Diffusion
-Something that inhibits a phenomenon from spreading across space
-Three classifications: physical, sociocultural, or psychological
Physical Barriers
-Objects in the environment that prohibit interaction from taking place
-Examples: mountain ranges, highways (when interaction occurs on foot), rivers, etc.
Sociocultural Barriers
-Prohibit diffusion when a person’s beliefs, culture, or place in society prohibit interaction with certain people or places
Psychological Barriers
-Are generally fear or ignorance
-These emotions keep individuals from interaction with certain people or places and thereby prohibit the spread of a particular phenomenon
Time-Distance Decay
-Idea that the longer it takes for something to spread or move over space, the less likelihood of interaction with or spread of that phenomena
-Essentially, it is a description of time as a barrier to spatial diffusion
-Pieces of Earth’s surface area
-Four types: administrative, formal (thematic), functional, and cognitive (perceptual or vernacular)
Administrative Regions
-Politically determined, thus they are exact
-Hierarchical or nested
-Example: U.S. -> State -> Counties -> Census tracts exist within counties
-Example: Everyone within an administrative region is equally a member of that region or everyone in a county is equally a resident of that county
Formal Regions
-Thematic because they are defined by one or more variable or theme
-Membership strength varies throughout the region; some places represent the theme defining the region more strongly than others
-Varying membership strength can lead to boundaries being imprecise or vague
Examples: Climate, language, religion, etc.
Functional (nodal) Regions
-Drawn around an interaction region
-Everyone has a node that people interact with
-Spatial pattern of that interaction defines the region
-Vague boundaries
-Each node services the surrounding area, and the spatial pattern of that area is what the area is called
Cognitive/Perceptual/Vernacular Regions
-Describe how people informally organize places in their mind
-Even though formed by individuals, usually are shared between people because of culturally shared beliefs
-Boundaries are imprecise, vague, or variable
-For example: most people in the U.S. would draw similar boundaries around the “Deep South”
Zelinsky’s Work on Perceptual Regions
-Divided the U.S. into regions based on perceived unique cultural characteristics associated with particular areas
Population Geography
-Similar to demography
-But is studied to investigate patterns from a spatial perspective (why patterns exist, where, and the implications of current patterns)
-As the global total of people on this planet continues to rise, geographers become increasingly concerned with how the world can sustainably provide for the growth
-The patterns often overlap with economic development patterns: for example, places with the highest fertility rates are typically less economically developed
Factors Relating to Population Distribution
-60% of the world’s population lives within 60 miles (98 kilometers) of the ocean
-Population concentrates in areas with high soil arability/fertility, which also tend to have mild climates
-Increasingly, population is becoming more urban
-Currently about 50% of the global population is urban with much higher rates in highly developed regions
General Patterns (Population Distribution)
-World’s current population is estimated to be upwards of 6.5 billion people
-China and India together comprise over 1/3 of the total global population with over one billion people each
-Major population concentrations include East Asia, Northeastern North America, South Asia, and Western Europe
Population Density
-Crude density, also called arithmetic density, is the total number of people divided by the total land area
-Crude density is a “crude” number because it doesn’t provide a full picture of the relationship between people and land
-Issues of density provide a good example of how demography and development can overlap
-For example, nutritional density represents the ratio between number of people and amount of land under cultivation in a given unit of area
Population Data
-Includes population counts and rates such as CBR, CDR, etc.
-From United Nations Statistical Office, the World Bank, the Population Reference Bureau, and from national censuses
-In developing regions, statistical information from censuses can be unreliable as gathering detailed figures proves complicated because illiteracy, suspicion of governmental officials, and accessibility issues make accurate statistical information nearly impossible
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
-Number of live births in a single year for every thousand people in a population
-Are “crude” rates because they do not take into account the age structure of a population
-Tend to be highest in least developed regions where both number of women at or near reproducing age and fertility rates are high
-In both developed and less developed countries, the rates are somewhat determined by religion
-Places with high rates:
–Tend to be countries where women’s access to education is low
–Tend to have a high portion of their population engaged in agriculture; more children equal more laborers
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
-Number of deaths in a single year for every thousand people in a population
-Are “crude” rates because they do not take into account the age structure of a population
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
-When births outnumber deaths
-Excludes migration
-Percentage by which a population grows in a year
Natural Decrease
-When deaths outnumber births
Infant Mortality Rate
-Number of deaths during the first year of life per thousand live births
-Tends to be much higher in developing regions as it tends to indicate a country’s access to health care services
-Overall, rates have decreased significantly over the last fifty years
-Annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age (Compared with total live births)
-Usually expressed as the number of deaths among infants per 1,000 births (Rather than as a percentage)
Life Expectancy (longevity)
-Average number of years an infant newborn can expect to live
-Number varies globally with highly developed countries experiencing much higher life expectancies than developing countries
-Varies within countries, within cities, among ethnicities, and even between sexes
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
-Average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years (ages 15 to 49)
-Provides a more accurate picture of fertility in a country than CBR as it allows demographers to predict the birth rates of a particular cohort over time
Replacement Level Fertility
-A rate typically slightly higher than two
-Accounts for infant/childhood mortality and childless women
-In some countries, where mortality rates are high, replacement rate increases dramatically
-For example, in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the replacement rate is above three
Demographic Accounting Equation
-Predicts population change within a particular area as a function of natural increase/decrease and in/out migration
Population Growth Rates
-A country’s is determined by its natural increase expressed as a percentage
-For example, a country’s natural increase with a CBR of 22 and a CDR of 12 is 10 per 1,000, which translates to a rate of 1 percent
Factors Determining a Population’s Rate of Natural Increase
-Economic development
-Populations with better eduction
-Gender empowerment
-Cultural traditions
-Public policies
Economic Development (Population’s Rate of Natural Increase)
-Has profound implications on health care, available employment opportunities, and nutrition among other factors contributing to growth
Education (Population’s Rate of Natural Increase)
-Populations with better schooling tend to have lower rates
Gender Empowerment (Population’s Rate of Natural Increase)
-When women have more economic and political access, power, and education, fertility rates drop
Cultural Traditions (Population’s Rate of Natural Increase)
-Some prohibit women from working outside the home and some prohibit the use of contraception
Public Policies (Population’s Rate of Natural Increase)
-Certain ones can encourage or discourage couples to reproduce and can dramatically affect a country’s rate of natural increase
Doubling Time
-Derived from the growth rate
-The amount of time it will take a particular population to double in size
Population Pyramids
-Four different shapes
-Provide a good indication of the dependency ratio within a country
-Often used to predict population growth
-In general, countries in the developing world tend to have ones that predict rapid growth, whereas highly developed countries’ ones are stable or even declining
Wide Base (Pyramids)
-Rapid Growth
Rectangular Shape (Pyramids)
-Stable Growth
Small Base (Pyramids)
-Upper age cohorts are larger than the lower cohorts
Disrupted Growth (Pyramids)
-Significant gaps
-Usually as a result of war, strict population policies, or other drastic events
Dependency Ratio
-A measure of the economic impact of younger and older cohorts on the economically productive members of a population
-Younger cohorts are typically children under the age of 15 (ineligible to work)
-Older cohorts are over the age of 64 (Retired members of a population)
-In some countries it includes only males in the economically productive cohorts if the local culture prohibits women’s participation in the workforce
Baby Boomers
-Consist of individuals born past WWII (between 1945 and 1964)
-Largest population cohort in the U.S. demographic history
-As this large generation of individuals enters retirement, the burden will be felt on the economically productive members of the country
Baby Bust
-A period of time during the ’60s and ’70s when fertility rates in the United States dropped
-Drop is attributed to large numbers of women from the Baby Boom generation:
-Who sought higher levels of eduction and more competitive jobs
-Causing them to marry alter in life
-Causing them to have fewer children than the previous generation
Demographic Momentum
-Tendency of a population to continue grow in spite of stringent population policies because of the large number of individuals in their childbearing years
-Plays a much more dramatic role in population growth in developing countries where a significant portion of the population is at or near childbearing years
-In countries that implement policies encouraging or enforcing replacement-level fertility rates, it takes several generations before stable growth is achieved
Carrying Capacity
-The number of people an area can sustain without critically straining its resource base
-Depends on both level of technology and determining an appropriate standard of living for the Earth’s population
-Advanced technologies can typically sustain many more people than more primitive technologies
-If the people on the Earth live more modestly, the number of people the earth can sustain will increase
-If people in developing regions begin to consume at a rate comparable to the developed worlds consumption rates, the globe has certainly exceeded it
-A value judgement reflecting an opinion that an area doesn’t have adequate resources to support the existing population
-Has exceeded its carrying capacity
-Describes a scenario in which an area or region doesn’t have enough people to fully exploit the local resource base
Thomas Malthus
-Carrying capacity is limited by food availability
-Food production grows arithmetically, whereas population grows geometrically or exponentially, meaning eventually food supplies cannot support an ever-increasing population
-Somewhat accurate: eventually population growth does reach a carrying capacity called a homeostatic plateau that extends with each technological revolution
-For example, the industrial revolution allowed for tremendous advancements in food production, greatly expanding the globe’s carrying capacity
-J-curve and S-curve
-Negative and positive checks
-Followers of Malthus
-Believe population growth to be a problem and provide the foundation for many anti-natalist population policies
-Many advocate “zero population growth” (ZPG) in which number of births and immigrants are equally counteracted by the number of deaths and emigrants
-While ZPG may limit environmental repercussions of an expanding population, it doesn’t have social and economic consequences in the long-term as a young population base doesn’t exist to support both the local economy and an ever-increasing elderly population
-Opposer to Malthus and Neo-Malthusians
-In the 80’s, when many argued that stricter population controls needed to be placed on countries with high TFR in order to stimulate development, many economists argued that increasing populations stimulate rather hinder economic development
-Believe that with increasing populations come increasing opportunities for innovation
-Current global totals have not proven to have the dire consequences predicted by Malthus and his followers
Cairo Plan
-In ’94, the U.N. endorsed a strategy to stabilize global population at 7.27 billion no later than 2015
-Instead of focusing on top-down programs that limited reproduction in certain regions of the world, policies focused on giving women greater social and economic control of their lives
-Many argue that global drops in fertility are a result of women, particularly in developing regions, assuming greater control over their economic and reproductive lives
-Defined as using resources in a manner that supplies existing populations while not compromising availability of resources for future generations
Demographic Transition Model
Demographic Transition Model
-Describes population growth stabilization as a function of economic development
-Shows how CBR and CDR differs, which results in the total population changes
-Mapping population growth by the factor of economic development
-Created by Warren Thompson in 1929
Stage 1 of DTM
-High birth and death rates
-Little-to-no growth
-Birth Rate: High
-Death Rate: High (no health care, low food supply)
-Total Population: Low
Stage 2 of DTM
-Country industrializes
-Birth rates remain high
-Death rates drop (improvements in food supply and sanitation)
-Population growth is rapid
-Birth Rate: High
-Death Rate: Decreasing
-Total Population: Increasing
Stage 3 of DTM
-Country becomes fully industrialized
-Birth rates begin to drop (penny drops: cities are cramped and people learn to reduce the amount of children they have)
-Death rates leveling out
-Population growth is rising (but at the end of the stage it starts to level out)
-Birth Rate: Decreasing
-Death Rate: Low (medicine improves, avoid cholera Dr. Snow)
-Total Population: Increasing
Stage 4 and 5 of DTM
-Highly developed country
-Birth rates go up and down
-Death rates are level
-Birth and death rates are nearing each other
-Population growth is stable or negative
-Birth Rate: Low
-Death Rate: Low (even though there are advances in medicine, there is only so much that medicine can do)
-Total Population: High
-When deaths exceed births (then 5)
Downfalls of the Demographic Transition Model
-Unlike European countries, where decreasing death rates occurred gradually, countries in developing regions experienced a dramatic drop in death rates in the ’50s as a result of exportation of medical technology and public health policies from the developed world
-Developing countries did not see a corresponding reduction in birth rates
-Instead, the population explosion, which began in the ’50s, is attributed to high rates of natural increase in the developing world
Pro-natalist (Population Policies)
-Typically exist in countries where population is declining, providing incentives for women to have children
-In Europe, where negative population growth is common, countries have instituted programs that encourage births through subsidized child care costs, offering generous maternity leave packages and other services to reproducing women
-Some countries outside of Europe, for example Singapore, are instituting pro-natalist population policies in response to dramatic results of anti-natalist policies in previous decades
Anti-natalist (Population Policies)
-Encourage couples to limit the number of children they have
-These policies discourage growth through provision of contraception or abortion or through establishment of specific disincentives, such as steep penalties for couples bearing more children than allowed by the state
-China is famous for its one-child population policy from the ’80s in which many drastic measures (e.g. forced sterilization for couples with one child or infanticide of female babies), ensured decreasing population growth
-Major and dramatic exception to recent population growth trends, particularly in the developing world, where epidemic is having dramatic effects on birth rates, death rates, and life expectancy
-Current;y the fourth most common cause of death worldwide and expected to surpass Black Death of the 14th century as history’s worst-ever epidemic
AIDS and Sub-Saharan Africa
-Has been particularly hard-hit by the epidemic with 55 million of the expected 68 million deaths from the disease predicted to occur there between 2000 and 2020
-65% of the 40 million people diagnosed with HIV in 2006 live here
-1/4 people is HIV positive
-The virus has dramatically altered life expectancy in many countries here
-For example, Botswana’s life expectancy has been cut in half (70 to 34)
-Defined as movement to a new activity space (e.g. schools, grocery stores, and other everyday activities change as a result of the move)
-Movement from one administrative unit to another
-Movement out of a particular place
-Movement to a specific location
Internal Migration
-Movement within a country
Voluntary Migration
-When an individual chooses to move
-Typically based on various push-and-pull factors
Push Factors
-Characteristics at an individual’s current location that makes her or him want to leave
-Example: negative environmental characteristics, unemployment, lack of good services, high cost of living among other things
Pull Factors
-Characteristics at a destination that draw a migrant to that place
-Examples: housing opportunities, climate, educational opportunities, and employment opportunities
Internal Migration History of the United States
-Wave 1: beginning with colonization, a movement of the population westward and movement from rural to urban areas as places become increasingly industrialized
-Wave 2: from the early 1940s through the 1970s a massive movement of African Americans from the rural south to cities in the South, North, and West
-Wave 3: post-WWII to the present day movement to the sun belt states (15 states from North Carolina to Southern California and all the states below that line)
Rust Belt (Migration Patterns)
-In 1960s and 1970s, large numbers of white, middle-class Americans moved from older northeastern and midwestern cities to the South and the West Coast
-The area people were moving from in the upper Midwest
-These previous industrial powerhouses lost much of their economic base to other parts of the country and other parts of the world
Sun Belt (Migration Patterns)
-In 1960s and 1970s, large numbers of white, middle-class Americans moved from older northeastern and midwestern cities to the South and the West Coast
-The states in the South and West Coast that people were migrating to
Effect of the Sun Belt Migration
-Movement of the U.S. population in the last several decades to the sun belt states has dramatically altered the balance of political and economic power as California, Florida, and Texas (All sun belt states), are now three or four most populous states in the country
-They carry a disproportionate number of electoral votes, have large congressional delegations, and are dominant in many economic sectors such as technology, energy production, and agriculture
Population Centroid of the United States
-Geographic center of the United States; essentially the balancing point of the U.S. population if the country is conceived of as a plane
-Historically, has been on the East coast
-With continued migration west and south, the center is progressively moving
-Currently thought to be somewhere in mid-Missouri
Guest Workers
-Individuals who migrate temporarily to take advantage of job opportunities in other countries
-Send a significant portion of their pay back home to support friends and family
-A guest worker sends a significant portion of their pay back home to support friends and family
-World Bank estimates that in 2006, 260 billion dollars were sent home, a figure that becomes much larger if untraceable money is included
-For many developing countries, it compromises a significant part of the country’s national income (up to 20 percent)
Ravenstein’s Migration Laws
-Describes voluntary migration patterns
-Laws that still prove true today
-Every migration flow generates a counterflow
-Majority of migrants move a short distance
-Migrants who move long distances tend to choose big city destinations
-Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
-Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
Chain Migration
-Describes migrant flow from a common origin to the same destination
-Family or friends move first and get established within an area, paving the way for more friends and family to follow the same path
-As number of migrants from a similar area congregate in one place, services to that population (both cultural and social) begin to accrue in that area
Channelized Migration
-The flows between a particular origin and destination are larger than would normally be the case, but are not the result of family or kinship ties as is the case with chain migration
-For example, it occurs between Texas and California; in other words, a significantly larger number of people move from Texas to California and vice versa than the migration models predict
Forced Migration
-An individual migrates against her or his will
-For example: the migration of millions of Africans to North and South America during the slave trade beginning in the 1500s
Reluctant Migration
-Between voluntary and forced migration
-An individual reluctantly chooses to move because factors at the current location prohibit her or him from remaining there
Illegal Immigration
-Can be characterized as involuntary but unforced migrants
-These individuals choose to risk their lives in the migration decision, but that decision is motivated by dire economic situations within their own country
-Individuals who cross national boundaries to seek safety and asylum
-Typically reluctant or forced migration who leave their country because of war, famine, environmental catastrophes, or religious persecution
-In 2005, it was estimated that there were 13.5 million of them
Global Refugee Patterns
-Post-September 11th, 2001, because of security issues, many countries in the core countries of the world, particularly Western Europe and North America, have tightened their borders to individuals seeking asylum
-In many African countries, borders are open to refugees such that countries in which refugees are fleeing from also host significant populations
-For example, several million refugees have fled Sudan as a result of civil war, but Sudan also hosts upwards of 75 thousand refugees from neighboring countries
Internally Displaced Persons
-People who have had to leave their home because of conflict, human rights abuse, war, or environmental catastrophes, but don’t leave their country to seek safety
-Total is increasing globally; U.N. estimates that approximately 25 million people in 40 countries are currently this (total doesn’t include people displaced by environmental disasters)
-A good example in the U.S. is the individuals whose homes were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005
-Means “to care about”
-Dates back to Enlightenment, when it was referred to a variety of human endeavors, such as agriculture
-Currently defined as all the ideas, practices, and material objects associated with a particular group of people
-These geographers study how cultures vary over space
Cultural Traits (Custom)
-Specific customs that are part of everyday life
-Includes: language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture
-All have hearths, or places of origin
-May expand broadly through processes of diffusion, adoption, and assimilation
-When a cultural trait expands broadly through processes of diffusion, adoption, and assimilation
Cultural Complex
-The group of traits that define a particular culture
-Comprise the technological subsystem of culture
-Consists of material objects necessary for meeting basic needs such as tools
-Comprise the ideological subsystem of culture
-Including: ideas, beliefs, and knowledge, and how these things are communicated
-Comprise the sociological subsystem of culture
-Including: the expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations within a people group
Environmental Determinism
-Claimed that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions
-Certain types of people, who came from cultures that arose in certain physical environments, may be smarter, more attractive, or more able to govern themselves as a result
-Different environmental conditions offer both restraints and opportunities to people living in various regions
-People control their own destinies and deal with various environmental factors in ways that are dynamic and contingent and that unfold unpredictably over history
-Process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group across space
Relocation Diffusion
-Involves a spread as a result of physical movement to a new place
Expansion Diffusion
-Typically involves a spread of an innovation through communication
-Refers to adoption of cultural traits by one group under the influence of another
-May occur as a result of immigration, when immigrant populations take on the values, customs, and other cultural traits of receiving society
-Also occurs as a result of colonization; many colonized cultures, either under force or voluntarily, adopted cultural traits of the colonizing group
Cultural Assimilation
-When integration of new arrivals into economic and cultural mainstream of a host society is complete
-Behavioral assimilation is essentially acculturation; meaning integration into a common cultural life through language, intermarriage, and shared experiences
-Structural assimilation involves two-way full acceptance of cultural values and practices
-Only people of an “outside” culture rise to positions of political leadership, structural assimilation has taken place
-Development of a new cultural trait as a result of the fusion of two distinct but interacting cultures
-Huge factor in cultural change as authentic cultural traits are modified to make them more appealing to receiving societies
-For example, in America, many ethnic cuisines are not eaten in their authentic form; they have been modified to be more pleasing to the typical American’s palate
-One of the oldest, most geographically diverse, and most complex cultural traits on Earth
-Africa and Asia being the most diverse regions
-In New Guinea, the country of the greatest linguistic diversity
Language Families
-A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue, but have different characteristics
-Each one has a similarly complex tree encompassing a wide variety of both current and extinct languages
-About 50% of global production speak languages belonging to Indo-European family
-20% speak languages from Sino-Tibetan family
-30% speak languages from Afro-Asiatic, Altaic, Autroneasian, or Niger-Congo
Indo-European Language Family
-Language family tree is broken down firs into major languages, including Albanian, Celtic, Germanic, and Italic, among others
-Each of these languages is an ancestor to other languages, such as Latin, in the case of the Italic language branch
-Latin has several offspring, including French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish, among others
-English descends from the Low German branch of Germanic offspring
Language Groups
-A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
-For example, Spanish and Italian are both part of the Romance language group; they are derived from Latin, they have many related words, and they contain similar grammatical structures
-Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from parent form
-For example, English contains numerous ones, reflecting historical, social, and geographic differences between many diverse peoples
-While the primary language in Houston, London, New York, Sydney, and Toronto is English, speakers in each place have different words for the same thing and different ways of saying the same word (as reflected in their accent)
-When two groups of people with different languages meet, a new language with some characteristics of each may result
-Languages that form when different societies need to devise a system of communication with each other
Creole Languages
-If a pidgin evolves to the point of being the primary language of the people who speak it, it becomes this
-Frequently developed in colonial settings where linguistic traditions of indigenous peoples and colonizers blended
Language Dominance
-Many linguistics believe that development of alphabets and resulting literary traditions contributed to the strength of particular languages and cultures across the globe
-When European nations had colonial power over certain African and South American countries, they easily imposed their languages on native populations because of well-established European alphabets, whereas most native tongues were passed along verbally
-After decolonization, most European languages remained strong in former colonies
Lingua Franca
-An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more complex languages, usually for purpose of trade
-Typically lacks fundamental features common to most full-fledged languages, like verb tense
-Provides an efficient and easy-to-learn means to communicate
Official Language
-Language in which all government business occurs
-Some countries have multiple ones, like Belgium and Switzerland
-Polyglots are multilingual states; for example, Canada, where differing languages cause conflict between secession activists from French-speaking Quebec and the majority English-speaking Canadian population
English as the Global Language
-Has approximately 400 million native speakers
-Has approximately 400 million who speak it as a second language
-Has another 750 million people who speak it with reasonable competence
-Official language in 60 countries
-Generally considered to be the language of the Internet and science, and increasingly, the language of advertising
Language Extinction
-Occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people
-1000s of languages have become this since languages first developed but the process has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years
-Colonialism in the 18th and 19th centuries and economic globalization in the 20th century have driven many languages to premature death
-Causes the loss of a tremendous amount of history and knowledge
Countering Language Extinction
-Last couple of decades, movements have arisen to revive native languages
-In parts of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, native languages are being brought back from near extinction
-In Israel, Hebrew was revived after WWII, when it became an independent state
-Native Americans from Alaska to South America have begun to establish their distinct and unique linguistic heritage
-The names different cultures give to various features of the earth including settlements, terrain features, streams, and other land features
-Reveals interesting aspects of the spatial patterns of different languages and dialects
-In the United States, many names given to American cities reveal dominant cultures of first inhabitants: “Baton Rouge,” “New York,” and “San Diego” reveal French, English and Spanish influence, respectively, in these parts of the country
-All have some set of teachings that imply a value of system
-Include some notion of the sacred
-Include ideas about the place of human beings in the universe
-For many, more than any other cultural trait, defines who they are and how they understand the world around them
-Because it is tied to all aspects of human culture and social systems, geography of religion provides insight into population growth, international politics, and design and structure of cities
Geographic Distribution of the World’s Major Religions
-Hindu is most dominant in the Indian subcontinent
-Islam is dominant in the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of the South Pacific/Southeast Asia
-Christianity is dominant in Australia, Europe, and North and South America
-Buddhism is dominant in South Asia
-Traditional and Shamanist religions are found predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South America
Universalizing Religions
-Claim global applicability and actively seek new converts
Local Religions
-Specific to an area
-Some are ethnic, such as Hinduism and Judaism
-Others are tribal and often polytheistic
Monotheistic Religions
-Teach primacy of a single god
-Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are this type
Polytheistic Religions
-Teach numerous gods or spiritual powers
-Many Native American religions are this type
Global Religions
-Have numerous members
-Their doctrines have global appeal
-Examples: Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam
Ethnic Religions
-Appeal to small groups of people with a common heritage or to large groups of people living in a single region
-Examples: Hinduism and Judaism
-Local religion
-Associated with particular places
-Tend to attract small, localized followings; often involve belief in supernatural powers that reside in particular people or natural phenomena
-A single person fulfills the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and claims a conduit to the supernatural world
-Local religion
-Associated with particular places
-Tend to attract small, localized followings; often involve belief in supernatural powers that reside in particular people or natural phenomena
-Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas
-See the world as being infused with spiritual and supernatural powers
-World’s most widespread religion with about 2 billion believers
-Monotheistic religion with its origins in Judaism
-3 major branches include Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and Roman Catholic
-Roman Catholicism is prominent in large parts of Central and South America, North America, and Western Europe
-Protestantism includes distinct denominations and is especially prevalent in North America
-Eastern Orthodox is dominant in Eastern Europe and Russia
Christian Denominations in the United States
-Baptist denominations are predominant in the “Bible Belt” region, which is essentially the southeastern states
-Upper Midwest is predominantly Lutheran
-Midland states are predominantly Methodist
-Spanish Catholicism is dominant in the southwestern states of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas; it also has dominant pockets in Florida
-Mormonism is dominant in Utah and parts of its surrounding states
-Catholicism is dominant in the northeastern states
-The West (including large parts of California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington) is largely categorized as being of mixed religions
-Claims about 1 billion members worldwide
-Distribution is centered in the Middle East and North Africa, but is found throughout the world, including Europe, Southeast Asia, and the United States
-A monotheistic religion, stemming from Judaism, which is based on belief that there is one god, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah’s prophet
-Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is the birthplace of Muhammad and the base for the nation of this religion
Spread of Islam
-Began in Saudi Arabia near Mecca and Medina and diffused originally through expansion diffusion to surrounding areas, including other parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa
-It then diffused by relocation diffusion to Indonesia and Malaysia
-Has approximately 300 million adherents worldwide
-Originated in the 6th century B.C. in northern India
-Traces origins and many traditions from Hinduism
-While still centered in East Asia, has gained and increasingly large following in Europe and North America sine 1950s
-A pattern attributable in part to emigration by Asian people to Western nations and in part to this religion’s teachings, which resonate with many westerners
-Nearly half of the believers in the United States live in southern California
-An ethnic religion tried to Indian culture
-Oldest major religion, at approximately 4 thousand years
-Not just a religion; also contains philosophical, social, economic, and artistic elements
-Caste system is an important aspect, which gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth
-Each caste defines individuals’ occupations, social connections, where they can live, clothes they wear, and food they eat
-1st major monotheistic religion
-Based on a sense of ethnic identity; adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live
-In 1948, Jewish people established their own state in Israel, which, in addition to the United States, is where most Jews reside
-Strict and literal adherence to a set of principles, beliefs, or teachings
-Members of any religion can be fundamentalists
-Differs from extremism
-Violent fundamentalism
-Becoming more prevalent across the globe
Sacred Spaces (Sites)
-Areas or places of religious or spiritual significance
-Some are historical, such as the Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall in Jerusalem
-Some are current, including all the various places of worship such as cathedrals, mosques, temples, and tabernacles
-Cemeteries are often included in this category as death and the afterlife are an integral part of many religions
-Pagoda is another example
Interfaith Boundaries
-Refer to boundaries between the world’s major faiths, such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam
Intrafaith Boundaries
-Refer to boundaries within a single major faith, such as the boundary lines that separate different denominations of Christianity
-Refers to a group of people who share a common identity
-First came into popular usage during the ’40s as an alternative to the term “race,” which was negatively associated with Hitler’s Nazi regime
-Involves more than physical characteristics associated with race; also includes a person’s perceived social and cultural identity
Charter Group
-1st ethnic group to establish cultural norms in an area
-Sometimes called the “first effective settlement” or “first self-perpetuating society,” whose imprint affects modern cultural geography on an area
-Cultural geography of the eastern United States was heavily influenced by British settlers, while southwestern cultural geography displays more Spanish influence
-Tendency to evaluate other cultures against the standards of one’s own, implying superiority of one’s ethnic group
-Can be negative in multiethnic societies by provoking social discord and isolation
-Can be positive when ethnic groups exist in relative isolation by providing familiarity through traditions, friends, business opportunities, and political identification
Ethnic Enclaves
-A relatively small area occupied by a distinct culture or ethnicity, which largely result from chain migration
-“Little Italy” or “Chinatown” are common names of ethnic enclaves that exist in numerous American cities
-Ease the adaptation process by providing business opportunities, community, and cultural items and traditions from home such as food and clothes
Ethnic Cleansing
-Involves the effort to rid a country or region of everyone of a particular ethnicity either through forced migration or genocide
Ethnic Genocide
-A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group
Ethnic Neighborhoods
-Concentrations of people from the same ethnicity in certain pockets of the city
-Result from friends and relatives who have immigrated, encouraging friends and relatives back home to join them where opportunities or freedom are more available
-When ethnic groups are forced to live in segregated parts of the city
-Exist in some of the least desirable locations within a city
Ethnic Islands
-Small, rural areas settled by a single ethnic group as opposed to ethnic neighborhoods or enclaves, which are urban
-Formed in the U.S. by later settlers including Scandinavians in the north central states; Germans in the Appalachians, upper midwest, and Texas; Slavics in the western plains; and Armenians and Italians in California
-Leave their imprint in rural areas through housing, barn style, and farmstead layouts
Ethnic Provinces
-When entire regions become associated with ethnic or racial aggregations
-Include French Canadians in Quebec; African Americans in the U.S. southeast; Native Americans in Oklahoma, the southwest, the northern plains and prairies; and Hispanics in the southwestern border states
Social Distance
-Measure of the perceived differences between an immigrant ethnic group and the chart or host society
-Increases with greater perceived differences between groups, diminishing the likelihood of the charter group assimilating the newcomers
-When distance is high, ethnic neighborhoods or enclaves exist for much longer than when it is low
-Measure of the extent to which members of a particular minority ethnic group are not uniformly distributed among the total population
-Quantitatively measured using the segregation index or index of residential dissimilarity
-Index indicates the percentage difference between two ethnic groups
-In New York, in 2000, segregation measured at 82%, meaning 82% of blacks (or whites) need to locate to new census tracts before equal distribution is achieved
-Experiences of people who come from a common ethnic background but live in different regions or ethnic neighborhoods
-Often used to refer to Jews or blacks of African descent, who maintain aspects of their common heritage despite living outside their home community
-Often illustrates itself through music, food, or religious traditions that allow individuals to celebrate and maintain common heritage outside of native culture region
-Refers to socially created distinctions between masculinity and femininity
-Geographers are increasingly interested in spatial behavior pattern differences between males and females
-For example: females, for safety reasons, may be less willing to travel alone in certain parts of a city as compared to males
-Culture can play a strong role in determining a woman’s role in society, which often has implications for economic development
-Connotes biological differences between males and females
-Geographers are increasingly interested in spatial behavior pattern differences between males and females
-For example: females, for safety reasons, may be less willing to travel alone in certain parts of a city as compared to males
-Culture can play a strong role in determining a woman’s role in society, which often has implications for economic development
Popular (Pop) Culture
-Conveys a notion of cultural productions fueled by mass media and consumerism
-Includes visual and performing arts, culinary arts, architecture and city planning, music, fashion, sports, leisure activities, and other forms of entertainment
-Does not reflect local environment
-Looks virtually the same anywhere it appears
-Rapidly changes over time as evidenced by terms such as fad or trend commonly used in its lingo
Cultural Imperialism
-Dominance of one culture over another
-Historically, often occurred as a result of colonization
-Occurs in present day as pop culture, which is so easily diffused across national boundaries; causes local traditions to either die out or become completely commercialized
-Sometimes called cultural homogenization, as pop culture continually pervades the globe
Folk Culture
-Refers to cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in traditional societies in which they developed
-Usually rural, with strong family ties and strong interpersonal relationships leading to cohesive group identity
-Usually form a subsistence economy, where most goods are handmade, and most individuals perform a variety of tasks rather than specializing in any one area
-Elements vary dramatically from place to place but do not change much over time
Folk Cultures Today
-Very few exist today, especially in North America
-Many traditions perpetuated, materially and non-materially, through art and other handicraft as well as music, stories, philosophies, and belief systems
-Relics of past folk cultures exist in the present in the form of different types of houses, food, and drink, and music, and different kinds of medicines or remedies
Vernacular (perceptual) Regions
-A perceptual region defined by perceived unique physical cultural characteristics in that area
-While region boundaries are based on individual perception, much overlap exists among people as to where these regions exist
-For example, most people in the U.S. would define the boundaries of the “Deep South” similarly
-Many of the defining characteristics are based on stereotypes, often from mass media sources, particularly if an individual has not had direct experience with a place
Sense of Place
-Term used to connote attachment to and comfort in a particular place
-Typically individuals have strongest sense of place attached to where they grew up, which is manifested by loyalty to sports teams and other items or people associated with “home”
-Many argue that individuals are losing it as “placeless” landscapes of pop culture increasingly take over the unique characteristics of local landscapes
-Loss of distinct local features in favor of standardized landscapes
-Happens as a result of pervasiveness of pop culture and mass production and availability of a wide variety of consumables
-Fought through opposition of establishment of pop culture elements such as big box stores like Walmart or standardized and stagnant strip malls
-Communities fighting this work to promote local businesses and local characteristics to keep their place unique
Political Geography
-Study how economic, cultural, and physical geography impacts political system, or, the reverse
-Geographers investigate of how political systems can drive different countries’ economic and cultural systems
-Geographers use the spatial perspective to study political systems at all geographic scales, from local governments to international political systems
-Governments controlled through divine guidance or religious leadership
-For example, some Middle Eastern countries, such as Iran, owe their organizational structure to the teachings of Islam
The State
-Synonymous with “country”
-An administrative region with internationally recognized sovereignty
-Fundamental unit of political geography
-192 members of the U.N.
Multinational State
-More than one nation
-Sovereign states composed of citizens with a common heritage, identity, and set of political goals
-For example, Japan
The Nation
-Consists of a group of people with a common political or ethnic identity
Stateless Nations
-Ones that do not have their own states
-Examples: Palestinians in Israel, Kurds spread throughout large parts of the Middle East, but predominantly Turkey and Iraq, and all Native American nations in the U.S.
Evolution of the State
-Political organization dates back far beyond the European model of statehood suggests
-Idea of modern state developed in Europe by political philosophers in 18th century and coincided with the French Revolution
-The modern state ideal held that people needed to be loyal to a state and its people rather than to a leader
-Many states today result from European expansion during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries as state model was imposed on large parts of Africa and South America
Challenges to the Modern State
-Globalization and rise of transnational corporations threaten state authority as economic power is increasingly centered on corporations rather than countries
-Rise of international and supranational institutions, which involves surrendering some state autonomy for economic, political, and military purposes
-Emergence and rise of nongovernmental organizations and pressure they exert on both states and international organizations
-Magnitude of international migration flows decreases nationalism; people exchange attachment to homeland in exchange for membership in a global community
Territorial Organization
-Geographically based political organization that bestows relative power on hierarchy of local government agencies
-Efficiently allows delegation of administrative functions, which becomes increasingly important in large states
-Can allow for more efficient use of resources as allocation takes place through local agencies more in touch with local needs
-Allows some autonomy to local territories, which empowers them to enact laws and collect and spend tax money in more efficient ways
States’ Rights
-Rights and powers believed to be in the authority of that state rather than federal government
-At several times in the U.S. history have become an issue of much political debate:
–During early days of the Republic
–Divided country during the Civil War
–Divided country during the Civil Rights Movement
–Surround issues of environmental regulation and management of natural resources
-System of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government
-Federal states cary in the degree of autonomy they give to local territories
-Examples: U.S., which bestows some degree of political autonomy to each state; similarly with “provinces” in Canada and “estados” in Mexico
Unitary States
-State governed constitutionally as a unit without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of power
-Often are countries with few cultural conflicts and with strong sense of national identity
-Many European countries are this; boundaries are typically both political and cultural
Asymmetric Federalism
-Regional government
-System of government emerging in formerly strong unitary states in Europe that allows some level of autonomy to cultural subdivisions within those countries
-Central government still retains control over nationwide concerns such as defense, foreign relations, and economic policy
-United Kingdom bestows some regional autonomy on Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales; each region has its own capital where regional political power is concentrated
-A voluntary grouping of states or communities for some common purpose
-Initially, usually created by treaty, which later typically evolves into a constitution
-In the United States, “confederate” states refer to the southern states that voluntarily joined together in an effort to secede from the Union; an effort that failed as a result of the Confederate states’ loss of Civil War
Electoral College
-System of representation in the United States
-Consists of a specific number of electors from each state, proportional to the state’s population
-Each state’s number of electoral votes is equal to the number of senators (two for each state) plus the number of representatives, which varies according to population
-Total number of electors = 538
-In election years, each elector chooses a candidate believing he or she represents his or her constituency’s choice; candidate with higher proportion of electoral votes wins the election
-In 2000, while Gore won popular vote, electoral vote went to Bush by a slim margin
-Process of reallocation of electoral seats
-After every decennial census, the 538 electoral votes are redistributed according to population shifts
-Despite population growth or decline, every state has at least three electors; two senators and at least one member in the House of representatives
-California, New York, and Texas consistently have large populations and consequently a large portion of the electoral vote
-The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes
-Each elector ideally represents a similar number of people; after each census, district lines are redrawn to maintain this relationship
-District lines are also drawn in an effort to establish “majority-minority” districts such that a state’s electors reflect its population
-When district lines have been redrawn such that they favor or disadvantage a particular political party
-Otherwise known as gerrymandering
Electoral Geography
-Investigation and analysis of the election process including how district boundary lines are drawn and the spatial patterns of election results and how they correspond to variables such as socioeconomic status
Fragmented Shapes
-A state that isn’t a contiguous whole but rather separated parts
-Example: Philippines
Elongated Shapes
-A state that is long and narrow in shape
-Example: Chile
Compact Shapes
-A state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
-Example: Poland
Prorupt Shapes
-A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
-Example: Thailand
Exclaves States
-A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of different state
Enclave States
-Any small and relatively homogenous group, region, or state surrounded by another larger and different group, region, or state
-Example: Lesotho
Perforated States
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
-Example: South Africa
Landlocked States
-A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states
-Disadvantaged in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes
Micro States
-State or territory that is small in both population and area
-The Vatican, Andorra, and all the various island states in the South Pacific are good examples
-Otherwise known as a mini-state
-The smallest on in the world is Nauru, at 8.2 square miles
Physical State Boundaries
-Correspond to prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers
-Mississippi River defines boundary lines for several states in the midwestern United States
Geometric State Boundaries
-Are defined and delimited by straight lines
-Majority of the boundary separating the United States from Canada corresponds to a line of latitude rather than any physical features
Subsequent Boundaries
-Lines established after cultural landscape exists
-Accommodate existing religions, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences between countries, while superimposed boundaries ignore cultural differences between groups
Antecedent Boundaries
-Lines established before an area is populated
Boundaries and Political Stability in Africa
-When European nations colonized large parts of Africa in the 17th through 19th centuries, territories divided according to which pieces of land belonged to which European colonizer without regard for existing spatial patterns of different tribes and ethnicities
-After decolonization, both state model and boundaries superimposed by colonizers remained in place
-As these superimposed boundaries both separated ethnic groups between countries and included a multiplicity of different tribes and ethnicities within one country, many believe that much of the current conflict in Africa stems from lack of ability to establish effective leadership in countries given their ethnic diversity
Relic Boundaries
-Old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography
-For example, abandoned castles lining former border between England and Wales
Positional Disputes
-Involve disagreement over interpretation of position of the boundary line
-Occur most often with physical boundaries
Territorial Disputes
-Involve disagreement over ownership of land
-Typically when superimposed boundaries divide an ethnically homogenous population
Functional Disputes
-Involve argument over policies to be applied in a boundary region
-Such as immigration
Resource Disputes
-Arise when a valuable resource lies within a border region
-Such as the Colorado River, which spans the U.S. and Mexico
-Most states contain a main area
-The oldest area in a state
-Typically containing the most developed economic base and transportation services, and has the highest population density
-Often the core of the country
-Serves center of political and economic power
-Most European countries follow this model and most tend to be unitary states
Forward-Thrust Capitals
-A relocated capital city that is deliberately sited in a state’s frontier zone
-For example, the capital of Brazil was moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia (late 1950s) to encourage development in the interior of the country. Rio de Janeiro was good for trade and most people knew the name, but the inland of Brazil wasn’t very populated
-Another example is Australia as it changed it to a place in between two of the main cities
-Another example is Nigeria (West Africa) as the new capital is Abuja (North of Lagos), replacing Lagos in the 1970s because of a population boom which made Lagos a very hard place to live in
Centrifugal Forces
-Forces within a state that destabilize or weaken it
-Always present to some degree, even in politically stable countries
-In general, these forces are opposite of centripetal forces, that is, if a country does not have effective administration, organization, communication, or transportation networks, it will be politically unstable
-Increasingly, organized religion, in form of militant fundamentalist Islam, divides several countries, including Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia
Nationalism (Centrifugal Force)
-Can become negative when a nation perceives itself as superior to other nations, specifically when a nation is located within the bounds of another authority
-When sub-national groups are not able to peacefully coexist, then nationalism becomes a divisive force within a country
-When a multinational state contains people that give their primary allegiance to a group or nation smaller than the population of the entire state
-When the groups of this are not able to peacefully coexist, then nationalism becomes a divisive force within a country
-Contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
-Term comes from conflicts in the Balkans during the 20th century that caused that territory to be broken up, both during the Balkan Wars in the early 1900s and the Yugoslav Wars during the 1990s
-Also known as Autonomous Nationalism
-When a minority group seeks total or partial secession from the state
-Separatist movements exist in both traditionally politically stable countries as well as countries with long histories of political instability
-Canada houses a secessionist movement in french-speaking Quebec; Belgium, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom also house secessionist movements within their bounds
-Strong centrifugal forces in India, Israel, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, and among others
-Transfer of some central powers to regional or local governments
-Many separatist movements in Western Europe seek regional autonomy or this rather than complete independence from the state
-Several of these regions have been granted some degree of political power: France, Spain, and the United Kingdom have developed programs of this for their minority groups
Domino Theory
-Idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to the collapse of a political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
-Fear during Cold War – if communism caught on in a few key countries proximal to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, many other would follow, tipping world power in favor of communism
Centripetal Forces
-Forces within a state that promote unity and national stability
-Nationalism, in a positive sense, along with an effective administration system, unifying institutions, and a well-developed transportation and communications system generally lead to political stability
Nationalism (Centripetal Force)
-A sense of national pride and acceptance of national goals
-States purposefully try to instill a sense of nationalism, or loyalty to the state, through celebration of the country’s heritage or independence (e.g. July 4th), and through other national symbols or rituals (e.g. flags, Star Spangled Banner at sporting events)
Unifying Institutions (Centripetal Force)
-Include schools, armed forces, and occasionally a national church
-An effective school system is pivotal in unifying a state as it provides education for its citizens and teaches them about the history of their country
-In many states, individuals are required or voluntarily serve in the armed forces as an honorable means for protecting that state’s welfare
-In one-quarter of the world’s countries, a religion practiced by the majority population unifies that state’s people
-Examples include Buddhism in Thailand, Hinduism in Nepal, and Judaism in Israel
Organization and Administration (Centripetal Force)
-Effective leadership involves establishment of a domestic police force that ensures domestic tranquility, a fair, and reliable justice system, the equitable distribution of resources within a country, and provision of social welfare resources
-For example, in the United States, every individual has the right to a fair trial. The justice system, based on the Constitution, has been designed and upheld to ensure reliability and fairness
-Additionally, in the United States, provision of public education and social security encourages job and financial security, which in turn fosters a sense of nationalism, further promoting cohesion
Transportation and Communication (Centripetal Force)
-Well-developed transportation and communication systems allow for participation in the political process and encourage interaction, both socially and economically, between members of the state
-In general, the more advanced transportation and communications technology, the more economically advanced the country
-Highly developed countries tend to exhibit greatest political stability, in part because of resources available for building and maintaining communication and transportation infrastructure
-An area where borders are shifting and weak and where people of different cultures and nationalities meet and lay claim to the land
-Antarctica is essentially the last one on earth as no state has internationally recognized sovereignty over the territory although several states have claimed such
-Individual or group attempt to establish authority over a piece of land considered a partially or wholly exclusive domain
-In some stateless nations, strong sense of territoriality can lead to separatist movements
-Also defined by behavior associated with demarcation and defense of a home space
Land Claims on Antarctica
-Several countries have “claimed” territory of Antarctica as their own, but non of these claims are internationally recognized
-Countries claiming territories include Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Norway, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom
-The arbitrary dividing lines correspond to lines of longitude and have little relationship to physical features or human impacts
-When a state wants to annex a territory whose population is ethnically similar to that of the state but is under sovereignty of a different country
-In WWII, Hitler justified invasion of nearby countries, Czechoslovakia and Poland, in effort to establish sovereignty over German-occupied territories within these countries
Law of the Sea
-United Nations
-Developed in 1982, established states’ rights and responsibilities concerning ownership and use of seas and oceans, and their resources
-Boundary = 12 nautical miles from coast
-State has fishing & mineral rights 200 miles out from coast
-States with < 400 miles of sea must negotiate -Where to take disputes? International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Territorial Sea
-To 11 miles (19 kilometers), over which coastal states have sovereignty, including exclusive fishing rights
Contiguous Zone
-To 23 miles (38 kilometers), in which states can enforce customs, immigration, and sanitation laws
Exclusive Economic Zone
-To 230 miles (370 kilometers) in which state has right to explore, exploit, conserve, and manage
High Seas
-All remaining ocean beyond the EEZ, to which all states have equal access
-Expansion and perpetuation of an empire
-Austria, Britain, China, France, Japan, Portugal, Russia, Spain, and Sweden were all great colonial powers during the last few hundred years
-Has had tremendous effects on political geography in terms of boundaries, cores, and capitals, and international economic relationships
-Perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign
-Describes countries that exert cultural or economic dominance over others without the aid of official government insititutions
-Study of interplay between political relations and territorial context in which they occur
-Lebensraum is one that was used by Hitler, justified his quest for territories and resources from Eastern Europe
Heartland Theory
-Dominant historical geopolitical theory that sought to determine the geographic center of political power
-Proposed by Halford Mackinder in the beginning of the 20th century and stated that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Rimland Theory
-Dominant historical geopolitical theory that sought to determine the geographic center of political power
-Proposed by Nicholas Spykman in response, stated that domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
East/West Divide
-During the Cold War (1945-1989), used to describe the geographic separation between largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from Communist and Socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
-Largely ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dismantling of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the early 1990s
Geography of Terrorism
-Is the calculated use of violent acts against a civilian population and symbolic targets
-Post-September 11th, 2011 (9/11), American geographers have become increasingly interested in studying the geography of this; specifically how a spatial perspective contributes to both an understanding of its causes and solutions
-For example, many of these acts at the national level arise from centrifugal forces such as strong separatist movements or organized religion
-Additionally, geographers study possible solutions, such as international agreements in which countries exchange intelligence information
-Trend toward creation of associations of three or more states developed for mutual benefit and to achieve shared objectives
-All countries are members of at least one supranational organization: the U.N., but many countries are members of multiple organizations
-Some supranational organizations are governmental, involving economic and political alliances, others are nongovernmental, typically working toward humanitarian or environmental objectives
Regional Alliances
-Multinational systems in which states relinquish some autonomy in order to participate in these that have political, economic, or military purposes
-Currently, economic “” alliances are most prevalent and include organizations such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the European Union (EU)
-Some exist for political, social, and cultural objectives such as the League of Arab Nations
Military Alliances
-Developed to ensure mutual assistance in times of aggression
-For example, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) includes many European countries and the United States and provides land for military bases among member states
International Agreements
-One goal of these organizations is the establishment of international protocols for various world-related issues, such as the environment, health, economic development, and foreign aid
-For example, the Kyoto Protocol, developed at a U.N. meeting in 1997, cut the amount of greenhouse gasses signing countries could emit into the atmosphere
Activity space
-Area normally covered in a day
A natural community of plants and animals, its composition being largely controlled by climatic conditions.
-Center, heart, focus (of what you’re measuring)
-e.g. “Core Hispanic region in U.S.” = region with highest % of Hispanics
-Most concentrated
Cultural Ecology
-The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
-Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
-The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in
Cultural landscape
-Human imprint upon natural landscape
-e.g. Buildings, farms, roads, schools, etc.
-Type of Density: total land area divided by the total population
-Type of Density: remove the non-arable sections of the country, then divide by the total population
-Higher than the Arithmetic Density
-Type of Density:
-Number of farmers per arable land area
-High in Bangladesh
-Low in the U.S. and Netherlands
-Arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
-How people are spread out across a space
-Dot Map
Fertile Crescent
-A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
Friction of distance
-Distance is a drag which cuts down on interaction between places
-The farther places are apart, the less contract there’ll be between them
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
-Local to Global
Original home of a culture, or any particular thing
Intervening opportunities
-Something positive that is found between “a” and “b”, which stops you from completing your plan of reaching “b”
Koppen, Vladimir
-Divided the world into climatic regions
-Formal regions
-Totally untouched by man
-Little left on planet in 2012
Built / Urban / Man-made:
-Totally untouched by man
-Little left on planet in 2012
Built / Urban / Man-made
-The science of making maps
A connecting point at which several lines come together
-Almost opposite of “core”
-Area with low % of what is being measured
“Peripheral” often considered a negative
-Lower concentration
-A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
-The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface.
-Small or tiny
-The physical gap or interval between two objects
TNCs (Trans-national corporations = multi-national corporations)
-Moves towards globalization
-Started locally then went global
Age-sex distribution
-A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
Bride Burning
-In arranged marriages in India, disputes over the dowry to be paid by a woman’s family to the father of her groom (the dowry) have sometimes led to violent death
-Where a husband creates a “kitchen accident” and his wife is killed so that he is able to keep the dowry
Population Momentum
-Population increases EVEN IF fertility drops to replacement rate (2.12)
-BECAUSE large cohort group already within population structure
-This cohort group wants to have children -> increased CBR
-Good news: this group, when 15-64, help economy = DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND (however might not have enough jobs)
-Bad news: this group, when 65, becomes economic burden
Female infanticide
The intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females
Sex ratio
Number of males per hundred females in the population
Agricultural Revolution
-A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically
-The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
-“Green Revolution”
Asian Tigers
-Hong Kong
-South Korea
-Nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s
Biological Clock
-An innate mechanism in living organisms that controls the periodicity of many physiological functions
-Age and female fertility encompasses a woman’s fertility as affected by her age
-A woman’s fertility peaks in the early and mid twenties, after which it starts to decline, with advanced maternal age causing an increased risk of female infertility
-Another risk that increases significantly into the mother’s midlife is chromosomal abnormalities, to include Down syndrome
Boserup, Esther
-Emphasized the positive aspects of a large population
-As population increases, more pressure is placed on the existing agricultural system, which stimulates invention
-Changes in technology allow for improved crop strains and increased yields; hence population will not exceed resources
-Argued that the changes in technology allow for improved crop strains and increased yields
-GM crops
-‘Green revolution’
-Admits over-population can lead to unsuitable farming practices which may degrade the land e.g. population pressure as one of the reasons for desertification in the Sahel region
-Theory is based on an assumption of a ‘closed’ society-not the case in reality (migration)
-Versed Thomas Malthus in ideas in 1965
“Necessity is the mother of invention”
-People often come up with new ideas, new ways of doing things, or new things because they need to solve a problem
Carbon (ecological) footprint
-The total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person
-A periodic and official count of a country’s population
Child Mortality Rate (CMR)
-Number of deaths of children from the age of 1 to 5 per 1,000 live births in that year
Chronic disease
-A disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time
Cohort group
-People born during the same historical period or undergoing the same historical influences
-Study of population
-The branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
Demographic Dividend (Benefit)
-A rise in the rate of economic growth due to a rising share of working age people in a population
-Good case study: India, MDC’s have a lot of work, then the MDCs might outsource their work to India for cheap, the dependency ratio will remain the same because their population is staying the same (doesn’t have a One-Child Policy or population restraint)
-China doesn’t have this due to the One-Child Policy, will lead to a high dependency ratio
-A gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, by the bride’s parents to her husband
-Or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife
-Portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
-Expanding due to technology allowing people to live in places that people have not been able to previously due to some reason which technology takes away
Paul Ehrlich
-German Physician, worked with staining, discovered heat resistance in stains wanted (salvarsan) “magic bullet” to destroy specific organisms
-Only is successful for syphilis
Epidemiological Transition Model
-The theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country’s population changes so dramatically
-Stage 1: no health care, high mortality due to plagues, epidemics, etc.
-Stage 2: have a degree of health care, have a degree of mortality due to plagues, epidemics, etc., but kept in check due to advances in medicine
-Stage 3: Very little epidemics, if any; what will kill people is chronic diseases or lifestyle choice diseases (fast food…)
-Stage 4: Very little epidemics, if any; what will happen is the older people will die because they are experiencing illnesses that no other stage has witnessed because no one was ever old enough before to witness
-The study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
Family planning
-Providing information, clinical services, and contraceptives to help people choose the number and spacing of children they want to have
Expansive policy
-Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth
Restrictive policy
-Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
-Concerning the whole rather than the parts
-Of your own free will or design
-Spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own
-Removal of a segment of the vas deferens to produce sterility in the male
Gendered space
-It is a place where only members of one gender goes
-Example: a mosque is first for men on the ground level and then to the top, sometimes women are at the top or even outside the mosque
Generation of Little Emperors
-With both parents lavishing attention and resources on their one child, the child becomes increasingly spoiled and gains a sense of self importance and entitlement
Generation X
-A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years 1965 and 1980. This post-baby-boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years
Grameen Bank
-Founded by Muhammad Yunus to provide very small loans to poor individuals, particularly women
-Consists of small loans usually given to enable poor people to start up very small-scale businesses in developing countries
Industrial Revolution
-The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850
-Term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in late 18th century Europe
-Thomas Malthus
-This is when the projection population show exponential growth
-This is important because if the population grows exponential, then our resource use will go up exponential, which can lead to a greater demand for food and more
“Later, longer, fewer”
-Birth planning slogan by Susan Greenhagh
-About women, feminism, birth control
-An adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful
-Something has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on, which shows as the world changes so do the things surrounding it
-An infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
-A nutritional imbalance caused by lack of specific dietary components or inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrients
Arithmetic Growth
-A pattern of growth that increases at a constant amount per unit time
Geometric or Exponential Growth
-Constant growth and exponential growth
-Closed population
-Birth and/or death rate can be constant (but never really is)
-No age or size structure is ever constant
-Continuous growth with no time lags
Negative (Preventive) Checks
-Thomas Malthus
-Reduces birth rate
-Birth control
-Moral restraint
Positive (Negative) Checks
-Thomas Malthus
-Increased the death rate
Morbidity rate
-The number of cases of a disease in a given year
-The ratio of sick to well individuals in a given population
Mortality rate
-A measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a population
-Scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time
Natural Contraception
-Abstinence and coitus interruptus, Fertility awareness methods which include calendar method, basal body temperature & the cervical mucus method
-Catholic Church
Negative correlation
-The relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases
One Child Policy
-Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside created approximately in 1980
Optimum population
-The population that is in some way best for the environment
-Best size population that uses the resources and technology available from the land to its most potential
-The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
-Can be based off of the resources and technology available
-Having more than one spouse at a time
Population explosion
-The rapid growth of the world’s human population during the past century
-Attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
Population implosion
-A rapid reduction of population that reverses a previous trend toward progressively larger populations
-The opposite of population explosion
-Refers to the declining populations of many European countries and Russia in which the death rate exceeds the birth rate and immigration rate
Population projection
-A statement of a population’s future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data
Positive correlation
-A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other
-Both variables move in the same direction
Replacement rate
-Makes the society’s population increase +/-0
-The number of children a couple must have in order to replace themselves in a population.
Rhythm method
-A form of birth control where intercourse is timed so that it does not occur on or around the days when the egg might be available for fertilization
-Thomas Malthus
-Leveling off of an exponential J-shaped curve when a rapidly growing population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment and ceases to grow
Standard of living
-A measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy
-The quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier
-Diseases that are spread from one person to another during sexual contact
-Sexually Transmitted Diseases
-A process in which high frequency sound waves scan the mothers womb to produce and image of the unborn baby and size and shape can be determined
-Also can give information about the gender of the baby
-Insufficient population to maximize the use of resources and technology available
Zero Population Growth
-A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
-When the birth rate equals the death rate
-A general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution
-The formal act of liberating someone
-Place of refuge or shelter; protection
-Religious or Political
Brain Drain
-Large-scale emigration by talented people.
-The daily movement to or from a place of work or study
Cyclic Movement
-Movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
Donor Countries
-Countries that have high emigration rates
-Lose migrants
Economic Migrant
-A person who leaves their country because they are poor and are looking for a country where the economy is better
-A person who travels from one country or area to another in order to improve his standard of living
-Generally not admitted to the U.S, Canada, & Western Europe, unless they possess a special skill or have a close relative already there
-The movement into or coming to live in a region or community especially as part of a large-scale and continuing movement of population (going to)
-More people immigrate to them than emigrate from them
Immigration Wave
-Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination
Intercontinental Migration
-Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent
-Permanent movement from one region of the country to another
-When more people emigrate from a location than immigrate into a location
-The movement of people from one region or community in order to settle in another especially as part of a large-scale and continuing movement of population (leaving from)
Place of Destination
-The place where immigrants settle after migration
-Place where immigrants intend to go (usually)
Place of Origin
-Where something originated or was nurtured in its early existence
Reality (Perception)
-Ensures that common sense prevails when solving a problem and making a decision
-This involves being realistic and unemotional when making a decision
Recipient Countries
-Receive migrants
-Have higher immigration rates than emigration rates
Return Migration
-The voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin
-Also known as circular migration
-The dominant migration flow from countryside to city that continues to transform the world’s population
-Most notably in the less advantaged geographic realms
-Volunteer soldiers who were ready to fight in a moments notice
-A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries
-North American Free Trade Agreement
Net Migration
-The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
-People who wander from place to place
Periodic Movement
-Motion that recurs over and over and the period of time required for each recurrence remains the same
Quota System
-A system that sets limits on how many immigrants from various countries a nation will admit each year
Sanctuary City
-A city that protects illegal immigrants; don’t allow inquiries about immigration status
Seasonal Migration
-The process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or climate conditions
Step Migration
-Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages
-For example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
-A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
-People in general
-For example: especially a distinctive group of people with some shared interest; “the Western world”
territory over which rule or control is exercised
-For example: “his domain extended into Europe”; “he made it the law of the land”
-The apparent surface of the imaginary sphere on which celestial bodies appear to be projected
-The geographical area in which one nation is very influential
-The act of conquering
-Capture or taking of something by force
Maladaptive Diffusion
-Diffusion of a process with negative side effects or what works well in one region may not in another
-Diffusion of an idea or innovation that is not suitable for the environment in which it diffused into
-For example: New England-style homes in Hawaii, or Ranch-style homes in northeast US)
-The adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
-For example: “the socialization of children to the norms of their culture”
-The process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
-In the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which the single sterotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs
-Defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood; referring to barrio, the Spanish word for neighborhood
-A hispanic invasion and succession
-The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
-Part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
-All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth’s ecosystems
-A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
Built Environment
-The part of the physical landscape that represent material culture; the buildings, roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape
-The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy
Cultural Adaptation
-The positive reaction where by the foreigner readily accepts the new culture as part of his life and practice
-A complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment
Cultural Appropriation
-The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit
Cultural Core/periphery Pattern
-The idea that the core houses are the main economic power of the region and the outlying region houses have lesser economic ties
Cultural Extinction
-Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three
Cultural Geography
-The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space
Culture Region (realm)
-A region within which common cultural characteristics prevail
Diffusion Routes
-The spatial trajectory through which the cultural traits or other phenomena spread
…, A term coined by Wade Davis, he defines as “the sum total of all thoughts and dreams, myths, ideas, inspirations, intuitions brought into being by the human imagination since the dawn of consciousness.”
-Basically it is a term designed to bring attention to the fact that globalization and rapid development are diminishing the amount and variety of unique cultures throughout the world
-The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world
Global-local Continuum
-The notion that what happens at the global scale has direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa
-This idea posits that the world is comprised of an interconnected eries of relationships that extend across space
-The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
-A population that consists of people that have the same or similar ethnic, racial, religious, or social background
Heterogeneous Population
-A population that consists of people that have many different ethnic, racial, religious, or social backgrounds
Informal Economy
-Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government
-Not included in that government’s Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy
-Part of economy that doesn’t get taxed
-Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government’s GNP; as opposed to a formal economy
Housewife work
Dealing of drugs
Jim Crow Laws
-The “separate but equal” segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Local Culture
-A group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others
Middle Atlantic House (Architectural Style)
-One, or two stories
-Fireplace to one side
-Front porch
-Additional rooms added
-Warmer climate than New England
-Building materials is whatever is cheap: wood
Popular Culture
-Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Material Culture
-The tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles and technologies
-The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
Non-material Culture (Values, Beliefs)
-Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects
Renfrew Hypothesis
-A hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew
-He proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe’s Indo-European language, North African and Arabian languages, and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India
Saltbox (New England Architectural Style)
-Steep gable roof extended to first floor in the rear
-Roof hangs lower in the back
-No windows in the rear
-Large central chimney
-2 or 2.5 stories
-Square or rectangular shape
-Small glass panes in double-hung windows
-Wood framed
-Central fireplace
-An area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
-A zone of frequent boundary changes and conflicts, often located between major powers
Lower (South) Chesapeake/Tidewater (Architectural Style)
-Warmer weather (keep cool)
-Wet climate (keep dry)
-Simple, one story (plus)
-People who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock
-The properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
-The quality of being sexual
-Part of the total person: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual
-Part of who people are
Dowry Deaths
-In the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of a bride
Gender Gap
-Difference in political views between men and women
-A term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates. Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending
-The individual characteristics by which a thing or person is recognized or known
Identifying Against
-Constructing an identity by first defining the “other” and then defining ourselves as “not the other.”
-A person who murders an infant
Invasion and Succession
-Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods (poorest ones usually) occupied by older immigrant groups
-Older immigrants than usually move to another neighbor starting the process all over again
-Specific place with characteristics of that region
-Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
Residential Segregation
-Defined by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as “the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment.”
Queer Theory
-Theory defined by geographers Glen Elder and Lawrence Knopp, and Heidi Nast that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the political engagement of “queers” with the heteronormative
-Study of what it means to be gay in different cultures
-A process whereby white-controlled banks would literally draw a red line around certain neighborhoods in the city
Backward Reconstruction
-To track sound shifts and hardening of consonants “backward” toward the original language
Basque Language
-Language of the Pyrenees that is not related to any other countries
Conquest Theory
-The theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues
Dispersal Hypothesis
-Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans
Deep Reconstruction
-Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
Dialect Chains
-A set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
-The farther the chains go the harder it is to understand, leading to the point that a new chink in the chain is a totally different language
Germanic Languages
-Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of people out of Northern Europe to the west and south
Global Language
-The language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in commerce and trade
-A person belonging to the worldwide group claiming descent from Jacob (or converted to it) and connected by cultural or religious ties
-A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
-A line that separates two regions that speak different languages
Language Convergence
-Collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages
Language Divergence
-The opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages
Language Sub-family (Groups)
-A group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history
Language Tree
-Shows how the different branches and groups fit together in a large relationship of languages
-Any dialect of the language of ancient Rome
Monolingual States
-Countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual States
-Countries in which more than one language is spoken
Official Language
-The language adopted for use by the government, for the conduct of business, and publication of documents
Nostratic Language
-Is a language that is believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages, the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
Proto-Indo European
-Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to north Africa and from north America through parts of Asia to Australia
Romance Languages
-Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed
-The belief in material things instead of religious things
-This was a shift away from Medieval thinking
Slavic Languages
-Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
Sound Shift
-Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
Standard Language
-The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
Trade Language
-A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other
-Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God’s command
-The first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac
-Example: according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham’s family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son; “Judaism, Christian”
-Disputes have been made over which son he sacrificed, however, the Bible says that he sacrificed Isaac
-Had a son “Ishmael” with his handmaid “Hagar” because his wife “Sarah” wasn’t able to (Islamic followers)
-Had a second son “Isaac” when his wife gave birth (Christian and Jewish followers)
-Of German origin, these people were originally Anabaptist and would settle in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio
-Many today live the same way their ancestors did 200-300 years ago
-A group of Protestants who broke away from the Mennonites inthe 17th century
-Live in close communities, farm for a living, and do without many modern conveniences, such as telephones, automobiles, and tractor-drawn plows
-Some of the Pennsylvania Dutch are them
Ashkenazim (German, E European Jews)
-One of the two main ethnic groups within the Jewish culture
-This branch eventually settled in Central Europe after having been driven out of Jerusalem early in the first millennium A.D
-A lack of belief in the existence of God or gods
-An administrative division of some larger or more complex organization
Caste System
-A set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
-The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
-The branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe
-A theory or story of the origin and development of the universe
-A group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith
Eastern Orthodox
-Branch of the Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity’s schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire
-The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities
-Relating to or being a Christian church believing in personal conversion and the inerrancy of the Bible especially the 4 Gospels
Feng Shui (Geomancy)
-Rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy
Five Pillars of Islam
-True Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
Guru Nanak
-Indian religious leader who founded Sikhism in dissent from the caste system of Hinduism
-The fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
-A communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century
-Since the death of their namesake Jakob Hutter in 1536, the beliefs of the Hutterites, especially living in a community of goods and absolute pacifism, have resulted in hundreds of years of odyssey through many countries
-Nearly extinct by the 18th and 19th centuries, the Hutterites found a new home in North America
-Over 125 years their population grew from 400 to around 42,000
-A religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul
-Some were extreme aesthetics
-Religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism
-A holy war waged by Muslims against infidels
-Islamic holy war, a doctrine within Islam.
-Commonly translated as “Holy War,” it represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up the religious standards set by the Qu’ran
-“struggle in the way of God”
-(Hinduism and Buddhism) The effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
-Chinese philosopher, founder of Taoism, which emphasizes the Tao, the inevitable and harmonious way of the universe
Landscapes of the Dead
-The certain areas where people have commonly been buried
-This is important to human geography because it has always been important where people are buried
-The crier who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer from the minaret of a mosque
-The Muslim official of a mosque who summons the faithful to prayer from a minaret five times a day
-The tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
-Someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program
-A term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement
-Practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah
-The founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, Muhammad is the ultimate and final prophet
-The last prophet believed by Muslims who talked to the Archangel Gabriel and whose life teachings is compiled in the Hadith
-A follower of Islam, means “one who has submitted”
-A person holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions
-Not acknowledging the God of Christianity and Judaism and Islam
-A tiered tower, built in the traditions originating in historic East Asia or with respect to those traditions, with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Burma and other parts of Asia
-Some of them are used as Taoist houses of worship
-Most of them were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist, and were often located in or near temples
-May refer to other religious structures in some countries
-For example: in Vietnam and Cambodia, due to French translation, the English term “” is a more generic term referring to a place of worship, although it is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist temple
-The modern one is an evolution of the Ancient Nepal stupa, a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept safe and venerated.
-The architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are incorporated into the overall design
-A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
-Belief in many Gods
-To convert (a person) from one belief, doctrine, cause, or faith to another
-The general name given to any of the Christian denominations that broke from the Catholic Church during the sixteenth-century Reformation and to the splinter churches from these communities; today these include the Lutherans, Anglicans (Episcopalians), Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and many others
-More generally, the term refers to any Western Christian community not in union with the Catholic Church
Religious Architecture
-Houses of worship in different faiths that are physical anchors of the faith and are often where followers come to worship
Roman Catholic
-The Christian religion of Europe that formed from Christianity’s schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire
-The Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
-A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
-A subdivision of a larger religious group
-The principle of separation of government institutions, and the persons mandated to represent the State, from religious institutions and religious dignitaries
-In one sense, it may assert the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, and the right to freedom from governmental imposition of religion upon the people within a state that is neutral on matters of belief
Sephardim (Spanish, Middle Eastern Jews)
-One of the main ethnic groups within Jewish culture
-Settled in Northern Africa and later in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) after having been driven away from Jerusalem early in the first millennium AD
Sharia Law
-The code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammed
-Islamic Law: based on varying degrees of interpretation on the Qu’ran
-Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism
-Focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship
Siddhartha Gautama
-Founder of Buddhism
-Born a prince
-Left his father’s wealth to find the cause of human suffering
-Renounced his worldly possessions and founded Buddhism
-Also known as Buddha
-The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
-Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India
-After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, warriors from this group mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule
-A follower of the MAJORITY branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community
-One of the two main branches of orthodox Islam
-A member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
-The smaller of the two main divisions of Islam; represent the Persian variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali
-Main place that they are found is in Iraq (and Iran)
-Buddhist shrine that is shaped like a dome or mound -Memorial mound ettected over the ashes of buddha and important monks
-Traditions that borrow from both the past and present
-Relating to a historical tendency for a language to reduce its use of inflections
-Uniting and blending together different belief systems
Allocational Boundary Dispute
-A boundary dispute that involves conflicting claims to the natural resources of a border region
Compact State
-A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Definitional Boundary Dispute
-Conflict over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or boundary contract
Locational Boundary Dispute
-A boundary dispute in which states disagree about the location of an artificial (such as geometrical) boundary
-These disputes usually occur because the boundary divides a homogeneous population
Operational Boundary Dispute
-Dispute over function of boundary, differing views of enforcement
Organic Theory
-The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life
Peace of Westphalia
-Resulted from the big diplomatic congress, thereby initiating a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign and establishing a prejudice in international affairs against interference in another nation’s domestic business
-The treaty not only signalled the end of the perennial, destructive wars that had ravaged Europe, it also represented the triumph of sovereignty over empire, of national rule over the personal writ of the Habsburg’s
-A series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster
-These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic
Primate City
-A city in any country that is so much more powerful and larger than the second largest and most powerful city that it makes the second city look very diminished
-An example of this is Paris, France and London, England
Ratzel, Friedrich
-(August 30, 1844 – August 9, 1904) was a German geographer and ethnographer, notable for coining the term Lebensraum
-Theorized that a state compares to a biological organism with a life cycle from birth to death, with a predictable rise and fall of power
-Said a state (like an organism) needs food, which is land, for a state to stay alive it needs more land, that is where Lebensraum comes in
-Hitler worked off this theory for starting WWII
Superimposed Boundary
-A boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns
-Typically a colonial boundary
World-systems Theory
-Wallerstein’s theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas
-The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy
-Semi periphery was the buffer between the core and periphery
-Periphery are states that lack strong central governments or are controlled by other states
-External areas are states that maintained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
-The formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
Asia-Pacific Economic Council (APEC)
-A forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries (styled “Member Economies”) that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region
-The economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
Berlin Conference
-A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
-Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium
Bipolar World
-World co-domination of two superpowers with opposing ideologies
Boundary Definition
-A treaty-like, legal sounding document is drawn up in which actual points in the landscape are described
-4 step process: define, delimit (draw), demarcate, and administrate
Define Boundary
-Clearly specify the boundary
Delimit Boundary
-Draw the boundary
Demarcate Boundary
-To clearly set or mark the boundaries of a group or geographic area
Administrate Boundary
-To administer or manage
Buffer State
-A small country between two larger, more powerful countries
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
-An alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in December 1991
Clash of Civilizations
-Political scientist Samuel Huntington’s controversial thesis than in the 21st century the globe’s major civilizations will conflict with one another, leading to anarchy and warfare similar to that resulting from conflicts between states over the past 500 years; as many as 11 civilizations in the world; globalization changes the context under which ethnic and cultural conflict arises
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union
-The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield, but deadly threats went on for years
Contact Zone
-Anthropologist Mary Louise Pratt’s term that refers to the space of colonial encounters, the space in which peoples that have been geographically and historically separated come into contact with each other and establish ongoing relations, usually involving conditions of coercion, radical inequality, and intractable conflict
-Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring
-Places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
-Western section of the country of Sudan which has suffered civil war since 2003 and has had over 500,000 people killed and 21/2 million people displaced from their homes
-A region in western sudan where ethnic conflict threatened to lead to genocide
-A region of intense conflict between rebels, the Sudanese government, and local tribes
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
-A zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
European Union
-International Organization in Western Europe that formed out of the EEC (European Economic Community, began in 1958)
-Initial purpose was economic, and free trade was encouraged between member nations
-Increasingly becoming both a political and economic organization
-A common currency, the euro, was accepted by 12 countries in 2002 (not accepted by all, England)
Federal System
-A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
-Tensions between the two major ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu, exploded into violence. In 1994 an estimated 200,000 or more people, mainly Tutsi, had died in massacres
-An estimated 2 million Tutsi and Hutu fled to refugee camps in neighboring Zaire and other countries
-The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
Huntington, Samuel
-Author of Clash of Civilizations theory
-An American political geographer
-Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey
-They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq
-Region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999
-Hitler’s expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire “living space” for the German people
League of Nations
-An organization of nations formed after WWI to promote cooperation and peace
Multi-state nation
-Nation that transcends the borders of two or more states (e.g., Kurds (Kurdistan), The Koreas,…)
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Nunavut (Inuit people)
-A group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic region of Canada (Northwest Territories,Denmark (Greenland), Russia (Siberia) and(Alaska)
-The language is grouped under Eskimo-Aleut languages
-Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
-An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
-Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea
-Best known for its canal
Pivot Area
-Also called the Heartland, it’s a landlocked region of central Eurasia whose control thought of as the key to world domination
Spykman, Nicholas
-Adopts Mackinder’s divisions of the world, renaming some: the Heartland, the Rimland, and the Offshore Islands & Continents
-Challenged the heartland theory with the rimland theory
-Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
-Strict Muslim group in Afghanistan that has imposed rigid rules on society, including prescribed clothing styles for men and women, restrictions of the appearance of women in public, and regulations on media; might support terrorists
-Fundamentalist Students of the Quran
United Nations
-International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation
-Replaced the League of Nations
Wallerstein, Immanuel
-(1930- ) The creator of the world system theory, which explains how the globalization of capitalism led to changing relations between countries
-Said that as capitalism spread, countries around the world became connected to one another in ways they had not been before
Warsaw Pact
-Treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
-Study of diseases
-Pestilence & Famine
-Plague (Malthus’s “positive checks”)
-CDR high, fluctuating
-Life expectancy = 20-40 years
-Little population growth (= DTM, Stage 1)
-Diseases of poverty
-Receding Pandemics
-Improvement in urban hygiene, knowledge of cholera (Dr. John Snow, London, 1854)
-Pandemics fade
-CDR drops
-Improved medicine & health care (eg penicillin)
-Life expectancy increases to 30-50 years
-Exponential (geometric) population growth
-Alexander Fleming, 1881-1955
-Got rid of pneumonia and gonorrhea
-Degenerative, Man-Made Diseases
-Decrease in deaths from polio, measles, tetanus
-CDR drops further, stabilizes at low level
-Life expectancy > 50 years
-But, signs of deaths from degenerative diseases (eg cancer)
-Fertility, key factor in population growth, begins to drop
-Delayed Degenerative Diseases
-Cancer (genetics, environmental risks due to exposure to toxins, smoking, excessive alcohol use)
-Cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, obesity, lack of exercise, genetics)
-Diabetes (genetics & / or obesity : pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin )
-Alzheimer’s (memory loss, dementia)
Carrot and Stick
-One benefits you for doing a task
-One punishes you for not doing a task, but because of the punishment it makes you do the task
Factors Influencing Fertility
-Economic development
-Status of women : education, employment, legal rights
-Health (IMR)
-Question : What works best in reducing fertility ??
-Answer : Holistic approach
Why a TFR of a Population Declines
-“economic development best contraceptive”
-“education of women best contraceptive”
-“contraceptives best contraceptives”
Stage 1 Pyramid
-High birth rate
-Rapid fall in each upward age group due to high death rates
-Short life expectancy
-Shape: Pyramid that curves inwards as it goes up
Stage 2 Pyramid
-High birth rate
-Fall in death rate as more living in middle age
-Slightly longer life expectancy
-Shape: Pyramid or triangle
Stage 3 Pyramid
-Declining birth rate
-Low death rate
-More people living to old age
-Shape: Oval that curves inwards near the top
Stage 4 Pyramid
-Low birth rate
-Low death rate
-High dependency ratio
-Longer life expectancy
-Shape: Oval that curves inwards near the bottom
-A pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition
Culture Complex
-A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society’s behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices)
-Political control
-“the status of being apart”
-Was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party governments, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, of South Africa, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained
-Was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organizations and was practised also in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966 via United Nations Resolution 2145[2]), until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990
Meets and Bounds System
-Old European system
-Use natural features to distinguish different boundaries (e.g. trees, river, boulder, etc.)
-Use of natural features results in lack of symmetry among settlements
-Cadastral System
Long Lots System
-Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river so that each original settler had equal river access
-Cadastral System
Cadastral System
-A system that delineates property lines
-Includes the metes and bounds survey system, township and range system, and long lots system
-e.g. Long Lots System, Meets and Bounds System, and Township and Range System
Township and Range System
-A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior
-Cadastral System
-The process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities
-For example, manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities
“Auto Alley”
– Area between I-65 and I-75 where most of car manufacturing is done
Backwash Effect
-The negative effects on one region that results from economic growth within another region
Basic to Nonbasic ratio
-City forming workers to City serving workers
-Can show the cities influence in a region
Big Box Retailers
-Stores that sell things in bulk so they are cheaper per unit, ex big department stores
-Discount stores that offer a narrow but deep assortment of merchandise
Break-of-Bulk point
-A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
Bulk-Gaining Industry
-An industry in which the final product weights more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
Bulk-Reducing Industry
-An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
Capital-Intensive Industry
-An industry that takes a lot of money to run
-An industry that is based off the need for money$$, the textile industry due to the need to buy expensive machinery
-Relying on the purchasing of expensive machinery, not just hiring more workers
-An economic system based on the private ownership of capital goods and the means of production
-An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations
Command Economy
-An economy where the price of goods is regulated by government instead of the supply and demand of the market
-An economic system in which the government controls a country’s economy
Commodity Chain
-A process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and, finally, distribute them to consumers
-Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
-National or global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated
-Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy
Cottage Industries
-Manufacturing based in homes rather than in factories, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution
-One of the first widely used pesticides, good example of biological magnification
Debt Repayment
-When a company repays its debt and/or interest on it
-The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition (excessive agglomeration)
Default on Debt
-Failure to pay debt
-Debtor has not met his or her legal obligations according to the debt contract
-The process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the new region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
Demographic Indicators
-Sociologists do/pollsters and those who seek to sort out the differentiations between “target groups” as far as Socioeconomic standing, age, residence, education and so forth
-Factors such as age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, race, and income
-The statistical characteristics of a population
-Spread of deserts
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
-The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and soils are threatened by desiccation – through overuse, in part by humans and their domestic animals, and, possibly, in part because of inexorable shifts in the Earth’s environmental zones
-When a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country
-When a poorer country abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country’s currency as its own
Economic Indicators
-Statistics that provide information about the performance of the economy and its position in the business cycle
-Measures a country’s wealth, to decide if a country is developed or developing (i.e. GDP, types of jobs, worker productivity and availability of consumer goods)
Energy Costs
-Price it costs to run a factory with power source
-Want run a factory where power costs are low
EPZs (Export Processing Zones)
-Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries
-Zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
Footloose Industry
-An industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms
-An industry that locate in a wide variety of places without a significant change in its cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital
-A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor
-Named after automobile producer Henry Ford, Fordist production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption
Foreign Aid
-Help (such as economic or military assistance) provided to one nation by another
Formal Economy
-The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government’s Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to an informal economy
Free Market Economy
-Demand & competition set the prices & supplies of goods in this type of economy
-A system in which prices are not controlled by the government
Free Trade Zone (FTZ)
-A duty-free and tax-exempt industrial park created to attract foreign corporations and create industrial jobs
Friction of Distance
-The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
Global Division of Labor
-Phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by the compression of time and space through innovation in communication and transportation systems
-The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
-The processes of it transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
-Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Grameen Bank
-Founded by Muhammad Yunus to provide micro-credit loans to poor individuals, particularly women
Gross National Product (GNP)
-The total value of all goods and services produced by a country’s economy in a given year
-It includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or nor they are located within the country
-An estimated value of the total worth of production and services, by CITIZENS of a country, on its land or on foreign land, calculated over the course on one year
Gross National Income (GNI)
-The personal consumption expenditure, the gross private investment, the government consumption expenditures, the net income from assets abroad (net income receipts), and the gross exports of goods and services
-After deducting two components: the gross imports of goods and services, and the indirect business taxes
-Similar to the gross national product (GNP), except that in measuring the GNP one does not deduct the indirect business taxes
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
-The total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
-The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year)
-An estimated value of the total worth of a country’s production and services, on its land, by its NATIONALS and FOREIGNERS, calculated over the course on one year
Happiness Index
-The extent to which countries deliver long, happy, sustainable lives for the people that live in them
-Uses global data on life expectancy, experienced well-being and ecological footprint to calculate it
-Is an efficiency measure, it ranks countries on how many long and happy lives they produce per unit of environmental input
High-Tech Corridor
-An area designated by local or state government to benefit from lower taxes and high-technology infrastructure with the goal of providing high-technology jobs to the local population
-Example: California’s Silicon Valley
Human Development Index (HDI)
-UN statistic that measures development under 3 categories: GDP per capita, health, and education
-Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
-An international organization that was initiated in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and formally created in 1945 by 29 member countries
-The organization’s stated goal was to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the world’s international payment system post-World War II
-Countries contribute money to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds temporarily
-Through this activity and others such as surveillance of its members’ economies and policies, the organization works to improve the economies of its member countries
Indicators of Development
-GDP per capita; types of jobs; worker productivity; access to raw materials; availability of consumer goods; literacy rate; life expectancy; education
Intermodal Connections
-De Blij’s term for break-or-bulk points
-Places where two or more modes of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship)
Islands of Development
-Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
Just-In-Time Delivery
-Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed
Labor Costs
-Cost that you have to pay the people that work for you
Land Costs
-Cost of land
Least Cost Theory (Weber)
-Tries to explain and predict the locational pattern of the industry at a macro-scale. It emphasizes that firms seek a site of minimum transport and labor cost
-The point for locating an industry that minimizes costs of transportation and labor requires analysis of three factors: material index, labor, and agglomeration and deglomeration
-Developed by Alfred Weber, the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three capital expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
Liberalization (of trade)
-Increase trade regulation in ports, labor laws
-Open everything for markets
-Example: Coca Cola for schools
-All about profit
Line-Haul Costs
-(synonym over-the-road costs)
-The costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers)
-Costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs
Local Resource
-Resources found in the specific region or area
Location Theory
-Otherwise known as the “Least Cost Theory”
-Developed by Alfred Weber, the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three capital expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
-Long life, long duration, length of life
-Spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month
-Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
Mercantile System
-In a general sense, associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade
-More specifically, a protectionist policy of European states during the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries that promoted a state’s economic position in the contest with other countries
-The acquisition of gold and silver and the maintenance of favorable trade balance (more exports than imports) were central to the policy
Modernization Theory
-A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow
-Maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
Multi-national corporation (MNC)
-A company that is in more than one country
-Corporations that are headquartered in one country (a 1st world country) and do business throughout the world
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
-Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December, 1992 and which took effect on January 1st, 1994, to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries
New International Division of Labor
-Same thing as the Global Division of Labor
-Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less skilled workers, from more developed countries to less developed countries
-Wallerstein’s three tier model
-Value added in developed world, etc.
-Outsourcing encourages this
Nongovernment Organization (NGO)
-An international organization that operates outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues
-A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers within the same country
-When companies outsource out of the country
-To contract work out of the country
-Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy
-World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass-produced; instead, produced has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have ben imaginable at the beginning of the twentieth century
Primary Sector
-Economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment – such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
-The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth’s surface, generally through agriculture, although sometime by mining, fishing, and forestry
-The transfer of ownership of property or businesses from a government to a privately owned entity
Quaternary Sector
-Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital
-Examples: finance, administration, insurance, and legal services
Quinary Sector
-Service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill
-Examples: scientific research and high-level management
-A limitation on imports
Walt Rostow
-The interventionalist policies into Vietnam was driven by the modernization movement of the 1960s where Western culture predominates all other cultures. This man wrote the book The Stages of Economic Growth that talked out western domination and how other poor nations will develop their economies like Western Nations
-One of the most influential modernization theorists, charted the route from traditional society to ‘the age of high mass consumption’, The Stages of Economic Growth
Ruhr Valley
-A major industrial and coal mining region in the valley of the Ruhr river in northwestern Germany
-The originally German controlled coal-rich valley, later France-occupied, leading miners to go on strike, resulting in the German government in printing additional money to pay the miners, leading to inflation
Rust Belt
-The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate
Secondary Sector
-The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
-Economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Sectors (of the economy)
-Primary sector is transforming raw materials into primary products. ex. taken from the environment
-Secondary sector is primary inputting transformed into finished goods. ex. manufacturing and construction
-Tertiary sector is the economy services driven rather than goods
-Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
Servicing Debt
-The term for only paying the interest
SEZs (China)
-Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Silicon Valley
-A region in California south of San Francisco that is noted for its concentration of high-technology industries
-A high-technology corridor
Site Factors (costs)
-Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
Situational Factors (costs)
-Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
Social Indicators
-Statistics that relate to society and are regularly collected (such as crime rate or birth rate figures) that can be used as general indicators of changes in society
Structural Adjustment
-Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services
Sun Belt
-U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II
Sustainable Development
-The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
-A government tax on imports or exports
Tertiary Sector
-The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
-A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil
-New Deal Program created to control flooding, conserve oil, and bring hydroelectric power to the mid-south
Time-Space Compression
-A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
Toffler, Alvin (“Future Shock”, 1970)
-His shortest definition for the term is a personal perception of “too much change in too short a period of time”
-When a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hope that the labor recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn more money to send home
Trans-National Corporation (TNC) *
-A corparation that invest in many countries overseas Large companies which have branch plants throughout the world; their headquarters are often found in MEDCs
Variable Costs
-Costs that vary with the quantity of output produced
Vectored Diseases
-Diseases spread by one host to another by an intermediate host or vector
-Example: malaria
Immanuel Wallerstein
-The Modern World System author of this 3 volume set- an adaptation on dependency theory
-Main argument is that there is no third world, just a complex network of economic exchange relationships
-Mass merchandiser began serious expansion in 1985
-Founded 1962 by Samuel Walton
-gained prominence in 90s and 2000s
-Biggest global retailer
-Has created switch where retailer has power instead of manufacturer,. Wal-Mart strong arms Rubbermaid to sell its products at the price Wal-mart wants. This results in outsourcing jobs b/c companies have to produce cheaper to meet Wal-Mart’s price standards, ex. Outsourcing of jobs and companies to China
-China is biggest export to Wal-Mart and China is biggest exporter worldwide, Wal-Mart is biggest retailer worldwide so contributes to trade deficit of U.S. to China. The Chinese sell to the U.S. but the U.S. can’t sell to China
-Creates De-industrialization in the U.S.
-Portrayed badly in Nickel and Dimed b/c workers receive minimal pay and benefits, also treated poorly and manipulated
James Watt
-A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel
Wealth Gap
-The difference between the wealthiest and the poorest people
Alfred Weber
-German geographer who was a major theorists of industrial location. He devised a model of how to understand industrial locations in regard to several factors, including labor supply, markets, resource location, and transpiration
World Bank
-A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation
-Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
World-System’s Theory
-Modern version of marxism in which the globe is seen as a single system dominated by core nations
World Trade Organization (WTO)
-International organization derived from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that promotes it free trade around the world
Dependency Theory (de Blij)
-A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development
-Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop
Growth Poles (Waugh)
-Is that economic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole (or cluster)
Intermediate Technology (Waugh)
-Ideological movement (and its manifestations) originally articulated as “intermediate technology” by the economist Dr. Ernst Friedrich “Fritz” Schumacher in his influential work, Small is Beautiful
-Small loans usually given to enable poor people to start up very small-scale businesses in developing countries
Multiplier Effect
-An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent
-Expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another economic activity
Ozone Layer Depletion
-CFCs were put in the air, they act as catalysts that enable the light to break up ozone molecules
What substance is rapidly destroying the ozone layer?
CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons
-The ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time
Structuralist Theory (de Blij)
-A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system
Wallerstein’s theory
-Core, Semi-periphery, Periphery, says that is hard to move between them and if you’re not developed it is very hard to develop
Technopole (de Blij)
-A center or node of high-technology research and activity around which a ‘high-technology corridor’ is sometimes established
-The commercial enterprise of transferring goods and materials
-Transferring goods and materials
Terminal Cost
-Cost of loading and unloading good or material
Ubiquitous Raw Material
-A raw material a companies uses that is all over the world
-Example: water
Venture Capital (internet)
-Financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies
-Capital invested in a project in which there is a substantial element of risk, typically a new or expanding business
Weber’s Model (of industrial location)
-Otherwise known as the “Least Cost Theory”
-Developed by Alfred Weber, the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three capital expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
Wallerstein Three-Tier Structure
-Core, Semi-periphery, Periphery, says that it is hard to move between them and if you’re not developed it is very hard to develop
-Want to be in the core (top tier)
-Lowest tier is periphery
-The division of thw world into the core, the semi-periphery, and the periphery as a means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy
Line Cost
-Within physical distribution, cost elements that vary by distance traveled and not by weight carried (e.g., fuel, drivers’ wages, wear and tear on the vehicle)
-For example: how many dollars per mile
Route Flexibility
-How able to path from one place to another is to change
-More = more able to change the route
-Less = less able to change the route
Post-Fordist Production
-Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
Fordist Production
-Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Maternal Mortality Rate
-Death of woman due to giving birth
-Good indicator of the development of a country (LDC = high; MDC = low)
-Industrial or factory farming
-A large-scale farming enterprise
-Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
-The practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Agricultural Diffusion
-The shift of food gathering to food producing. Gatherer -> grower = agricultural revolution. Chaser -> herder = domestication. People could now live in one area because they didn’t have to search for food; could now make houses
Agricultural Industrialization
-Process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing and retailing
Agricultural Landscape
-The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields
-Effects how much yield one gets from their plants
Animal Domestication
-When animals are tamed and used for food and profit
Animal Husbandry
-An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats
-Breeding and caring for farm animals
-The raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
-The raising of aquatic organisms for human consumption
-The branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
-The branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
-A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
Collective Farm
-Government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the government; as in a Communist state
Commercial Agriculture
-Either intensive or extensive
-The production of crops for sale, crops intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets
-The center part of a city, country, or region
-Agriculture: an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
Crop Rotation
-The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil of its vital nutrients
-An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter
-The act of dispersing or diffusing something
Double Cropping
-A process in which two crops are grown on the same land in the same year
-The process of stripping the land of its trees
Environmental Modification
-Changes made to the environment by humans
-Examples: the use of pesticides to grow crops and the effects it has on the soil and environment; soil erosion and desertification caused by changes made to the environment
-A gradual decline of something
-Condition in which the earth’s surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
-Agricultural examples: deforestation/clear cutting; overgrazing: cows eat root heads of the grass; over farming: plowing and tillage
Extensive Agriculture
-Consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Extractive Industry
-Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
-Primary activities involving the mining and quarrying of nonrenewable metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources
-= livestock fattening
-Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms
First Agricultural Revolution
-Beginning around 12,000 years ago; achieved plant domestication (human influence on genetic modification of a plant) and animal domestication (genetic modification of an animal to make it more amenable to human control and use); began permanent settlements along fertile river valleys which moved humans from egalitarian societies (equal) to more stratified societies (unequal)
Fisheries Depletion
-The global fishing fleet is 2-3 times larger than what the oceans can sustainably support
-People are taking far more fish out of the ocean than can be replaced by those remaining
-As a result:
–53% of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited, and 32% are overexploited, depleted, or recovering from depletion
–Most of the top ten marine fisheries, accounting for about 30% of all capture fisheries production, are fully exploited or overexploited
–As many as 90% of all the ocean’s large fish have been fished out
–Several important commercial fish populations have declined to the point where their survival is threatened
–Unless the current situation improves, stocks of all species currently fished for food are predicted to collapse by 2048
Food Chain
-Series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
-The science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
-Trees provide building materials and fuel to society
Globalized Agriculture
-As both an economic sector and a geographically distributed activity, modern agriculture is in increasingly dependent on an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
-Diffusion of agriculture across the globe
-Consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale
-Genetically modified organisms
-Organisms whose structure has been changed/modified to give them desierable characteristics
-Example: round ready canola, golden rice
-Organisms created by combining natural or synthetic genes using the techniques of molecular biology
Green Revolution
-The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
-A series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1970s, that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s
-Forms a part of the ‘neo-colonial’ system of agriculture wherein agriculture was viewed as more of a commercial sector than a subsistence one
Growing Season
-The time of year when it is warm enough for plants to grow
-The season during which a crop grows best
-The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude
Hunting and Gathering
-The killing of wild animals and fish
-The retrieving of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
-An organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock
-Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
-Result of crossbreeding
Intensive Agriculture
-A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
-Popular in East, South, and Southeast Asia, because the ratio between farmers and arable land is so high, most of the work is done by the family by hand or by animal with processes refined over thousands of years
-Planting taller stronger crops, to shelter lower fragile ones from tropical down pour
Koppen’s Climatic Classification System
-The Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main groups, each having several types and subtypes
-Group A: Tropical/megathermal climates
Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperature (at sea level and low elevations) — all twelve months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F) or higher
-Group B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates
These climates are characterized by the fact that actual precipitation is less than a threshold value set equal to the potential evapotranspiration
-Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates
These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months (April to September in northern hemisphere), and a coldest month average between −3 °C (27 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F)
-Group D: Continental/microthermal climate
These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below −3 °C (or 0 °C in some versions, as noted previously); these usually occur in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, normally north of 40° North latitude
-Group E: Polar climates
These climates are characterized by average temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F) in all twelve months of the year
-One of the most frequently-raised objections concerns the temperate Group C category, regarded by many as overbroad
Livestock Fattening
-A commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened cattle and hogs for meat
Livestock Ranching
-An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West
Luxury Crops
-Crops that are not essential to human survival and are sold at a high price
-Examples: tobacco, sugarcane and cotton
Market Gardening
-The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers
-Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season
-Labor is done manually
Mediterranean Agriculture
-An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados
-Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails (grapes, olives, figs, citrus, fruits, dates, etc.)
-Farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, highly productive crop year after year
Nomadic Pastoralism
-Is a way of life where families move along with their herds according to the seasons and rely on their animals for food, shelter and clothing
-They can tend to cattle, camels, goats, horses, reindeer, or sheep
Organic Agriculture
-Crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
Paddy Rice Farming
-Wet rice
-The cultivation of rice on a paddy, or small flooded field enclosed by mud dikes, practiced in the humid areas of the Far East
-A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
-Developed at various sites in the grasslands of Afro-Eurasia because these places supported large mobile herds and nomadic lifestyle but not farming or cities
Plantation Agriculture
-Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop
-Almost all were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
-A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father’s land
-The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere
-Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth
Quotas (Agriculture)
-E.U. sometimes due to the efficiency they have of growing food (Common Agriculture Policy)
-Might be to prevent the price of something to drop
-A resource that can be replaced relatively quickly by natural process
Root Crops
-Crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants
-Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation
-In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile
Second Agricultural Revolution
-Tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Settlement Patterns
-Dispersed, isolated, nucleated, clustered
-The way people distribute themselves in their environment, including where they locate their dwellings, how they group dwellings into settlements,and how permenant or transitory those settlements are
Slash and Burn
-A farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
-When people, businesses, regions, and/or nations concentrate on goods and services that they can produce better than anyone else
-The development of skills in a specific kind of work
Staple Grains
-Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food
-Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa, and livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions
-A basic food grain that is used frequently and in large amounts
-A grant or contribution of money, especially one made by a government in support of an undertaking or the upkeep of something
-Government loans, grants, and tax deferments given to domestic companies to protect them from foreign competition
Subsistence Agriculture
-Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family
-Self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology & emphasizes food production for local consumption, not trade
Suitcase Farming
-Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock
-This practice lends itself well to the growth of wheat. Allows families to continue their long relationships with the ancestral farm, but still enjoy the benefits of waged incomes in urban environments
-A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Third Agricultural Revolution
-It is still in progress
-It is based on new, high-yielding strains of grains and other crops developed in laboratories using modern techniques of genetic engineering
Triple Cropping
-Growing three crops on the same field in a given year
-Farmers who practice this method hope to triple their harvest
Truck Farming
-Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because the first word was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities
Urban Agriculture
-The raising of food, including fruit, vegetables, meat, and milk, inside cities
-Especially common in the Third World
Von Thunen Model
-A model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy
-A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
Crop Yield
-Known as agricultural output
-It is not only a measure of the yield of cereal per unit area of land under cultivation, it is also the seed generation of the plant itself
Bos-Wash Corridor
-A name coined by futurist Herman Kahn in a 1967 essay describing a theoretical United States megalopolis extending from the metropolitan area of Boston to that of Washington, D.C.
Domestication of Plants
-Required that people stay in one place
-Early farming societies formed settlements that eventually led to more complex economies
-Very few – big three = wheat, corn, rice, seed gathering efforts originally selected domesticated species
Hog Farming
-Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of animal husbandry specialized in the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight
-They are also known as an AFO or CAFO in the U.S.
-In this system of pig production, grower pigs are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, whilst pregnant sows are housed in sow stalls (gestation crates) or pens and give birth in farrowing crates
-Is an American grocery manufacturing and processing conglomerate, which is headquartered in Northfield, Illinois, a Chicago suburb
-It was founded in 1903
Massey Ferguson
-A U.S. company that manufactures agricultural technologies and devices
-Extensive farmers would use this
-An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas
-The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
Metropolitan Area
-In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
-Any of various small-grained annual cereal and forage grasses of the genera Panicum, Echinochloa, Setaria, Sorghum (economically important Old World tropical cereal grass), and Eleusine
Prairie Sod
-Grass that covers a large wide open space; pradera
Prime Farmland
-Previously undeveloped land with soil suitable for cultivation
-Avoiding development on this land helps protect agricultural lands, which are needed for food production
-Land that has the soil type, growing conditions, and available water to produce food, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops
Seed Planting
-The reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
-This is the technique favoured by farmers today
Shifting Cultivation
-A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Vegetative Planting
-Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots
-The removing of part of a plant and putting it in the ground to grow a new plant
Derwent Whittlesey
-The most widely used map of world agriculture regions prepared by dw, in 1936. identified 11 main agricultural regions, plus area where agriculture was nonexistent. divided between 5 important in less developed countries, and 6 important in more developed countries
-Sorted out agricultural practices primarily by climate, climate influences the crop that is grown or whether animals are raised instead of growing any crop. agriculture varies between the dry lands and the tropics within LDCs-as well as between the dry lands of less developed and more developed countries
Debt for Nature Swap
-When Country A owes Country B something and Country B says to Country A, “You will not owe us anymore if you promise to preserve your rainforest (some nature feature).”
-To preserve nature
-A resource that cannot be remade quickly or cannot be remade at all
-Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed
-The three main fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) plus nuclear energy are the most widely used, mostly because they are more cost efficient
-Settlement pattern
-Distributed or spread over a considerable extent
-Settlement pattern
-A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse)
-A relatively dense settlement form
-With one or more clear core areas
-Settlement pattern
-Remote and separate physically or socially
-Settlement pattern
-Occurring close together in bunches
-A large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
-A central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
Agricultural Surplus
-One of two components, together with social stratification, that enables the formation of cities; agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her family and which is then sold for consumption by others
-Structures that carried water over long distances
-This movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones. Common characteristics of this period include wide thoroughfares, spacious parks, and civic monuments that stressed progress, freedom, and national unity
Bid-Rent Curve
-A geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases
-States that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre
Breaking Point
-The outer edge of a city’s sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city’s hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
-The outer edge of a city’s sphere of influence. Everything inside depends on the city for retail supplies
Concentric Circle Model
-Burgess’ model
-The approach to city growth stating that the modern city assumes a pattern of concentric circles, each with distinctive characteristics
Census Tract
-An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods
-Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the U.S. Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions
Central Business District (CBD)
-Area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
-The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge
Central Place Theory
-Theory by Walter Christaller
-A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
Walter Christaller
-German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated central-place theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers
-Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range
City Beautiful Movement
-Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world
City of the Dead
Colonial Cities
-Cities established by colonizing empires as administrative centers; often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures
-Cities that were deliberately established or developed as administrative commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers
-The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
-Promoting a product to distributors and retailers to get wide distribution, and developing strong advertising and sales campaigns to generate and maintain interest in the product among distributors and consumers
-An aggregation or continuous network of urban communities
-A continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
-Net migration for urban to rural areas in more developed countries
-The movement of people out of metropolitan areas toward smaller towns and rural areas
Cumulative Causation
-Multiplier effect
-A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
Density Gradient
-The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
Disamenity Sector
-The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords
Edge Cities
-Cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment
-Clusters of large buildings away from the central business district
-A term introduced by american journalist joel garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the united states away from the central business district (CBD) toward the loci of economic activity at the urban fringe (extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, modern buildings, less than 30 years old)
Empowerment Zones
-An area where private enterprise (investment) is encouraged by reducing taxes and government regulations
-The economically depressed urban areas that businesses, with the help of government grants, low-interest loans, and tax breaks, try to revive by creating jobs; also known as enterprise zones
-A port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
-Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities
-A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
-Electronic Road Pricing
-The scheme is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system
-Area beyond the suburbs
-Ring of prosperous communities beyond the suburbs that are commuter towns for an urban area; began to emerge in the 1970s when rampant crime and urban decay in U.S. cities were the primary push factors; more recently since house prices have skyrocketed, middle-class people who want a large yard or farm are pushed beyond suburban counties and into “______”
-A shantytown in or near a city, esp. in Brazil; slum area
Festival Market
-European style markets taking hold in the United States in an effort to revitalize downtown areas in major US cities in the late 20th century
-Were a leading downtown revitalization strategy in American cities during the 1970s and 1980s
-The guiding principles are a mix of local tenants instead of chain stores, design of shop stalls and common areas to energize the space, and uncomplicated architectural ornament in order to highlight the goods
-A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
First Urban Revolution
-The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths, which include:
–Nile River Valley
–Indus River Valley
–Huang He and Wei River Valleys
-Occurred 800 years ago
-People became engaged in economic activities beyond agriculture, including crafts, the military, trade, and government
-A public meeting or assembly for open discussion
-Business Center
Forward Capital
-A capital city placed in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic, or symbolic reasons
Functions of a Settlement
-The purpose of a settlement is its main economic activity or purpose
-Types include:
–Industrial Towns (e.g. Sheffield)
–Ports (e.g. Liverpool)
–Market Towns (e.g. Kelso)
–Seaside Resorts (e.g. Blackpool)
–Fishing Ports (e.g. Peterhead)
–Dormitory Settlements (e.g. Haddington)
Gated Communities
-Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon
-A version of segregation: Upper-class segregates all other classes
Gateway City
-Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas
-The process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
-A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
-A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources
-A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
Griffin-Ford Model
Griffin-Ford Model
-Developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene
-Combines elements of Latin American Culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones. Includes a thriving CBD with a commercial spine. The quality of houses decreases as one moves outward away from the CBD, and the areas of worse housing occurs in the Disamenity sectors
-Otherwise known as periphery
-Outer area
-Surrounding area served by an urban center; that center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and it is the dominant urban influence as well
-The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves
Huang He and Wei River Valleys
-One of the locations where the 1st Urban Revolution occurred
Indus River Valley
-One of the locations where the 1st Urban Revolution occurred
Informal Settlements
-Not planned by a recognized planning authority. Constantly evolving. Vacant land is often high risk land. Typically no treated drinking water, electricity, sewage system. Cooking over open fires. Often dominated by slum lords or vigilante groups
Inner City Decay
-Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty
Isolated Settlement
-A house or piece of property that is on its own in a country area
Linear Settlement
-A pattern of settlements in which homes and other buildings follow the lines taken by the road
-Buildings clustered along a road, dike etc. and a narrow field behind them; Called long lot in French
McGee Model
-Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia
-Studied several cities in Southeast Asia and discovered that they shared certain aspects of land-use. Some similarities include:
–Old colonial port zone surrounded by a commercial business district
–Western commercial zone (dominated by Chinese merchants)
–No formal central business district (CBD)
–Hybrid sectors & zones growing rapidly
–New Industrial parks on the outskirts of the city
-Key Concepts:
–The Southeast Asian City Model is similar to the Latin American (Griffin-Ford) City Model in that they each feature high-class residential zones that stem from the center, middle-class residential zones that occur in inner-city areas, and low-income squatter settlements that occur in the periphery
–The main difference between the two models is that the Southeast Asian City Model features middle-income housing in suburban areas. This reflects the larger percentage of middle-class citizens that reside in the peripheral regions than those of Latin America. This may reflect a smaller MC in Latin-American? cities by comparison
–Due to the alien commercial zone these cities also experience a blended culture but also strong ethnic ties
-Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since world War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty
-An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
-This early civilization included Mexico and Central America and it was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production
-First civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means “land between the rivers;” Sumerian culture
Metropolitan Statistical Area
-In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
-A geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area
Micropolitan Statistical Areas
-An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
-Are urban areas in the United States based around an urban cluster (urban area) with a population of 10,000 to 49,999
Modern Architecture
-Point of view, wherein cities and buildings are thought to act like well-oiled units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as coherent economic whole
Morphology of Settlements
-Classification of villages according to their basic morphological features and properties:
-According to the ground plans of settlements, cities, villages, and farmsteads can be distinguished. However, in certain cases there are only vague boundaries between these categories from morphological aspects. Most of the villages [in Tolna County, Hungary] exhbited primarily agricultural activities in the studied area up to the 1960s. The morphological characteristics of the villages can be classified as follows:
-Loosely aggregated settlements : sparsely located houses along more or less developed paved or dirt roads ; 17,6% of the total settlements in Tolna Country belongs to this group
-Cluster villages : network of irregularly shaped houses and yards ; characteristic settlement patter in lowlands ; 43,5% of the total settlements in Tolna County belongs to this group
-Checkerboard villages : more organised villages with dominantly straight, parallel and perpedicular streets, surrounding regularly shaped yards and gardens, usually reflecting recently constructed, young settlements ; this type of settlement is located predominantly in Eastern-Tolna County and many have received township status during the past decade
-Settlements with composite ground plans : conventional settlement ground plan, which has been transformed due to social and economical reasons, ignoring geomorphologic aspects
New Urbanism
-Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs
Nile River Valley
-Chronologically the second urban hearth dating back to 3200 BCE
-Geographical centers of activity. A large city, such as Los Angeles, has numerous nodes
Nucleated Settlement
-A compact, closely packed settlement sharply decorated from adjoining farmlands
-White marble temple built in ancient Athens in honor of Athena
Peak Land Value Intersection
-The region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail
-The most accessible and costly parcel of land in the central business district and, therefore, in the entire urbanized area
-A peripheral area beyond the ring highway that contains squatter settlements-Included in the Griffin-Ford Model updated by Larry Ford
Peripheral Model
-A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
Post-Modern Architecture
-A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. Postmodernism uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclecticism
-Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors
Post-Modern Landscape
-Means abandoning the sheer glass-and-steel skyscrapers and going back to more people-friendly sorts of buildings. This can mean both lower-rise buildings and buildings with more architectural interest
Precolonial Cities
-Few cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that existed before the European colonialization
-Cities in LDCs that were often laid out surrounding a religious core, such as a mosque or temple
-A housing development that may be poor and located in an urban city
Public Housing
-A housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
-Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes
-Housing provided to low-income households, who pay 30% of their income as rent for the housing
-The limits within which something can be effective
Rank-Size Rule
-In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy
-A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Seaside, Florida
-Architect: Robert Davis, Andres Duany, and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
-Very pedestrian friendly, many streets to allow different travel and reduce traffic, move away from automobile, housing lots are narrow and close together to build a sense of community
-Harkens back to small town America feel, size of standard suburban mall, houses come right up to building line without long laws
-New urbanism in rejection of modernism
Second Urban Revolution
-At the end of the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. There was soon to be massive change in Europe. Before it could take place, the second revolution in agriculture had to occur. The places most ready for industrialization have had the second agricultural revolution, surplus capital from mercantilism and colonialism, and were located near coal fields
Sector Model
-A model for urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors
-A social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
Socio-Economic Stratification
-Within a particular society there would be poor, middle, higher class in the society. In a Communist society, there wouldn’t be a upper, middle, and poorer class. But in a democratic, there will be, and more defined
Spaces of Consumption
-Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services’ driven primarily by the global media industry
Sphere of Influence
-The geographical area in which one place is very influential
Squatter Settlements
-Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
-Example: Brazil’s Favelas
-A suburb is a residential area, either existing as part of a city or urban area
-The growth of areas on the fringe of cities
-The southern and southwestern states, from the carolinas to california, characterized by warm climate and recently, rapid population growth
-The population of people required to make economic production possible
-Walter Christaller
Transition Zone
-Area between the factory and working class in the zone of transition model
-In terms of suburbanization
-The United States federal department that institutes and coordinates national transportation programs
-Living in the suburbs means having a private mode to get from home to work back to home
-The physical growth of an area as a result of rural migration and suburban concentration in the city
Urban Hearths
-The orgianl ancient centers of civilization
-Where large cities first existed
-Example: Mesopotamia
Urban Hierarchy
-The structure of towns within an area
-One City
-Couple of towns
-Several villages
-Many smaller villages
Urban Sprawl
-Overtaking of formerly productive agricultural areas and converting the fields into parking lots and subdivisions
Urban Morphology
-The physical form of a city or urban area
Urban Realm Model
-A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multi-centered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD)
Urban Revitalization
-The process occurring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the construction of new shopping districts, entertainment venues, and cultural attractions to entice young urban professionals back into the cities where nightlife and culture are more accessible
World Cities
-A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
-Examples: Tokyo, New York, London, etc.
-Dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence, business, manufacturing, etc.
Zoning Ordinances
-Laws that restrict a part of town to a particular activity or job
-e.g. industrial area, commercial area (shopping [e.g. Orchard Road])
-Environmentally much more pleasant if all the like industries in the same area
-Early in the U.S. there wasn’t really any of this
-South of the Sahara
-Not as severe as the Sahara
-Marginal land
-Carrying capacity of this land is very important (don’t want to many animals, don’t want to over-populate)
-Main environmental danger is the spread of deserts (desertification)
-A specific a large agribusiness that specializes in GM seeds

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