AP History Terms (The 17th and early 18th centuries)

Evangelism
The Christian practice of proselytization
Indentured Servitude
Received a free trip to the Americas in exchange for seven grueling years of service. If they survived, they were granted their freedom and sometimes a plot of land as well. About half died before they were freed.
Joint-Stock Company
A group of investors who bought the right to establish new world plantations from the king
Mercantilism
Exporting more than importing and keeping control of hard currency (as opposed to paper money)
Middle Passage
The shipping route that brought slaves to America. The “middle” leg of triangular trade
Triangular Trade
The three legs of trade from the New World, to Europe, to Africa, and then back to the New World once again. New World sent sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Europe. Europe sent textiles, rum, and manufactured goods to Africa. Africa sent slaves to America.
Proprietary Colony
A colony given as a gift by the King
Royal Colony
A colony owned by the King of England
Salutary Neglect
The time preceding the French and Indian War. British had less governmental and military influence in the colonies at this time.
Tariffs
A tax on foreign goods upon importation
Bacon’s Rebellion
The colonists felt that the colonial government was not trying hard enough to protect them from the Native Americans. A group led by Nathaniel Bacon first attacked two tribes and then turned their attentions to the colonial governor. The rebels marched into Jamestown and burned it down.
Glorious Revolution in England
The English overthrew King James II and replaced him with William and Mary
Great Awakening
The first movement of religious revival
Great Migration
The Puritan migration from England to Massachusetts Bay led by John Winthrop
King Philip’s War
Led by Native American lead Metacomet (King Philip). He led attacks on colonial settlements that were on their land.
King William’s War
War against French and Native Americans on Canadian border
Pequot War
The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Nearly 130 “witches” were jailed or executed in Salem
The Starving Time
Settlers in Jamestown weren’t used to working so that they could eat and so they began to starve. Some resorted to canibilism and others joined nearby tribes.
Stono Uprising
The first and most successful slave rebellion. It took place 70 years after slavery began in America
Absolutists
Monarchists who believed that the government got its power from God.
Congregationalists
Puritans who wanted to reform the church from within.
Jonathan Edwards
A Congregationalist preacher of the Great Awakening who spoke of the fiery depths of hell.
Benjamin Franklin
Self-made, self-educated man who wrote the Poor Richard’s Almanac. He was also and inventor.
Anne Hutchinson
Believed in antinomialism which is the belief that faith alone was enough to receive God’s grace. (not performing good deeds for the church)
Pilgrims
Wished to separate from the Church of England
Pocahontas
The daughter of the Powhatan Chief. She was married to Englishman John Rolfe.
Powhatan
The tribe that helped the Jamestown colony. They taught them how to plant crops and how to survive.
Puritans
Were interested in purifying and reforming the Church of England.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sponsored a settlement on Roanoke Island. (the Lost Colony)
Separatists
Were so appalled by the Church of England that they abandoned it.
John Smith
Founder of Jamestown
George Whitefield
Another preacher of the Great Awakening who was originally from England
Roger Williams
Founded Rhode Island Colony after being banished from Massachusetts for believing in separation of church and state.
Charter Colony
Established by groups of settlers who were granted charters by the king
The Chesapeake
Region named after the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland area). Inhabited mostly by single male farmers. This area is between the middle and southern colonies.
Jamestown
The first lasting colony (since Roanoke Island was a failure) Founded by the Virginia Company (joint-stock company)
The Lower South
(Carolinas) Main industries: Tobacco, rice, indigo, and slavery.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
A large and powerful colony formed by the Congregationalists
Middle Colonies
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Nicknamed “Bread Colonies” because of their fertile soil.
New England
Northern colonies. They were more religious, and had more large families. They tended to have tight-knit communities, lived longer, had larger towns, and lived closer together.
Dominion of New England
British attempt to clamp down on illegal trade.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution in the Western tradition
Halfway Covenant
People no longer had to have a religious epiphany to become a member of the church. If you were the son or daughter of a member of the church you could automatically become a member. Those who had not experienced God’s grace could not vote though.
Maryland Toleration Act
Granted religious toleration in Maryland
Mayflower Compact
Basic legal system for colony: power came from the governed, not from a monarch or God
Navigation Acts
Colonists could only buy from England and must only sell to England