AP Euro Semester One Final Exam Study Guide

Fought on Friday 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin’s Day), in northern France as part of the Hundred Years’ War that involved Kings Henry V of England and Charles VI of France. The battle is notable for the use of the English longbow, which Henry used in very large numbers, with longbow men forming the vast majority of his army. The battle was also immortalized by William Shakespeare as the centerpiece of his play Henry V.
Hundred Years War
(1337-1453) Conflict over the succession to the French throne and control over French lands
Renaissance Art
3D, responded to light/shading, religious and everyday situations, active and looked real , A kind of art in which figures are religious or non-religious, figures look realistic, there is an interest in nature, it is three dimensional, and people are showed with emotion and are active. Light, Shadows, People in every day life. Medici family was the largest patron of the arts.
Catholic Church during the Renaissance
Most of the churches teachings were being proved wrong
Italian Humanists
Renaissance writers that wrote in latin. Were not part of the clergy unlike earlier writers. Found inspiration from the ancients. Searched for Grecco Roman texts to examine and wrote for secular purposes. Men of letters.
Northern Humanists
cultivated a knowledge of the classics, returned to the writings of antiquity, focused on the sources of early Christianity, the Holy Scriptures, and the writings of such church fathers as Augustine, Ambrose, and Jerome
Luther’s Beliefs
Salvation by faith alone, The Bible is the ultimate authority, the grace of God brings absolution (not indulgences or confession), Baptism and communion are the only valid sacraments, Consubstantiation, not literal but that God was somehow actually present in more than a symbolic way, clergy is not superior to the laity, marriage is permitted, the church should be subordinate to the state.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and some Lutheran princes. It provided the first legal basis fro the co-existence of Catholicism and Lutheranism.
English Reformation
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
Catholic Religious Orders
a category of Catholic religious institutes.
Subcategories are canons regular (canons and canonesses regular who recite the divine office and serve a church and perhaps a parish); monastics (monks or nuns living and working in a monastery and reciting the divine office); mendicants (friars or religious sisters who live from alms, recite the divine office, and, in the case of the men, participate in apostolic activities); and clerks regular (priests who take religious vows and have a very active apostolic life).
Exploration Motivations
Three G’s. God, Gold and Glory
Control of Egypt
Spice road, trade route
Explored for profit and to expand trade through spices & precious metals
an astronomical instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars and for the solution of other problems in astronomy and navigation
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese navigator whose 1487-88 Atlantic voyage around the southern tip of Africa opened sea routes between Europe and Asia
-was the leader/captain of the first people to circumnavigate the world, led Spanish expedition to Philippines
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Cardinal Richelieu
Known by the title of the King’s “Chief Minister” or “First Minister.” He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Thomas Hobbes
An English philosopher, remembered today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.
An economic theory that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital. Economic assets or capital, are represented by bullion (gold, silver) held by the state. The ruling government should advance these goals by encouraging exports and discouraging imports
Glorious Revolution
A bloodless revolt in England against Catholic King James II that led to his overthrow and the appointment of Protestant daughter Mary to the throne. These events in England allowed many colonists in America to get rid of hated officials too
(1619-1683) – The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies.
Ottoman Empire
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
Frederick William I
(1713-1740) Calvinist; his reforms were intended to subordinate both aristocracy and peasantry to the needs of the state + subordinate needs of the states to the demands of the military; integrated economic +military structures of state; appointed only German officers to command troops, eliminating mercenaries who sold their services to the highest bidder; placed noblemen at head of locally recruited regiments; every adult male required to register for service in regiment of local landlord; by end of reign, almost 70% of state expenditures went to army, pacific foreign policy
Alexander Nevsky
Prince of Moscow who in 1252 started the tradition of paying homage to the “golden horde.” Established the princely loyalty to the Mongols by paying taxes to them and putting down uprisings against mongol occupation
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg’s, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Official end of the Thirty Years’ War in Germany, recognized Calvinism as a legitimate religion, Swiss Independence as well as the formation of the Dutch Republic.
David Hume
(1711-1776), argued that the human mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions which originate in sense experiences, reason cannot tell us anything that cannot be verified by sense experiences, undermined the Enlightenment’s faith in reason
Erosion of French Absolutism
Factors: Louis XIV died, Nobility limited kings power
Medieval Universe
Geocentricism – Centered around the Earth, heavenly spheres
A popular style in Europe in the eighteenth century, known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids.
1473-1543. Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) English mathematician and natural philosopher; he discovered the law of gravity as well as laws on the physics of objects., English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Gathering of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment to discuss doctrines
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
Medieval universities provided framework, new professorships in natural philosophy, Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics, overseas expansion created a need for scientific advances, scientific methodology (scientific method)
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke, 1690, human mind has no innate ideas, what people know is not the world but the result of the interactions of the mind with the world
A collaboration of many Enlightenment writers that aimed to gather together knowledge about science, religion, industry, and society.
The General Will
Philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau used this phrase to refer to the common good, or the best interests of the community as a whole
Immanuel Kant
Professor in East Prussia, argued that if serious thinkers were granted freedom to exercise their reason in print, enlightenment would surely follow. He said that Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he allowed this.
Race during the Enlightenment
Non-Europeans genetically less than Europeans, judged for that
Frederick II
“Frederick The Great”-1712-1786;King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform. — Enlightened Ruler
Empress Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy’s political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Dutch farming
Drained and reclaimed land from the sea that was used for farming. Dairy products, beef, and cash products like tulip bulbs
Jethro Tull
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
Agricultural Revolution
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
Putting-Out System
A system developed in the eighteenth century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry.
Someone who spins (who twists fibers into threads) —- Unmarried/ widowed weaver
Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Early public health measures
drainage of swamps, inoculation against smallpox in England, improved sewage systems, cleaner water supplies
Colonial Conflicts
Britain and the colonies began to argue over increasing taxes to help pay for the war debt
Wealth of Nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies. -Capitalism
Adam Smith’s Beliefs
he thought natural economic forces of supply and demand were linked to profit and economic growth, admired physiocrats, supported laissez faire