AP Euro Essay 12

Intro:
– Peter the Great of Russia and Louis XIV of France
– Peter learned from Western Europe
– Louis made France successful in Europe because of advanced economy and political system
– Both attempted to obtain power by domestic policies, military ways, and religious beliefs
Domestic Policies:
– Both had strong domestic policies
– Louis afraid of nobles (had power to start rebellions)
– Limited power but kept them contempt with balls and operas
– Granted high social status in return for funding and taxes for the French military
– Invited them to live in Versailles to spy by enlisting secret police and spies
– Louis had good finance minister (Colbert)
– Colbert enforced mercantilism in France
– Improved communication and transportation by building more roads and canals
– Established merchant marine to transport French goods
Domestic Policies (cont):
– Peter maintained control over Boyars
– Stressed on education and military
– Issued the Table of Ranks
– Children of nobility had to have 5 years of top-class education away from home (western Europe) and serve in the military
– Increased taxes by three fold and strengthened authoritarian ways of Western Europe
– Remodeled St. Petersburg in the ways of Western Europe and Baroque styles
– Widened split between peasants and nobility by improving education
Militarily:
– Both were successful
– Louis was at war for most part of his reign
– Increased army by 10 fold
– Many wins, for example winning the regions of the French-Comte and Flemish towns
– Had ambulance corps, standardized uniforms, weapons and systems of training for soldiers
– Defeated at war of Spanish Succession with the Peace of Utrecht(1713)
– Peter was also in war for a long time
– At first, Russia was lagging behind, but Peter formed alliances with Austria and Poland against the Ottomans to gain warm water ports for trade
– Made the army professional and powerful with ideas from the west
– Beat Sweden in Great Northern War and became dominant power of the Baltic Sea
Religious:
– Louis evoked Edict of Nantes with Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685
– Wanted whole of France to be Catholic
– But Peter allowed limited religious freedom
– He continued the system of Catherine the Great, who didn’t feel that religion was necessary to unite a country

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