AP Essay – isolation to intervention essay

Johnson-Reed Act
Revised the 1921 Immigration Act by changing the national quotas to 2% of number of foreign born counted of the nationality in 1890; Restore racial purity of 1890 census; Focused on eliminating Southern & Eastern Europeans
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Treaty of Versailles
(WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Fordney McCumber Tariff – 1922
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.
Red Scare
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20’s. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. “Those anarchists bastards”. Sentenced to death and executed.
Palmer Raids – 1920
(part of the Red Scare) A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
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Hawley Smoot – 1930
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
Quarantine Speech – 1937
The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan’s invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.
Good Neighbor Policy – 1933
FDR’s foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Nye Committee – 1934
1934. Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers “merchants of death.”
Neutrality Acts – 1935-1939
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
merchants of death
Term used by Senator Gerald P. Nye to describe the munitions-makers whom he blamed for forcing the United States into World War 1. Nye headed a committee that investigated the industry from 1934 to 1936.
cash and carry – 1939
countries such as Britain and France would have to pay for American goods in cash and provide transportation for them. This would keep US ships out of the war zone and eliminate the need for war loans
lend lease – 1941
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered “vital to the defense of the United States.”
arsenal of democracy – 1940
Slogan coined by FDR. Roosevelt promised to help the United Kingdom fight Nazi Germany by giving them military supplies while the United States stayed out of the actual fighting.
Stimson Doctrine – 1932
1932, Hoover’s Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan’s invasion of Manchuria
Burke Wadsworth Act – 1940
First Military Draft when US wasn’t at war
Bases for Destroyers
1940. Roosevelt gave Britain 50 WWI destroyers in exchange for 8 British naval bases in Caribbean. Britain needed destroyers to help escort convoys accross Atlantic Ocean. Roosevelt took action without consulting Congress.
Undeclared War in Atlantic
summer to fall 1941
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker. (1940-41)
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war