AP Eng Writing McNeal

3 Principal Parts of Writing
1) Planning
2) Drafting
3) Revision
Selecting a topic
Keep in mind the assignment, purpose/subject, audience, personal interest, and available resources
rhetorical modes
definition, causal analysis, descriptive, narrative, argument, controversy, persuasion
Keep in mind the audience’s…
biases and prejudices, likes and dislikes, attitudes, special interests, and level of knowledge
thesis
the point you intend to make in your essay; should be in paragraph one and should include a hint of the essay’s organization
tone
your apparent attitude toward your subject
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use of data
credibility or believability of your sources, age of your material, and its direct application to your thesis
process
anything with steps
planning steps
-choose and limit a topic (scope)
-gather data (something to say)
-analyze audience
-state purpose
-create a working thesis
-evaluate and organize EVIDENCE
statement of purpose
-must never appear in an essay (i.e., “I will prove that….”)
-helps clarify in our own minds what we want to accomplish
– answers the question, “what is the lesson?”
drafting
when you say what you’re going to say, and put in on paper as QUICKLY and SPONTANEOUSLY as possible
revision
making the paper better by checking for thoroughness, style, and mechanics, and making certain the paper is clear and appropriate for the intended audience.
topic sentence
-OPENS a topic that can be further developed
-LIMITS the scope of the paragraph
-SETS the tone of the writer toward the subject
what a paragraph should include
-a good topic sentence
-adequate, specific EVIDENCE
-a reason to read the paragraph
-a good conclusion or transition
diction
word choice
syntax
sentence structure
empirical evidence
-incidents and anecdotes related to topic (from the text)
-specific examples from the text
-credible observations
divide and conquer
determine the points that the audience will need clarified to accept your theme as valid
theme
lesson about life and/or human nature that can be derived from literature or the subject of discussion
types of analysis
-thematic
-reader response
-character analysis
beginning devices
-explain the larger context of your topic
-state your thesis
-offer background information
-define key terms or concepts
-connect your topic to reader’s interests or values
-start with something that will provoke a reader response
-start with an anecdote
-ask a question
ending devices
-restate your main point in other words
-discuss the implications (significance) for your argument. (tailored to a specific audience)
-end with an anecdote that illustrates your main point
-refer to the beginning
-propose some specific course of action
4 T’s
titles (suggest content)
thesis (directly states your opinion and the idea the essay is built around)
topic sentence (what the point is)
transition
essay requirements
-discernible purpose
-execution of purpose
-credibility of research-proven evidence, reasoning (logic)
-presentation- neatness
-clarity- diction, syntax, coherence, and structure