AP Art History: Greek and Roman Art

Name: Kouros
Date: 600 BCE (Archaic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: 6'6
Name: Kouros

Date: 600 BCE (Archaic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: 6’6″, arms conjoined to thighs

Function: Funerary purpose, votive offerings, grave markers

Content: Stance is similar to Egyptian canon, rigidly frontal, left foot forward, generic idealistic, nude male

Context: Daedalic style

Name: Kroisos
Date: 530 BCE (Archaic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: 6' tall
Function: Funerary purpose, grave markers, votive offerings
Content: Rounded face and cheeks, hair falls naturally, round hips, abs, flesh stayed color of stone while everything else was painted
Context: Compared to Kouros: more natural and proportionate
Name: Kroisos

Date: 530 BCE (Archaic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: 6′ tall

Function: Funerary purpose, grave markers, votive offerings

Content: Rounded face and cheeks, hair falls naturally, round hips, abs, flesh stayed color of stone while everything else was painted

Context: Compared to Kouros: more natural and proportionate

Name: Lady of Auxerre
Date: 650 BCE (Archaic) 
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Daedalic Style - mainly decorative, realism
Function: Decoration
Content: Broad head, hair is in layered wigs, clothes do not have folds, geometric/oriental patterns, used to be painted, hand on chest is not proportional because hands are hard to create
Context: N/A
Name: Lady of Auxerre

Date: 650 BCE (Archaic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Daedalic Style – mainly decorative, realism

Function: Decoration

Content: Broad head, hair is in layered wigs, clothes do not have folds, geometric/oriental patterns, used to be painted, hand on chest is not proportional because hands are hard to create

Context: N/A

Name: Peplos Kore
Date: 530 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece, found in the grounds of the Acropolis
Artist: Unknown
Form: Full body of woman, 4' tall
Function: Votive statue
Content: Wearing Peplose - simple, long woolen, belted garments; round, natural face, hair falls naturally
Context: Offering to Athena
Name: Peplos Kore

Date: 530 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece, found in the grounds of the Acropolis

Artist: Unknown

Form: Full body of woman, 4′ tall

Function: Votive statue

Content: Wearing Peplose – simple, long woolen, belted garments; round, natural face, hair falls naturally

Context: Offering to Athena

Name: Kore
Date: 520 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: 1'9.5
Name: Kore

Date: 520 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: 1’9.5″

Function: Votive offerings

Content: Clothes – Chiton and Himation; folds in garments, patterns, lifting chiton off the ground with her left hand, left foot forward

Context: Compared to the Peplos Kore

Name: Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice
Date: 530 BCE
Medium: Black figure amphora
Location: Greece
Artist: Exekias
Form: Krater, linear - one story/one register
Function: To hold water or wine
Content: Shape of men mimics amphora, subdued emotions, legs in reflective pose, 
Context: Achilles and Ajax are very concentrated, and in Greek culture, concentration is valued, Achilles rolls 4, Ajax rolls 3 and Achilles wins. This is ironic because Achilles ends up losing the war by dying.
Name: Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice

Date: 530 BCE

Medium: Black figure amphora

Location: Greece

Artist: Exekias

Form: Krater, linear – one story/one register

Function: To hold water or wine

Content: Shape of men mimics amphora, subdued emotions, legs in reflective pose,

Context: Achilles and Ajax are very concentrated, and in Greek culture, concentration is valued, Achilles rolls 4, Ajax rolls 3 and Achilles wins. This is ironic because Achilles ends up losing the war by dying.

Name: Niobides Krater
Date: 450 BCE
Medium: Clay, red figure with white highlights
Location: Greece
Artist: Niobid Painter
Form: Krater, severe style, not linear, no ground line, 3D space and depth
Function: Unknown (maybe to hold stuff)
Content: Two sides: Relaxed and Murder
Context: The Relaxed side: Heracles and Athena, Descent into Hades to rescue Theseus. The Murder side: complex, Niobe bragged superiority because she had 14 kids and the goddess Leto only had two (Artemis and Apollo), Niobe guilty of hubris (extreme pride)
Name: Niobides Krater

Date: 450 BCE

Medium: Clay, red figure with white highlights

Location: Greece

Artist: Niobid Painter

Form: Krater, severe style, not linear, no ground line, 3D space and depth

Function: Unknown (maybe to hold stuff)

Content: Two sides: Relaxed and Murder

Context: The Relaxed side: Heracles and Athena, Descent into Hades to rescue Theseus. The Murder side: complex, Niobe bragged superiority because she had 14 kids and the goddess Leto only had two (Artemis and Apollo), Niobe guilty of hubris (extreme pride)

Name: Kritios Boy
Date: 480 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Contrapposto (relaxed stance, shoulders back, hip out)
Function: To display a more realistic portrayal of a human body
Content: Shift in weight - more weight placed on hips
Context:
Name: Kritios Boy

Date: 480 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Contrapposto (relaxed stance, shoulders back, hip out)

Function: To display a more realistic portrayal of a human body

Content: Shift in weight – more weight placed on hips

Context:

Name: Doryphorus
Date: 480 BCE
Medium: marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Polykleitos
Form: 2'10
Name: Doryphorus

Date: 480 BCE

Medium: marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Polykleitos

Form: 2’10”, canon for perfection, symmetry to all body parts

Function: To display the ideal male figure

Content: Broad shoulders, thick torso, muscular, warrior/athlete, looking away = thinking, dynamic of movement
Context: Polykleitos made two statues: one according to his canon (Doryphorus) and another based on the people’s wants, Doryphorus looked better and more natural.

Name: Parthenon
Date: 
Medium: Marble
Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Artist: Iktinos and Kallikrates
Form: Doric columns outside, Ionic columns in the cella
Function: To house a massive statue of Athena
Content: X=2Y+1 [17 columns on side (x) and 8 columns on the front (y)]; 2 windows in cella
Context: Greeks had just won the Persian War and wanted to show off
Name: Parthenon

Date:

Medium: Marble

Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece

Artist: Iktinos and Kallikrates

Form: Doric columns outside, Ionic columns in the cella

Function: To house a massive statue of Athena

Content: X=2Y+1 [17 columns on side (x) and 8 columns on the front (y)]; 2 windows in cella

Context: Greeks had just won the Persian War and wanted to show off

Name: Athenos Parthenos
Date: 438 BCE
Medium: Wood, covered in gold and ivory
Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Artist: Phidias
Form: 38' tall
Function: To celebrate and show off the Greek's power
Content: The Goddess Athena
Context: The Greeks had just won the Persian War
Name: Athenos Parthenos

Date: 438 BCE

Medium: Wood, covered in gold and ivory

Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece

Artist: Phidias

Form: 38′ tall

Function: To celebrate and show off the Greek’s power

Content: The Goddess Athena

Context: The Greeks had just won the Persian War

Name: Helios, Horses, and Dionysus
Date: 438 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: East pediment sculpture, triangular shape
Function: 
Content: Birth of Athena from the head of Zeus. Demeter and Persephone are seated and watching 
Context: Part of Lord Elgin's Marbles
Name: Helios, Horses, and Dionysus

Date: 438 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: East pediment sculpture, triangular shape

Function:

Content: Birth of Athena from the head of Zeus. Demeter and Persephone are seated and watching

Context: Part of Lord Elgin’s Marbles

Name: Plaque of the Ergastines
Date: 438 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist:
Form: Panatheraic Frieze; 3D so that viewers could see it from below; high relief
Function: 
Content: Six Ergastines who were responsible for weaving the peplos
Context: Every four years Athenians would hold a procession for Athena where they would place a new peplos on the Athena statue.
Name: Plaque of the Ergastines

Date: 438 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist:

Form: Panatheraic Frieze; 3D so that viewers could see it from below; high relief

Function:

Content: Six Ergastines who were responsible for weaving the peplos

Context: Every four years Athenians would hold a procession for Athena where they would place a new peplos on the Athena statue.

Name: Propylaia
Date: 437 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Artist: Mnesilkes
Form: Doric Exterior, Ionic Interior
Function: Entrance to the Acropolis, Athenians walked through it during the Panathenaic Festival
Content: Unfinished
Context: Unfinished because of the Peloponnesian War
Name: Propylaia

Date: 437 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece

Artist: Mnesilkes

Form: Doric Exterior, Ionic Interior

Function: Entrance to the Acropolis, Athenians walked through it during the Panathenaic Festival

Content: Unfinished

Context: Unfinished because of the Peloponnesian War

Name: The Erecthion
Date: 410 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Carytids - female shaped columns, Ionic Temple
Function: Tombs and shrines
Content: Carytids, Ionic columns, tombs, and shrines
Context: Marks the spot where Athena beat Poseidon to become patron of Athens
Name: The Erecthion

Date: 410 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Carytids – female shaped columns, Ionic Temple

Function: Tombs and shrines

Content: Carytids, Ionic columns, tombs, and shrines

Context: Marks the spot where Athena beat Poseidon to become patron of Athens

Name: Temple of Athena Nike
Date: 420 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Ionic style, Amphiprostyle - 4 columns in the front and 4 in the back
Function: 
Content: 
Context: Celebrates the Victory over the Persians at the 
Battle of Marathon
Name: Temple of Athena Nike

Date: 420 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: The Acropolis in Athens, Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Ionic style, Amphiprostyle – 4 columns in the front and 4 in the back

Function:

Content:

Context: Celebrates the Victory over the Persians at the
Battle of Marathon

Name: Grave Stele of Hegeso
Date: 410 BCE
Medium: Painted marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Kallimachos
Form: Relief sculpture
Function: To mark a grave
Content: Woman examining jewelry from a jewelry box handed to her by a servant, could be a dowry
Context: Commemorates the death of Hegeso, the inscription identifies her and her father.
Name: Grave Stele of Hegeso

Date: 410 BCE

Medium: Painted marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Kallimachos

Form: Relief sculpture

Function: To mark a grave

Content: Woman examining jewelry from a jewelry box handed to her by a servant, could be a dowry

Context: Commemorates the death of Hegeso, the inscription identifies her and her father.

Name: Scraper (Apoxymenos)
Date: 330 BCE
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Lysippos
Form: 6'9
Name: Scraper (Apoxymenos)

Date: 330 BCE

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Lysippos

Form: 6’9″, head 1/8 of body

Function:

Content: Thin form, small head, elongated body, eyes closely set, far away look on face

Context: Scrapers scraped off the oil, sweat, and dirt from athletes

Name: Weary Herakles
Date: 320 BCE (Classical)
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Lysippos
Form: Complete sculpture 360 degrees (freestanding figure)
Function: Placed in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome for body inspiration(?)
Content: Muscular Herakles, tired, holding an apple behind his back
Context: IDK
Name: Weary Herakles

Date: 320 BCE (Classical)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Lysippos

Form: Complete sculpture 360 degrees (freestanding figure)

Function: Placed in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome for body inspiration(?)

Content: Muscular Herakles, tired, holding an apple behind his back

Context: IDK

Name: Stoa of Attalos II
Date: 150 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: IDK
Location: The Agora in Athens, Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Tholos - round temple; stoas, covered colonnades, porticos, doric ground level, ionic second floor
Function: Commercial, religious, civic and social buildings, part of the marketplace of the Acropolis - the Agora
Content: 2 stories, 21 shops
Context: For common people
Name: Stoa of Attalos II

Date: 150 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: IDK

Location: The Agora in Athens, Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Tholos – round temple; stoas, covered colonnades, porticos, doric ground level, ionic second floor

Function: Commercial, religious, civic and social buildings, part of the marketplace of the Acropolis – the Agora

Content: 2 stories, 21 shops

Context: For common people

Name: Alter of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
Date: 175 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Pergamon, Turkey
Artist: Unknown
Form: Elevated platform, dramatic stairs, 7'6
Name: Alter of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon

Date: 175 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Pergamon, Turkey

Artist: Unknown

Form: Elevated platform, dramatic stairs, 7’6″ frieze over 400 ft long wraps around monument, Ionic columns, high relief

Function: Altar dedicated to Zeus

Content: Gigantomachy

Context: Nike crowns Athena, Gaia looks up in honor and pleads for her sons (the giants)

Name: Gaic Chiefton Killing Himself and His Wife
Date: Hellenistic
Medium: Marble
Location: Pergamon, Turkey
Artist: Epigonos
Form: 
Function:
Content: Look at title
Context:
Name: Gaic Chiefton Killing Himself and His Wife

Date: Hellenistic

Medium: Marble

Location: Pergamon, Turkey

Artist: Epigonos

Form:

Function:

Content: Look at title

Context:

Name: Dying Gual
Date: Hellenistic
Medium: Marble
Location: 
Artist: Epigonos
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Name: Dying Gual

Date: Hellenistic

Medium: Marble

Location:

Artist: Epigonos

Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:

Name: Nike of Samothrace
Date: 190 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Found in situ in Samothrace, Contropposto
Function: Meant to stand in/above fountain
Content: Wet drapery, invisible wind, goddess Nike
Context: Celebrates a naval victory
Name: Nike of Samothrace

Date: 190 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Found in situ in Samothrace, Contropposto

Function: Meant to stand in/above fountain

Content: Wet drapery, invisible wind, goddess Nike

Context: Celebrates a naval victory

Name: Aphrodite (Venus de Milo)
Date: 150 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander
Form: Contrapposto
Function: 
Content: Elegant pose, S curve, hands are holding apple and robe
Context:
Name: Aphrodite (Venus de Milo)

Date: 150 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander

Form: Contrapposto

Function:

Content: Elegant pose, S curve, hands are holding apple and robe

Context:

Name: Seated Boxer
Date: 100 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: Bronze
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form: Emotional, compassionate
Function: People would rub its toes for good luck
Content: Boxer after a defeat, old man
Context: Toes worn away, good luck
Name: Seated Boxer

Date: 100 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: Bronze

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form: Emotional, compassionate

Function: People would rub its toes for good luck

Content: Boxer after a defeat, old man

Context: Toes worn away, good luck

Name: Old Market Woman
Date: 100 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Greece
Artist: Unknown
Form:
Function:
Content: Old woman carrying baskets from the market
Context: Hellenistic art deviated from the usual perfect canon of Classical art, so more veristic art like this was made.
Name: Old Market Woman

Date: 100 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Greece

Artist: Unknown

Form:

Function:

Content: Old woman carrying baskets from the market

Context: Hellenistic art deviated from the usual perfect canon of Classical art, so more veristic art like this was made.

Name: Laocoon and His Sons
Date: 100 BCE (Hellenistic)
Medium: Marble
Location:
Artist:
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Name: Laocoon and His Sons

Date: 100 BCE (Hellenistic)

Medium: Marble

Location:

Artist:

Form:

Function:

Content:

Context:

Name: Tumuli in the Banditaccia Necropolis
Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)
Medium: Limestone bedrock
Location: Corveteri, Italy
Artist: Etruscans
Form: 200 acres, in situ
Function: Tombs
Content: Arranged into streets, orderly necropolis
Context: bigger structure = wealthier family
Name: Tumuli in the Banditaccia Necropolis

Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)

Medium: Limestone bedrock

Location: Corveteri, Italy

Artist: Etruscans

Form: 200 acres, in situ

Function: Tombs

Content: Arranged into streets, orderly necropolis

Context: bigger structure = wealthier family

Name: Tomb of the Seats and Shields
Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)
Medium: Limestone bedrock
Location: Cerveteri, Italy
Artist: Etruscans
Form: 
Function: Tombs for the dead
Content: 6 beds, 2 high backed chairs with foot stools, door frames, ceiling beams, windows and other furniture, 14 shields on the wall
Context:
Name: Tomb of the Seats and Shields

Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)

Medium: Limestone bedrock

Location: Cerveteri, Italy

Artist: Etruscans

Form:

Function: Tombs for the dead

Content: 6 beds, 2 high backed chairs with foot stools, door frames, ceiling beams, windows and other furniture, 14 shields on the wall

Context:

Name: Tomb of the Triclinium
Date: 480 BCE (Etruscan)
Medium: fresco
Location: Tarquinia, Italy
Artist: Etruscans
Form: Tomb with frescos on every wall
Function: Tomb
Content: Banquet of some sort, women, men, trees, shrubbery, checkerboard pattern
Context:
Name: Tomb of the Triclinium

Date: 480 BCE (Etruscan)

Medium: fresco

Location: Tarquinia, Italy

Artist: Etruscans

Form: Tomb with frescos on every wall

Function: Tomb

Content: Banquet of some sort, women, men, trees, shrubbery, checkerboard pattern

Context:

Name: Sarcophagus of a Reclining Couple
Date: 520 BCE (Etruscan)
Medium: Terra cotta
Location: Italy
Artist: Etruscans
Form: Sarcophagus with sculpture on top, separate pieces joined together
Function: To hold the dead
Content: Full length portraits of a married couple, Hands holding food - maybe as an offering to the gods,
Upper body is detailed, lower body isn't, awkward positioning of bodies
Context:
Name: Sarcophagus of a Reclining Couple

Date: 520 BCE (Etruscan)

Medium: Terra cotta

Location: Italy

Artist: Etruscans

Form: Sarcophagus with sculpture on top, separate pieces joined together

Function: To hold the dead

Content: Full length portraits of a married couple, Hands holding food – maybe as an offering to the gods,
Upper body is detailed, lower body isn’t, awkward positioning of bodies

Context:

Name: Temple of Minerva
Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)
Medium: mud brick/ tufa and wood
Location: Italy
Artist: Etruscans
Form: 
Function:
Content:
Context:
Name: Temple of Minerva

Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)

Medium: mud brick/ tufa and wood

Location: Italy

Artist: Etruscans

Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:

Name: Apulu from Veii
Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)
Medium: Painted terra-cotta
Location: The Temple of Minerva in Italy
Artist: Etruscans
Form: Very large
Function: Stood on roof of the temple, meant to be seen from below
Content: Apulu (Apollo), movement, Archaic smile
Context:
Name: Apulu from Veii

Date: 500 BCE (Etruscan)

Medium: Painted terra-cotta

Location: The Temple of Minerva in Italy

Artist: Etruscans

Form: Very large

Function: Stood on roof of the temple, meant to be seen from below

Content: Apulu (Apollo), movement, Archaic smile

Context:

Name: Head of Roman Partrician
Date: 50 BCE (Republic)
Medium: Marble
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Unknown
Form: Veristic - realistic
Function: To display class, wealth, and lineage
Content: Roman Patrician
Context: Old = wisdom and knowledge
Name: Head of Roman Partrician

Date: 50 BCE (Republic)

Medium: Marble

Location: Rome, Italy

Artist: Unknown

Form: Veristic – realistic

Function: To display class, wealth, and lineage

Content: Roman Patrician

Context: Old = wisdom and knowledge

Name: House of the Vettii
Date: 100 BCE - 100CE (Republic & Empire)
Medium: Stone and fresco
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Large reception area (atrium), open to the sky (impluvium) cubicula around atrium, axial symmetry - you can see all the way through
Function: A home for living
Content: Paintings/Murals on walls, Shop in front, house behind it
Context: Two merchant brothers owned the house
Name: House of the Vettii

Date: 100 BCE – 100CE (Republic & Empire)

Medium: Stone and fresco

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Large reception area (atrium), open to the sky (impluvium) cubicula around atrium, axial symmetry – you can see all the way through

Function: A home for living

Content: Paintings/Murals on walls, Shop in front, house behind it

Context: Two merchant brothers owned the house

Name: Augustus of Primaporta
Date: 20 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Marble
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Idealistic, Polykleitos canon, Contrapposto, orator pose, back is uncarved
Function: To showcase Augustus' power and divinity for propaganda 
Content: Augustus standing in orator pose barefoot (because he's walking on holy ground) with Cupid riding a dolphin next to him.
Context: Emperors were believed to be divine, which is why Augustus portrayed himself as god like.
Name: Augustus of Primaporta

Date: 20 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Marble

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Idealistic, Polykleitos canon, Contrapposto, orator pose, back is uncarved

Function: To showcase Augustus’ power and divinity for propaganda

Content: Augustus standing in orator pose barefoot (because he’s walking on holy ground) with Cupid riding a dolphin next to him.

Context: Emperors were believed to be divine, which is why Augustus portrayed himself as god like.

Name: Treasury and Great Temple
Date: 100 CE (Empire)
Medium: Cut rock
Location: Petra, Jordan
Artist: Nabataeans - nomadic group
Form: Broken pediment, Tholos - treasury, Corinthian columns; Greek, Egyptian, and Assyrian gods on façade.
Function: Tombs
Content: 500 royal tombs
Context: Burial practices are still unknown because no human remains have been found
Name: Treasury and Great Temple

Date: 100 CE (Empire)

Medium: Cut rock

Location: Petra, Jordan

Artist: Nabataeans – nomadic group

Form: Broken pediment, Tholos – treasury, Corinthian columns; Greek, Egyptian, and Assyrian gods on façade.

Function: Tombs

Content: 500 royal tombs

Context: Burial practices are still unknown because no human remains have been found

Name: Pont du Gard
Date: 16 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Concrete?
Location: Nimes, France
Artist: Unknown
Form: Two layers of arches, 30 miles long
Function: To carry water, Aqueduct
Content: Can carry 100 gallons of water/day
Context: Water comes from springs and aquifers
Name: Pont du Gard

Date: 16 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Concrete?

Location: Nimes, France

Artist: Unknown

Form: Two layers of arches, 30 miles long

Function: To carry water, Aqueduct

Content: Can carry 100 gallons of water/day

Context: Water comes from springs and aquifers

Name: The Colosseum
Date: 80 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Concrete
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Unknown but the Flavian Empire financed it
Form: Barrel vaults, groin vaults, arches, façade has engaged columns: 1st level - Tuscan, 2nd level - Ionic, 3rd level - Corinthian. Retractable roof
Function: Entertainment
Content: 76 entrances and exists, different tiers, could hold 50,000 people, giant arena in middle
Context: The different tiers are meant for different social classes
Name: The Colosseum

Date: 80 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Concrete

Location: Rome, Italy

Artist: Unknown but the Flavian Empire financed it

Form: Barrel vaults, groin vaults, arches, façade has engaged columns: 1st level – Tuscan, 2nd level – Ionic, 3rd level – Corinthian. Retractable roof

Function: Entertainment

Content: 76 entrances and exists, different tiers, could hold 50,000 people, giant arena in middle

Context: The different tiers are meant for different social classes

Name: Ves Pasian
Date: 75 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Marble
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Bust
Function: Veristic to show that the emperor is a normal citizen too
Content: Flavian Emperor
Context: He built the Colosseum
Name: Ves Pasian

Date: 75 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Marble

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Bust

Function: Veristic to show that the emperor is a normal citizen too

Content: Flavian Emperor

Context: He built the Colosseum

Name: Arch of Titus
Date: 81 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Stone
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Unknown
Form: One passageway, Composite capital - both Corinthian and Ionic, Spandrels - Nike
Function: Triumphal/Victory arch
Content: Two relief sculptures on the inside detailing specific triumphs of Titus, inscription on top of the arch
Context: In honor of Titus, who took over the Middle East and had many other military victories.
Name: Arch of Titus

Date: 81 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Stone

Location: Rome, Italy

Artist: Unknown

Form: One passageway, Composite capital – both Corinthian and Ionic, Spandrels – Nike

Function: Triumphal/Victory arch

Content: Two relief sculptures on the inside detailing specific triumphs of Titus, inscription on top of the arch

Context: In honor of Titus, who took over the Middle East and had many other military victories.

Name: The Spoils of Jerusalem
Date: 81 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Stone
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Unknown
Form: Narrative, high relief panels
Function: To showcase Titus' power and victories
Content: Roman soldiers carrying spoils (a menorah) from the Temple of Jerusalem
Context: Titus took over Jerusalem
Name: The Spoils of Jerusalem

Date: 81 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Stone

Location: Rome, Italy

Artist: Unknown

Form: Narrative, high relief panels

Function: To showcase Titus’ power and victories

Content: Roman soldiers carrying spoils (a menorah) from the Temple of Jerusalem

Context: Titus took over Jerusalem

Name: Forum of Trajan
Date: 112 CE (Empire)
Medium: Brick and concrete
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Apollodonus of Damascus
Form: Triumphal Arch, stoas on each side of the plaza
Function: To showcase Trajan's power
Content: Large, central plaza, Equestrian statue in center court
Context: Glorified the victory against the Dacians (Romanians)
Name: Forum of Trajan

Date: 112 CE (Empire)

Medium: Brick and concrete

Location: Rome, Italy

Artist: Apollodonus of Damascus

Form: Triumphal Arch, stoas on each side of the plaza

Function: To showcase Trajan’s power

Content: Large, central plaza, Equestrian statue in center court

Context: Glorified the victory against the Dacians (Romanians)

Name: Arch of Trajan
Date: 115 CE (Empire)
Medium: Stone and concrete
Location: Benevento, Italy
Artist: Unknown
Form: Relief panels, top is called the attic
Function: Propoganda for Trajan's achievements
Content: Trajan's successful military campaigns, Trajan working with the poor, he is displayed as a guarantor of peace and security
Context: Divinity of the ruler
Name: Arch of Trajan

Date: 115 CE (Empire)

Medium: Stone and concrete

Location: Benevento, Italy

Artist: Unknown

Form: Relief panels, top is called the attic

Function: Propoganda for Trajan’s achievements

Content: Trajan’s successful military campaigns, Trajan working with the poor, he is displayed as a guarantor of peace and security

Context: Divinity of the ruler

Name: Pantheon
Date: 120 CE (Empire)
Medium: Concrete
Location: Italy
Artist: Unknown
Form: Hemispherical dome with 20 ft diameter oculus, 20 ft thick walls in order to support the roof, convex floor for rainwater drainage, coffered ceiling - sunken decorative panels
Function: Temple for Roman gods, then later church for Christians
Content: 7 niches for statues of gods
Context: Marcus Agrippa funded it
Name: Pantheon

Date: 120 CE (Empire)

Medium: Concrete

Location: Italy

Artist: Unknown

Form: Hemispherical dome with 20 ft diameter oculus, 20 ft thick walls in order to support the roof, convex floor for rainwater drainage, coffered ceiling – sunken decorative panels

Function: Temple for Roman gods, then later church for Christians

Content: 7 niches for statues of gods

Context: Marcus Agrippa funded it

Name: Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius
Date: 175 CE (Empire)
Medium: Bronze
Location: Italy
Artist: Unknown
Form: Un proportional - the emperor is much larger than the horse
Function: To showcase the power of the Emperor
Content: Emperor has majesty and authority, his right arm is in an authoritative gesture, right 
Context: He's divine because he's emperor
Name: Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius

Date: 175 CE (Empire)

Medium: Bronze

Location: Italy

Artist: Unknown

Form: Un proportional – the emperor is much larger than the horse

Function: To showcase the power of the Emperor

Content: Emperor has majesty and authority, his right arm is in an authoritative gesture, right

Context: He’s divine because he’s emperor

Name: Painted Portrait of Septimius Severus and His Family
Date: 200 CE (Empire)
Medium: Tempera on wood
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Painted family portrait
Function: To have a family portrait??
Content: Septimius Severus and his family, Septimius has long, grey hair and a beard, Greta's face is scratched out
Context: Septimius Severus was an African general, he left the empire to Greta, his other son Caracalla got mad and had Greta killed and scratched his face out of every family portrait
Name: Painted Portrait of Septimius Severus and His Family

Date: 200 CE (Empire)

Medium: Tempera on wood

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Painted family portrait

Function: To have a family portrait??

Content: Septimius Severus and his family, Septimius has long, grey hair and a beard, Greta’s face is scratched out

Context: Septimius Severus was an African general, he left the empire to Greta, his other son Caracalla got mad and had Greta killed and scratched his face out of every family portrait

Name: Portrait of Caracalla
Date: 215 CE (Empire)
Medium: Marble
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Veristic, physical likeness as well as a character portrayal
Function: IDK
Content: Caracalla is scowling: hard nose, suspicious and stern
Context: He was a harsh ruler.
Name: Portrait of Caracalla

Date: 215 CE (Empire)

Medium: Marble

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Veristic, physical likeness as well as a character portrayal

Function: IDK

Content: Caracalla is scowling: hard nose, suspicious and stern

Context: He was a harsh ruler.

Name: Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
Date: 250 CE (Empire)
Medium: Marble
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Rectangular, completely covered in relief, rejection of classical traditions
Function: To bury the dead in
Content: Chaotic battle scene between Romans and a northern enemy, extremely crowded scene, hard to tell who is who, Fearless commander in center who is assured of victory
Context: Rejection of Greek ideals
Name: Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus

Date: 250 CE (Empire)

Medium: Marble

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Rectangular, completely covered in relief, rejection of classical traditions

Function: To bury the dead in

Content: Chaotic battle scene between Romans and a northern enemy, extremely crowded scene, hard to tell who is who, Fearless commander in center who is assured of victory

Context: Rejection of Greek ideals

Name: Arch of Constantine
Date: 315 CE (Empire)
Medium: Marble
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Triple passageway arch, rejection of classical traditions (except what was stolen), mechanical rigidity, stocky figures
Function: To show that Constantine was a benevolent ruler
Content: Decorations stolen from other monuments
Context: Most of the decoration was taken from earlier monuments because Constantine was worried about being assassinated and didn't have time to build it any other way.
Name: Arch of Constantine

Date: 315 CE (Empire)

Medium: Marble

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Triple passageway arch, rejection of classical traditions (except what was stolen), mechanical rigidity, stocky figures

Function: To show that Constantine was a benevolent ruler

Content: Decorations stolen from other monuments

Context: Most of the decoration was taken from earlier monuments because Constantine was worried about being assassinated and didn’t have time to build it any other way.

Name: Constantine
Date: 310 CE (Empire)
Medium: Wood and bronze
Location: Roman Empire
Artist: Unknown
Form: Huge, 30' sitting down, 8'6
Name: Constantine

Date: 310 CE (Empire)

Medium: Wood and bronze

Location: Roman Empire

Artist: Unknown

Form: Huge, 30′ sitting down, 8’6″ head

Function: Focal point of Basilica Nova

Content: Idealized portrait of Constantine

Context: Meant to be an eternal reminder of Constantine in the Basilica Nova

Name: Basilica Nova
Date: 310 BCE (Empire)
Medium: Marble and stucco
Location: Rome
Artist: Unknown
Form: 300 ft long, 215 ft wide, 20 ft thick concrete walls, outside was stucco with a little bit of marble overlay, columns were marble
Function: Constantine conducted his business here
Content: Fenestrated groin vaults, giant statue of Constantine as focal point
Context: Eventually becomes a floor plan for Christian churches
Name: Basilica Nova

Date: 310 BCE (Empire)

Medium: Marble and stucco

Location: Rome

Artist: Unknown

Form: 300 ft long, 215 ft wide, 20 ft thick concrete walls, outside was stucco with a little bit of marble overlay, columns were marble

Function: Constantine conducted his business here

Content: Fenestrated groin vaults, giant statue of Constantine as focal point

Context: Eventually becomes a floor plan for Christian churches