AP Art History 250

1. Apollo 11 Stones
1. Apollo 11 Stones
Form:
-stones with charcoal drawings of animals
-geometric designs
– 4-5″
Function:
– depict animals
=some of world’s oldest works of art
Content:
– animal figures with human legs added on probably later
Context:
– found in Apollo 11 caves in Namibia
-probably were made about 25500 BCE (oldest representational art in Africa) and buried in these caves
-named because it was discovered at the time of the Apollo 11 moon landing
2. Great Hall of the Bulls
2. Great Hall of the Bulls
Form:
-naturalistic charcoal drawings in a cave
-natural materials: plants, charcoal, iron ore
-twisted perspective
– human are stick figures while animals are realistic looking
Content:
– pictures animals in motion
– pictures on top of pictures (all from different artists from many time periods)
-cows, bulls, horses, deer
-650 paintings
Function:
– to show an animal ritual (very unusual to find pictures of humans/hunting)
-ancestral animal worship
Context:
-sacred place (deep in a cave)- in situ
-not a dwelling because the creators of these were nomads
-Paleolithic Europe- Lascaux, France
3. Camelid sacrum
3. Camelid sacrum
Form:
– carved bone
Function:
-spiritual mask
-house spiritual essence of a hunted animal
-sacrum bone powerful symbolism of Osiris and rebirth- triangle
Content:
– sacrum bone (hip bone) carved in shape of a canine/wolf
Context:
-found in a tomb in Mexico (MesoAmerica)
-14000-7000 BCE
4. Running horned woman
4. Running horned woman
Form:
– canyon painting (layers of painting from different times so makes it hard for carbon dating)
-depicts motion
Function;
– show this person as holy or a god bc of the horns
Content:
– shows a woman with horns running
– dots on her body represent body painting
– shows a deity wearing ceremonial headgear?
Context:
– in situ on canyon walls in the Sahara
– 6000-4000 BCE (neolithic)
5. Bushel with ibex motifs
5. Bushel with ibex motifs
Form:
-painted terra cotta, clay
– geometric forms
– set in registers, controlled and repeated planar composition
Function:
-funerary object
Content:
-dog figures, mountain goat, cranes
Context:
– Susa, Iran in 4200-3500 BCE
-neolithic
-new technology: use of potter’s wheel
6. Anthropomorphic stele
6. Anthropomorphic stele
Form:
-sandstone
Content:
– 3 of them all 3ft tall
-belted robe with knife hanging from it
Function:
– used in incense trade
-religious/burial practices
Context:
-found on trade routes in the Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia
-fourth millennium
7. Jade cong
7. Jade cong
Form:
– carved jade
-low reliefs
-abstract designs
– square with a circle inside
Function:
-jade usually appears in burials of high ranked people
Content:
-low reliefs
decorations on this refer to spirits/ deities
Context:
– Liangshzu, China in 3300-2200 BCE
-jade in China is linked with virtues like beauty, durability, and subtlety
8. Stonehenge
8. Stonehenge
Form:
– sandstone
-post and lintel (two vertical posts support a horizontal beam)
– arranged in a circle (cromlech)
Content:
– stones in a centralized plan
-small stones surrounding in no specific pattern
Function:
– probably religious ceremionies
– burial?
– marker of mid-summer solstice
Context:
-Wiltshire, UK in 2500-1600 BCE
9. The Ambum stone
9. The Ambum stone
Form:
-greywacke stone
Content:
-sculpted to look like an anteater
-human/animal characteristics (mostly animal)
Function:
– objects like these are believed to have supernatural power
– used as a spirit stone in rituals
Context:
– Ambun Valley, Papua New Guinea around 1500 BCE
10. Tlatico female figure
10. Tlatico female figure
Form:
-ceramic
Content:
– pinched waist and big hips with two-heads
– no hands or feet
-naked except for jewelry
Function:
– show fertility
-two heads represent life and death that happens everyday
Context:
– Central Mexico in 1200-900 BCE
-many of the other figures show deformities like this
11. Terra cotta fragment
11. Terra cotta fragment
Form:
-terra cotta with dentate stamping
Content:
-dentate designs (circles, hatching, dots)
Function:
-unknown
Context:
– Lapita peoples
– Solomon Islands, Reef Islands in 1000 BCE
12. White Temple and its ziggurat
12. White Temple and its ziggurat
Form:
– mud brick
-collosal scale
-built to resemble mountain
Content:
– sloping walls, bent access (ramp up to enter the altar), 3 entrances
-mosaic surface
Function:
– temple that is a meeting place for humans and gods in the center of the city
-votive figures and dedicated to Anu the sky god
-top temple was only for royals or clergy to enter
Context:
– Uruk; Modern day Warka, Iraq
-Sumerian
– 3500-3000 BCE
13. Palette of King Narmer
13. Palette of King Narmer
Form:
-greywacke
-organized in registers
-hierarchic scale
-low relief, twisted perspective
Content:
-Front: Narmer (on large scale) looking on the beheaded bodies of his enemies wearing crown of lower Egypt, harnessed lionesses (symbol of unification), bull knowcking down a city fortress (Narmer knocking over enemies)
-Back: Hawk=Horus, Narmer wearing bowling pin crown (symbol of unification), stands barefoot (he is a divine king), palette for eye makeup, hieroglyphics
Function:
-represents the unification of Egypt and country’s growth as a powerful nation
Context:
-found in temple of Horus
-Old Kingdom of Egypt
-3000 BCE
14. Statues of votive figures
14. Statues of votive figures
Form:
– bilateral symmetry
– eyes exaggeration (beholding the divine)
-gypsum and black limestone
Content:
-the hands are placed in prayful gesture
– elite male and female figures
Function:
-placed in ziggurat to resemble the people that aren’t allowed to be in the ziggurats
Context;
– found in the Square Temple of Eshunna (modern day Tell Asmur, Iraq)
-2700 BCE
15. Seated Scribe
15. Seated Scribe
Form:
-painted limestone
-crystal limestone eyes
Content:
-royal scribe
-depicted with sagging body (realistic not ideal), thin face
-holding tools to show he is ready to write
Function:
-shows that the scribe is important but not perfect like a pharoah
-made for tomb at Saqqara for the ka
Context:
-Saqqara, Egypt 2500 BCE
-found near tomb (funerary object)
16. Standard of Ur
16. Standard of Ur
Form:
– wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and black limestone
-mosaic
-hierarchic scale to show who was more important in society
-front shoulds, body in profile
Content:
-2 sides: war side and peace side
-war side: shows Sumerian king on larger scale descending from his chariot to inspect captives, lower register shows him riding over dead bodies in his chariot
-peace side: food brought to a banquet, ruler wears a kilt of wool (larger scale)
Function:
– shows the different classes of people
-democratic leadership
Context:
– found in the Royal Tombs at Ur (modern day Iraq)
– 2600-2400 BCE Sumerian
17. Great Pyramid (Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx
17. Great Pyramid (Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx
Form:
-square base with 4 sloped sides (represents rays of sun)
-polished limestone
Content:
-pyramids with adjoining funerary complex; get to these through secret passageways
-Great Sphinx: human head with lion head
-descending order on West side of Nile
Function:
-maintain and protect tombs for eternity
-Great Sphinx: protecter the pyramids behind it
Context:
-built by Khufu, Khafre, and Menkuare (each temple name after)
-Khufu temple (oldest and largest)
-Old Kingdom- 2500BCE
-Giza, Egypt
18. Menkaura and queen
18. Menkaura and queen
Form:
-greywacke
-under life-size
-symmetrical
-Egyptian style: one foot in front of the other
Content:
-king and queen same height, idealized figures
-pharaoh crown
-wife gives simple affectionate gesture
Function:
-temple sculpture
-symbolize his power and kingship
Context:
-Old Kingdom 2500 BCE
19. Code of Hammurabi
19. Code of Hammurabi
Form:
-black-stone stele with words carved in it
-basalt
-frontal shoulders, everything else profile
Content:
-divine law code carved in stone
-sun god, Shamash, giving laws to Hammurabi to be king
-god is bigger (hierarchic scale)
Function:
-tells us where the laws came from
-exercises justice and divine authority to carry out the law
Context:
– Babylon (modern day Iran)
-Susian (1760-1750 BCE)
20. Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall
20. Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall
Form:
-cut sandstone and mud brick
-hypostyle hall
-symmetrical plan, axial plan
-open ceilings
-colossal columns with sunken relief
Content:
-134 sandstone columns
-inscriptions/images of kings and gods on walls and columns
-gates (suggesting old world to new world)
Function:
-used for festivities and prayer
-only priests and pharoahs allowed
Context:
-Karnak, near Luxor
-New Kingdom 1250 BCE
-East side of the Nile
21. Mortuary Temple of Hatsheput
21. Mortuary Temple of Hatsheput
Form:
-sandstone
-red granite statue
-built into rock cliff
Function:
-mortuary temple for Hatsheput but she wasn’t buried there
-statue shows her power in male ways (beard and kneeling is priest-like gesture
Content:
-statue of Hatsheput kneeling: offering plants to Amen, the sun god
-ascent up to temple
-chapels and shrines dedicated to her
-hypostyle hall
Context:
-site specific
-across from Amun temple
22. Akhenaton, Neferiti, and three daughters
22. Akhenaton, Neferiti, and three daughters
Form:
-sunken relief piece, limestone, hieroglyphics
Content:
-couple receiving blessing from Aten (the sun god-rays shown)
-show husband and wife seated with their children
-rays shining upon the family showing their divinity
Function:
-shows intimacy of the family
-conveys realistic fidgetiness of children
-state religious shift in evolving Egyptian art
Context:
-New Kingdom (Amarna) 1350 BCE
23. Tutankhamun's tomb (innermost coffin)
23. Tutankhamun’s tomb (innermost coffin)
Form:
-gold
-inlay with stones and enamel
Content:
-crook and flail- symbols of Osiris
-cobra and vulture coming from headpiece- gods of Upper and Lower Egypt
-Son of Akhenaton
Function:
-sarcophagus (body inside)
-materials used represent the royal wealth (143 objects buried with him)
Context:
– New Kingdom 1325 BCE
24. Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer (page from Book of the Dead)
24. Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer (page from Book of the Dead)
Form:
-painted papyrus scroll
-continuous narrative
Content:
-Hu-Nefer being lead to final judgement
-heart weighed on scale against Osiris (test to see if has a heavy heart)
-sin must weigh less than feather
-Hu-Nefer is accepted into afterlife
Function:
-guide people to the afterlife and make journey from life to death
Context:
-New Kingdom 1275 BCE
-found in Hu-Nefer’s tomb
-from the Book of the Dead
25. Lamassu
25. Lamassu
Form:
– alabaster
-limestone
Content:
-god-like figures
-animal body, human head
-5 legs
Function;
-support doorways of Assyrian palaces
-intimidate those who enter
Context:
– from the citadel of Sargon II (modern day Iraq)
– 720-705 BCE
-Sumerian
26. Athenian Agora
26. Athenian Agora
Form:
-long buildings (stoa)
-covered places- public markets
-at foot of Acropolis, road that leads up
Function:
-marketplace/meeting area
-temple (pay tribute to Athena)
Content:
-participated with government
-democracy- didn’t vote representatives but instead participated directly
Context:
-600-150 BCE
-Athens, Greece
27. Anavysos Kouros
27. Anavysos Kouros
Form:
-marble with remnant of paint
-archaic smile
-Egyptian inspiration shown through the stance of one foot slightly in front of other
-incaustic paint
Content:
-not a specific civilian depicted (not individualized)
-male nude (warrior)
-observing the human body
Function:
-grave marker
Context:
-530 BCE
-large scaled
28. Peplos Kore from Acropolis
28. Peplos Kore from Acropolis
Form:
-archaic smile
-patterned hair
-marble with paint remains
-smaller scale
Content:
-women with arm out (supposed to hold out a oil lamp but hand broken off)
Function:
-in front of temples to “light the way”
-votive figure
Context:
-530 BCE
29. Sarcophagus of the Spouses
29. Sarcophagus of the Spouses
Form:
-terra cotta (sign that this is Etruscan)
-lifesize
-archaic smile, patterned hair
-extending arms
Content:
-husband and wife reclining on a couch dining “dining in banquet for eternity”
-four pieces put together
Function:
-funerary container to hold ashes not the body
Context:
-520 BCE Etruscan
30. Audience hall (apadana)
30. Audience hall (apadana)
Form:
-hypostyle hall
-cut sandstone and mud brick
-built in a hillside with big platform
-72 columns (3 portico made of 12 columns)
Content:
– relief on the side pictures Darius and Xeres
-stairs have central relief of king enthroned with attendants
-reliefs
Function;
-used to hold thousands of people (audience hall), king’s receptions
– ascend upwards symbolic
Context:
– Persepolis, Iran; Persian influence
– 520-465 BCE
-built by Darius and Xeres; destroyed by Alexander the Great
31. Temple of Minerva and sculpture of Apollo
31. Temple of Minerva and sculpture of Apollo
Form:
-temple: wood, mud brick, tufa (volcanic rock)
-sculpture: terra cotta
-animated and moving sculpture (estruscan)
Content:
-Apollo apart of a narrative of Herakles, acroterion (roof sculpture)
-deep porch, 3 cella (entrance is emphasized)
-archaic Greek smile
Function:
-Estruscan temple made to be a place to worship the Estruscan gods and goddesses
-acroterians probably shows a mythic event
Context:
-Veii (near Rome, Italy)
-Imperial Rome 2nd centry BCE
-sculpture made by Vulca
32. Tomb of the Triclinium
32. Tomb of the Triclinium
Form:
-tufa and fresco
-wall paintings
-great detailed piers
-color coding to show genders (not race)
Content:
-pictures people casually dining in triclinium (reclined on couches)
-fully furnished
-lively paintings of people dancing and in motion
Function:
-keep record of domestic life
-holds ashes (crematorium) and any other offerings to the dead
Context:
-Tarquinia, Italy
-Estruscan 480-470 BCE
33. Niobides Krater
33. Niobides Krater
Form:
-calyx krater (type of painted pot)
-stiffness in the figures contrast the other relaxed side of the vase
-sense of depth perception
-red figure technique with white highlight
Content:
-one side: mortal woman named Niobe with 12 children would always brag to the goddess Leto that she had more children so Apollo and Artemis (Leto’s children) take revenge for their mother by killing all 12 children
-other side: Hercules (identified with club and lions skins) is actually a sculpture (contraposta) and Greek soldiers are offering tribute and prayer to protect them before going into battle
Context:
-460-450 BCE
-not signed
34. Doryphoros (spear bearer)
34. Doryphoros (spear bearer)
Form:
-marble (Roman); bronze (Greek)
-contrapposto: shifted weight
-not meant to portray a specific person but rather specific characteristics of a Greek
Function:
-portray the physical perfection of a human figure
Content:
-everyone is imperfect but brings together different body proportions to make physical
-missing its spear
-athlete and warrior
-gazes off in the distance
Context:
-Artist= Polykleitos of Argos in 450 BCE
-Roman copy of the Greek original
35. Acropolis
35. Acropolis
Form:
-marble (wealth)
-winged figure (nike)
-elevated
Content:
-buildings, temples, statues
-Parthenon (constructed under Pericles):
-doric temple
-East Pediment on parthenon: birth of Athena from the head of Zeus (Helios)
-plaque of ergastines: procession held for Athena every 4 years
-Temple of Athena Nike: commemorate Greek victory over the Persians
-Victory Nike adjusting her sandal
Function:
-hold image of goddess Athen (in cella)
-celebrate the female figure
-civic pride (Athena)
-commercial, civic, religious, and social building
Context:
-Athens, Greece 450-410 BCE
36. Grave Stele of Hegeso
36. Grave Stele of Hegeso
Form:
-marble with paint
-hierarchic scale
-drape accentuates the body
Function:
-funerary object
-put on graves in Classical period
-commemorates the death of Hegeso
Content:
-genre scene: slave bringing jewelry box to nike figure for her to examine the jewelry
-inscription identifies Hegeso
Context:
-410 BCE
37. Winged Victory of Samothrace
37. Winged Victory of Samothrace
Form:
-marble
-textures shown
-very dramatic motion, explosive,
-forward movement counteracted by the backward movement of her wings
Content:
-nike lands on front of ship descending from the heavens
-wet drapery look to the sculpture
-twist and contrapposto of the torso
Function:
-war monument
-commemorating a naval victory
-nike is a symbol of victory
Context:
– 190 BCE Hellenistic Greek
38. Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
38. Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
Form:
-marble frieze
-elevated with steep dramatic staircase
-complex forms with big muscles showing violent energy and detail
-ionic columns
Content:
-frieze wrapping around the monument shows gods overpowering the Titans
-Titans vs. Olympians
-“Athena”: gigantomachy, battle between the gods and giants (gods win)
Function:
-war monument (Greek defeat of Gauls)
-break architectural boundaries
-altar dedicated to ZeusContext:
-175 BCE
– Asia Minor, Turkey
39. House of the Vettii
39. House of the Vettii
Form:
-cut stone and fresco
-axial symmetry
Content:
-atrium (inner courtyard with pool)
-reception area (atrium) has open ceiling
-catch basin to collect rainwater
-peristyle garden in back of house
-living room with frescoes
-frescoes show person’s taste and used as conversation pieces for businessmen to discuss
Function;
-represents the wealth of the people who lived there
Context:
-Pompeii, Italy
-Imperial Rome 2nd century BCE rebuilt 62-79 CE
-wealthy family’s home set in the middle of markets
40. Alexander Mosaic
40. Alexander Mosaic
Form:
-mosaic copy of a Greek wall painting
-tessarae: individual pieces of a mosaic
-spacial illusionism
-interweaving of figures
Content:
-Alexander the Great confront Darius III at Battle of Isos
-dead tree signifies the death and sadness
Function:
-floor mosaic showing dramatic representation of a historical event
-last major defeat of the Persians
Context:
-Roman Republic
-House of Faun, Pompeii 100 BCE
41. Seated Boxer
41. Seated Boxer
Form:
-bronze
-realistic- shows the exhaustion of a real athlete
Content:
-boxer seated naked with only his boxing gloves
-copper shows blood
-cuts and bruises
Function:
-show a boxer after a fight
Context:
-Greek 100 BCE
-Hellenistic
42. Head of a Roman partician
42. Head of a Roman partician
Form:
-marble
-deep wrinkles, hooked nose, defined cheek bones
Content:
-realistic portrayal of a Roman patrician
-show sense of civic virtue: wisdom, seriousness, public service
Function:
-kept in shrines of Roman houses
-mask of values and virtues of Republican men in Rome
Context:
-Republican Roman 75-50 BCE
-influence of Greek Hellenistic art
43. Augustus of Prima Porta
43. Augustus of Prima Porta
Form:
-marble, over life-size
-elevated to be more god-like
-contrapposto
Content:
-Augustus barefoot
-cupid riding dolphin (shows divinity
-breastplate is about the Pax Romana: the power of empire is due to the military
Function:
-shows Augustus as a god because he thought he was (barefoot and cupid riding dolphin signs of this)
-shows him as civic ruler (judge’s robe) and warrior (breastplate)
Context:
-Imperial Rome (early empire) 1st century CE
44. Colosseum
44. Colosseum
Form:
– stone + concrete
-Corinthian, Doric, and ionic columns
-outside mostly intact
-barrel vaults, thick walls, groin vaults, arches
Content:
-2 theaters
-downward force of arches
-bronze shield on top, 4 layers
-76 entrances
Function:
-entertainment for the public
-usually dangerous like gladiator fights or animal hunts
Context:
– Rome, Italy 70-80 BCE
– Imperial Rome
45. Forum of Trajan
45. Forum of Trajan
Form:
-column: marble, low relief
-brick and concrete architecture
-scroll-like frieze on column- continuous narrative
-groin vaulting/barrel vaults in market
Content:
-forum: basilica in back with equestrian figure in the center and two libraries
-marble column of trajan: ashes of trajans put in bottom, crowded composition, story of defeat of the Dacians
-market of trajan: multilevel mall with 150 shops
Function:
-column: monuments celebrates the victory in the Dacian war
-forum: marketplace
Context:
– Rome, Italy 106-112 CE column 113 CE
46. Pantheon
46. Pantheon
Form:
-marble
-coffers: indentations in the ceilings
-15′ thick walls
Content:
-big portico in the front with a rotunda in back that has a dome with an oculus
-sculptures of gods in niches
Function:
-houses all 7 planetary gods
-famous burial space
-coffers create illusion of heaven
Context:
-imperial Rome 118-125 CE
47. Ludovisi Battle Sacrophagus
47. Ludovisi Battle Sacrophagus
Form:
-marble
-high relief
Content:
-figures piled on top of each other, crowded surface
-Romans shown as the good guys (ideal/noble)
-Romans trampling over defeated barbarians
– enemies very caricatured with great detail
Function:
-tomb
Context:
-late imperial empire; 250 CE
48. Catacomb of Priscilla
48. Catacomb of Priscilla
Form:
– excavated tufa and fresco
-figures flat and with less detail (roman painting style)
-passageways underneath city of Rome, 100 miles long
-pendentives with picture
Content:
-shelves for bodies; wealthier people: sarcophagus
-scenes of New and old Testament
-curriculum
-Good Shepherd Fresco
-orants figure: arms stretched out
Function:
-tombs of poor and wealthy for 1000s of people
-poor people has body one on top of the other
Context:
– wealthy woman donated land for her family and other Christians to be buried
-3 stories deep
-Greek and Latin
49. Santa Sabina
49. Santa Sabina
Form:
-brick, stone, wooden roof
-2 levels: upper (windows), lower (arches/columns)
-spolia (reuse of architectual pieces from other buildings)
Content:
-apse: half dome in back that is decorated
-narthex: lobby
-nave: center aisle
-depiction of crucifix on doors
-3 aisled basilica
-columns from temple of juno in Rome (spolia)
Function:
-basilica- diverse building
-used aisle for law courts
-early Christian church
Context:
– Rome, Italy 422-432 CE
-Late Antique Europe
50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, from Genesis
50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, from Genesis
Form;
-tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum (animal skin)
-illuminated manuscript (pictures with words)
-continuous narrative
Content:
– stories from Genesis
-Jacob wrestles an angel at night
-Rebecca quenches thirst of camels and camel driver
-letters black now bc silver oxidized
-Greek writings> Byzantine
Function:
-tell stories
Context:
-Early Byzantine Empire 6th century CE
51. San Vitale
51. San Vitale
Form:
-brick,marble, stone, veneer, mosaic
-all glass covered in gold leaf
-octagonal plan
-groin vaulting
-not longitudinal
Content:
-central domed octagon surrounded by radiating wall niches (exedrae)- attention directed at the center
-big windows
-covered by vaults
-mosaic: clergy on right, military on left, Justinian in the middle
Function:
-holds icons
-basilica
-reestablish Orthodox Christianity
Context:
– Ravenna, Italy- Early Byzantine 526-547 CE
-Julianus Argentarius financed this building
52. Hagia Sophia
52. Hagia Sophia
Form:
-brick, ceramic elements
-mosaic veneer
-ionic columns
-centralized dome supported by penditives
-buttress supports
-pendentives: triangular curving vault section
-squinches- quarter domes
Content:
– Byzantine architecture
-attention to detail
-mystical building
-altar at the end of nave (center aisle)
-minarets
Function:
-originally a basilica (church)
-converted to mosque- now has minarets
Context:
-Justinian’s reign
-changed to mosque by Ottomans 1452
53. Merovingian looped fibulae
53. Merovingian looped fibulae
Form:
-interlacing (zoomorphic)
-bowed
-filigree 2-4″
-silver gilt (thin layer of gold)
Content:
-animals (fish represents Christ and eagle represents St. John)
Function:
-clip for holding fabric
-clasp that hold fabric to the shoulder
Context:
-mid 6th century CE
-Frankish kingdom
-found in tomb of rich woman
54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George
54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George
Form:
-encaustic (wax base paint) on wood
-spacial recession but compressed space
Content:
-angels looking towards heaven
-Mary looking over viewers while the warrior saints look directly at viewer
-light falling on Virgin
-depicts Mary and Jesus in a different realm than others
Function:
-portray Mary and Christ protected by saints and hand of God
Context:
-6th-7th century
-Early Byzantine
55. Lindsfarne Gospels
55. Lindsfarne Gospels
Form:
-illuminated manuscript
Content:
-cross carpet page: cross forms out of chaos, creates illusion of 3D in which viewer can lose themselves in contemplation
-portrait page (luke): holds quill/looks prepared to write, gold halo (divinity), ox above his head, robe with purple and streaks of red
-incipit page (Luke): it “begins”, animal life, spiral forms, swirling vortexes
Function:
-earliest known translation of the Bible
Context:
-created by monks
56. Great Mosque
56. Great Mosque
Form:
– hypostyle mosque
-spolia (using roman and Christian pieces from old church it used to be
-vossoir: wet stone that holds arches up
-grid vaulting
-culturally diverse
Content:
-horseshoe arches with vaults above
-mihrab- niche is Qibla wall (mostly decorated in geometry and text)
-wooden cieling
-mosaics everywhere- byzantine artists from Constantinople
-Qibla Wall- direction of where Muslims have to pray in order to pray towards Mecca
-Kufic calligraphy
-856 columns
Function:
-1st: Roman temple (Janus)
-2nd: Chirstian church
-3rd- mosque
-now: cathedral
Context:
-Cordoba, Spain- Umayyad 785-786 CE
57. Pyxis of al-Mughira
57. Pyxis of al-Mughira
Form:
-ivory
-carvings of text and pictures
-text used as a decoration
Content:
-roaring lions
-4 8-lobed medallions showing pleasure activities
-human and animal figures
-geometrical and vegetal motifs
Function:
-luxury cosmetic holder: text on top/decorated richly
-coming of age present from caliph to his younger son
Context:
-968 CE Umayyad, Muslim Spain
58. Church of Sainte-Foy
58. Church of Sainte-Foy
Form:
– romanesque style
-symbolic Latin cross plan
-vaulting, groin vaults
-spolia
-archivolts: bands that go around tympanum
Content:
– reliquary of Saint Foy
-tympanum of Last Judgement (Christ as the judge of the damned and saved)
-gallery on top (distributes the weight)
-barrel vaulting
-tympanum
-radiating chapels, nave arcade
-3 aisles
-dark building
Function:
– pilgrim church, people come to see
-built so that it could handle a lot of people
-reliquaries
– part of monastery where monks lived
Context:
– Conques, France
1050-1130 CE (12th century)
59. Bayeux Tapestry
59. Bayeux Tapestry
Form:
-embroidery on linen
-Romanesque (English or Norman)
-2/3 of a football field in length
-continuous narrative
Content:
-a great epic
-2 main scenes
-story of William’s conquest of England in the battle of Hastings
-Haley’s Comet
Function:
-show Norman conquest
Context:
-Cantebury, NW France
-commissioned by Bishop Odo
-1066-80 CE (11th century)
60. Chartres Cathedral
60. Chartres Cathedral
Form:
-3 phases of Gothic (Early in facade, High French in back, Late in the North Spire)
-painted arches, rib vaults- Gothic elements
-colors vivid
-knowledge, nature, light
-limestone, stained glass
Content:
-stained glass- triforium
-narrow passageway
-jamb figures
-relic: Mary’s dress
Function:
-Church with great beauty that honors Mary and gives her the respect she deserves
-built after they found Mary’s Tunic unharmed in the fire
Context:
-Chartres, France
1145-55 CE
reconstructed in 1194 because of a fire
Roman> Gothic
61. Bible Moralisees
61. Bible Moralisees
Form:
-dedication page
-Gothic
-gold leaf, tempera, ink on vellum
-illuminated manuscript
Content:
-King Louis IX
-Blanche of Castile
-passages from Old and New Testament
Function:
-made for Frnech royals’ home (King Louis IV)
-create a moral through visionary readings
Context:
-Paris, France 1225-45 CE (center of learning and bookmaking)
62. Rottgen Pieta
62. Rottgen Pieta
Form:
-painted wood
-Medieval/Gothic and realistic
Content:
-Mary holding her dead son after Cruxifiction
-Mary is pained and anguished
Functions:
-versperbils (German devotional)
-feel the pain she feels
-intended to be used in contemplation and prayer
-devotional image
-shows them closer to the humanity side
Context:
-Bonn, Germany 1300
-German Gothic
63. Arena (Scrovegni)
63. Arena (Scrovegni)
Form:
-fresco
-brick and architechture
-painted plaster
-grisaille (gray tones)
-quatrefoils
-tracing
-plain outside, transformative inside
Content:
-Last judgement scene
-lancet windows
-Scrovegni at bottom offering up chapel to Jesus (artist portrait included)
-The Lamentation (Jesus has been crucified and now he is being mourned)
-Mary with others grieving
-Life of Mary>Passion of Jesus
Function:
– private family chapel (connected to a house)
Context:
-Padua, Italy
-on grounds of an old arena
-artist: Giotto di Bondone
1303 CE
-Italian Gothic
-Proto-Renaissance
64. Gold Haggadah
64. Gold Haggadah
Form:
-illuminated manuscript
-pigments and gold leaf on vellum (animal)
Content:
-Left: plagues of Egypt
-Middle: scenes of liberation (Israelites leave)
-Right: Passover
Function:
-book used by a wealthy Jewish family to tell the story of Passover around the sedar table each year
Context:
-Late Medieval Spain 1320 CE
-similar to Christian Gothic manuscripts
65. Alahambra
65. Alahambra
Form:
-whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
-complex arches
-elevated on top of a hill (power)
-arabesques (organic/natural designs- flowers/vines) on arches
Content:
-court of lions: courtyard with gardens and water- luxurious
-4 quadrants
-channels of water run throughout
Function:
-complex of palaces
-some markets
-garden provokes sense of paradise/heaven
-palace of Nasrid
Context:
-Granada, Spain- Nasrid Dynasty 1354-1391 CE
66. Annunciation Triptych
66. Annunciation Triptych
Form:
-triptych
-altar piece (portable)
-renaissance
-Flemish (oil paint, glowing, vivid color)
-hyper reality/hyper clarity
-closed during the week, open during mass
Content:
-scene of the Anunciation
-Holy Spirit and Jesus coming through window
-couple asking for divine intervention
-Joseph on right making mouse traps
-Mary laying down on pew
-image of Chris coming from the window going to Mary’s womb
Function:
-private devotional place
Context:
-workshop of Robert Campin (master of flemalle)
1427-32 CE (15th century)
-Flemish Renaissance
67. Pazzi Chapel
67. Pazzi Chapel
Form:
-masonry
-articulate, everything white on the inside
-dome cieling
-simple geometry
-pietra serena- soft gray tone
-inlaid marble, terracotta tiles
-strigil pattern
-Franciscan
Content:
-entablature
-arch forms
-family crests
Function:
-show Pazzi family wealth
-served as chapter house (meeting room for the Franciscan monks)
Context:
-Filipo Brunelleshi (architect)
-Florence, Italy 1429-61 CE (15th century)- Early Renaissance
68. The Arnolfini Portrait
68. The Arnolfini Portrait
Form:
-oil on wood
-Renaissance
Content:
-betrothal (engagement)
-dog represents wealth and fidelity
-barefeet- something sacred taking place
-Patron saint of domesticity (St. Margaret
-Vaneyck signature and reflection in mirror
-witnesses of the marriage shown in the mirror
Function:
-shows status, wealth, power
Context:
-artist: Van Eyck
-1434 CE (15th century)
-Flanders
69. David Donatello
69. David Donatello
Form:
-bronze
-exaggerated contrapposto
-beautiful, ideal, classical, cultured, independent, wealth, power (like Florence)
Content:
-shepherd’s hat with flowers of Florence (small can conquer giants)
-biblical figure of Florentine Republic
-religious AND political connotation
-return to the nude powerful figure in contrapposto
-Goliath’s head under his foot
Function:
-made for private viewing
-made for Medici
Courtyard
Context:
-Florence 1440-60 CE (15th century)
-early renaissance
-artist: Donatello
70. Palazzo Rucellai
70. Palazzo Rucellai
Form:
-3 levels (like classical)
-round arches
Content:
-3 levels: each different column style
-built around courtyard
-levels around divided by entablatures with frieze
-Medici and Rucellai symbol in frieze
-humanism: domestic architecture
Function:
-show allegiance to Medici
-civic pride
-beautiful city
-residences and businesses
-show their good taste
Context:
-architect: Leon Battista Alberti
-1450 CE Florence, Italy
-Giovanni Rucellai commissioned it
-Early Italian Renaissance
71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels
71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels
Form:
-tempera on wood
-3D figures
-sense of space
-elegant lines/curves
-humanism
Content:
-all humanized (mischievous look)
-Mary’s halo slowing going away (divinity fading)
-Mary youthful/beautiful
-landscape through window (Flemish background)
-pearls (symbol of immaculate conception
Function:
-relate more to viewers by making humanistic images
-connect us to Mary and Jesus
Context:
-artist: Fra Filippo Lippi (monk of Carmelite order) teacher of Botticelli
-1465 CE
Early Renaissance Italy
72. Birth of Venus
72. Birth of Venus
Form:
-tempera on cancas
-curvy body (flexibility)
-neoplatonic love (classical and Christian)
-sense of pattern and beauty
Content:
-Venus standing on seashell
-born by the sea fullgrown
-couple intertwines; pushing Venus to land
-someone on shore ready to receive Venus with cloth
-floating figures
-Earthly and celestial love
Function:
-probably wedding gift
Context:
-artist: Sandro Botticelli
1484-86 CE
-Medici commission
-Venus is goddess of love
-Early Renaisasnce
73. Last Supper
73. Last Supper
Form:
-linear perspective, spatial illusionism, frieze-like
-triangle in center (Christ @ the point)
-monumental forms
-oil and tempera
Content:
-Jesus and his apostles having a final meals before Jesus is arrested
-the betrayal (Judas)
-the Eucharist (body and blood of Jesus) given to his people
-uses models to paint the people so he can make it more realistic
Function:
-dining hall/refectory for monks eating in silence
Context:
-artist: Leonardo DaVinci
-High Renaissance- Milan 1494-98
74. Adam and Eve
74. Adam and Eve
Form:
-engraving on metal
-contrapposto
-tiny details (high renaissance)
Content:
-animals representing temperaments and humors being let into the world
-artist signature on sign
-Tree of Knowledge and Life
-fall of humanity
Function:
-shows his knowledge of classical act
Context:
-artist: Albrecht Durer (german)
-Latin
-1504 CE
-High Renaissance (north)
-16th-17th century
75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes
75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes
Form:
-frescoes
-sculptural element to his paintins
-neoplatonic (classical and Judeo-classical)
-hellenistic figures
Content:
cieling:
-scenes from the OT (9)
-Noah’s Ark
-men working on ark hoping for salvation
-duster seeking sanctuary
altar wall:
-counter reformation
-last judgement, life and death
-saved and damned people
-sibyls: monumental (hellenistic figures)
-portraits of certain artists on lower walls
Function:
-election of new pope and masses happen in this building
-art is made for this building (Sistine Chapel)
Context:
-artist: Michaelangelo
-High Renaissance 1508-12 (ceiling), 1536-41 (altar wall)
Vatican City, Italy
-under Pope Julius II
76. School of Athens
76. School of Athens
Form:
-fresco
-spatial illusionism
-fluid/interlocking
-same style as Sistine figures
-roundalls
-barrel vaults
-coffers
Content:
-branches of knowledge under faith
-philosophy and science
-Plate: idealism (points up)
-Aristole: realism (points down)
-Raphael self portrait
-Michaelangel on block of marble
-poetry, imagination
-disputah: faith and reason
-heavenly court of prophets and saints
-Jesus in full body halo
-Stanza della Segnatura: room of signatures
-acorns: symbol of family
Function:
-expresses knowledge and faith
Context:
-artist: Raphael
High Renaissance 1509-11 Vatican Palace under Pope Julius II
77. Isenheim Altarpiece
77. Isenheim Altarpiece
Form: oil on wood, diptych (two panels/wings)
Content:
-predella: base of the altarpiece
-1st panel: shows Jesus suffering on the cross symbolizing the suffering of the patients
-2nd panel: shows Jesus resurrection
-3rd panel: statue of St. Anthony who was patron saint of the hospital
Function:
– made for a hospital to relate their suffering to Jesus’ suffering in order to make them feel better
Context:
– no longer in situ
– Boarder of France and Germany
-Made by Matthias Grunewalkd in 1512-1516 CE
78. Entombment of Christ
78. Entombment of Christ
Form:
-manneristic: shows great knowledge of Renaissance but distorts it
-figures stylized and elongated
-primary colors and white
-roundalls above of Evangelists
-space is nonsensical
-1D (no depth)
Content:
-no symbols of holiness (no cross, etc.)
-Mary proportionately larger
-everyone mournful
-lower Jesus from the cross
-chaotic figures/constant movement
-self portrait
-non balance (lots of different directions)
Function:
-altar piece
-doesn’t look Renaissance
Context:
-artist: Jacob de Pontorina
-Florence, Italy 1525-1528
-family chapel
79. Allegory of Law and Grace
79. Allegory of Law and Grace
Form:
-woodcut, letterpress
-Protestant
-German text
Content:
-written in people’s voice
-left: being chased by death (shows 10 commandments)
-right-washes over with Holy Spirit (can only be saved by God’s grace
Function:
-propaganda during Reformation
-debates between Catholics and Luthers on how to get to heaven
Context:
-artist: Lucas Cranach the Elder (High Renaissance North 1530 CE)
-German; worked with Martin Luther
80. Venus of Urbino
80. Venus of Urbino
Form:
-oil on canvas
-rich colors (red)
-nude reclining
-celebrating female body
-paints thin layer of paint to create flow and softness
Content:
-woman reclining while maids get her clothing
-dog=wealth
-seduction look= erotic
Function:
-wedding gift
Context:
-artist: Titian
-Ventian Renaissance 1538 CE
81. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza
81. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza
Form:
-codex
-city laid out in 4 sections
-text
-ink and color on paper
Content:
-Part 1: creation of the City of Tenochtitlan (eagle on cactus describes how city was founded)
-Part 2: conquests achieved by Aztec alliances
-Part 3: daily life
-Templo Mayor
-canals dividing cities
Function:
-made for Spanish viceroy
-historical account for the Aztecs
Context:
-Aztecs 1541-42 CE
82. Church of Il Gesu
82. Church of Il Gesu
Form:
-building: marble, brick
-ceiling: fresco and stucco
-Lation cross plan, simple
-single aisle
-Post Reformation
Content:
-faith through the senses
-Last Judgement (ceiling) spatial illusionism, end of Baroque period
-IHS: interpretation of Jesus’ name
Function:
-mother church for the Jesuits of the world
Context:
-architect: Giacomo da Vignola
-facade: Giacomo della Porta
-ceiling: Giovanni Battista Gaulli
-Jesuits are great defenders of the pope
-ceiling made 100 years later (1676)
-Rome, Italy
83. Hunters in the Snow
83. Hunters in the Snow
Form:
-endless, winter landscape
-panoramic view
-apart of series of 4 seasons
-oil on wood
Content:
-hunters coming back after an unsuccessful hunt (only one rabbit)
-people iceskating and curling (shows daily life)
-broken sign above inn
-vastness and beauty of world
Function:
-part of calendar series
0show how they had to get their food
0for dining room of wealth merchant in Antwerp
Context:
-artist: Peter Bruegel the Elder
1565 High Renaissance North
-Antwerp
84. Mosque of Selim II
84. Mosque of Selim II
Form:
-brick and stone
-similar to Hagia Sophia
-dome, squinches, piers, apses
-richly decorated dome from the inside
-centralized, octagonal mosque
Content:
-slender, tall minarets
-centralized with 8 piers
-courtyard and prayer hall
-madrassa (college for Islamic instruction)
-souk: shops in the mosque
-Qibla wall faces outwards showing openness
Function:
-mosque made to replace Hagia Sophia
Context:
-Edirne, Tukey: Ottoman
-made by architect, Sinan, in 1568-1575 CE
-part of a complex
85. Calling of St. Matthew
85. Calling of St. Matthew
Form:
-metaphysical painting
-Baroque (Counter Reformation, through your sense)
-diagonal light (tenebrism)
-realism/illusionism
-unusal setting for Jesus
Content:
-meant to be contemplated
-Jesus extended hand (same hand as in Sistine Chapel)
-Matthew sitting with fellow tax collectors
Function:
-body and soul are between a spiritual reality and physical reality
-Jesus shown in modern environment
-part of 3 part series
-use of light
-in chapel
Context:
-artist: Caravaggio; Rome, Italy
-1559-1600
-Contarelli Chapel
86. Henri IV Recieves Portrait of Marie de 'Medici
86. Henri IV Recieves Portrait of Marie de ‘Medici
Form:
-oil on canvas
-floating figures
-part of a cycle
-shows an event in her life
-Catholic Baroque
Content:
-Henry IV present the picture of Marie that confirmed his religious identity; married a Catholic queen
-marries her so he can have a son and recreate him in a Catholic way
-Jupiter and Juno gives blessing to them
Function:
-“early harmony”
-part of a tribute to her life
-show that their marriage was official bc portrait
-shows political power, sophistication, and stability
Context:
-Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish painter)
-from Marie de’ Medici cycle displayed in the Louvre
-1621-25 CE Flemish Baroque
87. Self Portrait with Saskia
87. Self Portrait with Saskia
Form:
-Dutch Baroque
-difference in emphasis on the figures
-exists in 3 different states
-rich tonal quality
-abrupt spatial construction
-etching (exposing metal)
-genre: private movement between husband and wife
-small scale
Content:
-Rembrandt and wife in historical clothing
-wife, Saskia died at the age of 30 (only piece he did of her)
-Rembrandt drawing his drawing
-exploring who he is
Function:
-self portrait/marriage portrait
-role playing
Context:
-Rembrandt 1636
-he is mostly a portrait maker
-Dutch, Amsterdam
-Dutch Baroque
88. San Carlo alle Quatro Fontane
88. San Carlo alle Quatro Fontane
Form:
-pure white inside with complex geometry
-stone, stucco
-rich orientation
-balance convex vs. concave
-flowing walls
Content:
-Trinitarian order in centers of ceiling (triangle=HS)
-big columns
-4 fountains
Function:
-dedication to Saint Carlos
-represent the trinity
-reminder of the Renaissance
-Monastic Church (Trinitarian Order)
Context:
-Rome, Italy
-architect: Borromeo
1638-46 CE (17th century)
-Italian Baroque
89. Ectasy of Saint Teresa
89. Ectasy of Saint Teresa
Form:
-marble, stucco, gilt bronze
-rich color
-many shapes and directions
-spiritual vs. physical
-Baroque
-shallow carving
-Counter-Reformation
Content:
-St. Teresa having a vision (physical and spiritual experience)
-fresco on ceiling
-Holy Spirit as a dove, light coming from HS
-columns serving as a frame as you enter chapel
-real daylight explosion
Function:
-Bernini’s comeback after his scandal with mistress
-inspire and involve the viewer by bring sculptures to life
-after St. Teresa canonized
-shows union of world
Context:
-Rome; 1647-52
-artist: Bernini (very religious)
-sculpter, architect, painter
-Italian Baroque
90. Angel with Aequebus
90. Angel with Aequebus
Form:
-Spanish Colonial Baroque
-idealistic
-Latin inscription
-oil paint
-part of a large history
Content:
-guns from 80 years war
-feathered crown
-nobility
-elegant clothing
-Catholic missionary
-Asiel fears God
-Church=army
-angel=soldiers
-aristocratic clothing
-Angel with gun
Function:
-militarist approach to faith
-propaganda for war
Context:
-17th century Peru
-artist: Asiel Timor Dei
91. Las Meninas
91. Las Meninas
Form:
-use of mirrors (Baroque)
-movement in strokes not as detailed as you think
-large painting
-gaze
Content:
-maids of honor and daughter
-dog=wealth
-self portrait of Velazquez
-painting in a painting
(Velasquez painting this painting
-people looking at viewer
Function:
-view of palace life
-show wealth/status
-made for Philip IV (the viewer)
-genre painting
Context:
-1656 CE; Prado, Madrid
-artist: Diego Velazquez
-Spanish Baroque
92. Woman Holding a Balance
92. Woman Holding a Balance
Form:
-Catholic elements
-Scientific lighting
-genre scene
-small scale, oil on canvas
-use of light
-vanishing point
-color palette
Content:
-women part of upperclass (fine clothing)
-fur coat
-balance has nothing in it
-weighing valuables
-Last Judgement scene above
Function:
-material wealth
-painting for merchants
-religious meaning but not painted just for Church
-time and change
Context:
-artist: Johannes Vermeer
-1664 Dutch Baroque
93. The Palace of Versailles
93. The Palace of Versailles
Form:
-east-west axis
-rigorous geometry
-classical architecture (symmetry, repetitive, and based on Greek temples)
-gold
-painted ceilings
-outside is not as “ornate”
-symmetrical
-Greek/Roman influence
-mirrors (hall of mirrors)
Content:
-Hall of mirrors (social gatherings)
-700 rooms
-gardens
-sculptures, paintings, fountains tributed to him
Function:
-King Louis XIV decided to build a new palace
-example of nobility
-living for King, his close friends, family, servants, and soldiers)
-emphasize Louis’ importance (everything revolves around him
Context:
-Versailles, France
-Louis Le Vaw and Jules Hardouin-Mansart= architects
-began in 1669 CE, French Baroque
94. Screen with Seige of Belgrade and hunting scene
94. Screen with Seige of Belgrade and hunting scene
Form:
-Japanese folding screen (Biombo)
-Spanish Colonial Baroque
-tapestry
-tempora/resin on wood
-shell inlay (Aztec)
Content:
-historical event from Europe
-one side: battle scene
-other side: landscape
-Great Turkish War
-combines multiple cultures
Function:
-expresses exonomic power of the Spanish in Colonial Mexico
-made Spanish viceroy
-room divider (biombo- Japanese folding screen)
-relationship between Japan and Latin America
Context:
-Circle of Gonzalez Family, 1697-1701 CE
-Spanish Colonial
95. The Virgin of Guadalupe
95. The Virgin of Guadalupe
Form:
-based upon the original
-oil on canvas on wood inlaid with pearls
Content:
-artist signature
-traditional view
-story of Juan Diego (Aztec man)
-roses with her image
-radiating light off Mary
-indigenous coming to Roman Catholic Church
-dark-skinned people portraits
FunctionL
-tribute to Mary and show her as divine
Context:
-1698 CE, Spanish Colonial
-Mexico City, Basiclia of Guadalupe
-artist: Miguel Gonzalez
96. Fruit and Insects
96. Fruit and Insects
Form:
-still life
-Baroque
-oil on wood
-colors, detailed
Content:
-insects, fruit
-wheat and grapes= Jesus?
-bringing different compositions together
Function:
-harvest in autumn
-microscopic organisms: used microscope to study these organisms
Context:
-artist: Rachel Ruysch (Dutch arist; last famous still painter)
-Florence, Italy 1711 CE (18th century)
97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo
97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo
Form:
-casta painting (displays mother, father, and child) possibly modeled after the Holy Family
-text is the title of the piece
-enlightenment
Content:
-woman wearing traditional Indian clothing and white father with their mixed race son (Father wearing French-style European clothing)
-servant carrying the son
-family appears content
-racial purity=whiteness
Function:
-displays social status (tied up in one’s racial makeup)- helped maintain European power and control
Context:
-artist: Juan Rodriguez Juarez
-1715 CE (height of slave trade)
98. The Tete a Tete from Marriage a la Mock
98. The Tete a Tete from Marriage a la Mock
Form:
-looks like French Rococo (uses to make fun of the French
Content:
-critques upper-class for getting married because of bloodlines and family
-shows the couple is married but not faithful to eachother
-man being sniffed by dog because smell of another woman’s perfume
-woman has been out all night trying to become popular
-part of a series (arranged marriages end badly, marriage should be about love)
-sign that sex occurred before husband came back home (flipped over chair)
-merchant gives up on couple because they won’t take finances seriously
Function:
-satire from British to French
-art being made for the growing middle class
Context:
-artist: William Hogarth (social critic)
-1743 CE
99. Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
99. Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
Form:
– style: enlightenment
-oil on canvas
Content:
-typical nun looks
-surrounded by books (educated)
-nun=sor
-wearing a shield
-has painting of Virgin Mary
-hold St. Jerome’s translation of the Bible (her religious order is named after him)
-toys with rosary in her left hand
-gaze directly at viewer
-red curtains shows higher status
-woman taking on the clergy
Function:
-conveys religious and intellectual status
-feminist
Context:
-artist: Miguel Cabrera
-1750 CE
-location: Mexico City
100. A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery
100. A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery
Form:
-Tenebrism now used in secular aspects (mimicking Caravaggio)
-Chiaroscuro: contrast between light and dark
Content:
-orrery: model of the solar system (heliocentric)
-philosopher explain something to people in painting (education is sacred)
Function:
-introduction to science
-celebrates access to knowledge
-shift from religion to science
-philosophical groups emerging
Context:
-1763-1765 CE
-artist: Joseph Wright of Derby
101. The Swing
101. The Swing
Form:
-style: Rococo- love, pastels, aristocracy, arabesques, delicate paint application
-oil on canvas
Content:
-ideal love gardens with sculptures
-cupid whispering
-attendant swinging her=elite
-foot with expensive shoe
-French garden
-“peeping tom” in lower left
Function:
-made for aristocrats to decorate buildings
-show the pleasures and decadence enjoyed by the elite
Context:
-1767 CE (18th century)
-artist: Jean-Honore Fragonard
-Enlightenment
102. Monticello
102. Monticello
Form:
-classical and enlightenment ideals (neoclassical) combining Italian Renaissance and French Classical architecture
-domestic
-symmetrical
-brick, glass, stone, wood
Content:
-expresses American virtue of a Republic through architecture
-two column deep extended portico that support triangular pediment decorated by a semicircular window (doric columns)
-shallow dome
Function:
-plantation house for Jefferson
Context:
-Virginia, USA 1768-1809
-Romanticism/Classicism on the rise
103. The Oath of the Horatii
103. The Oath of the Horatii
Form:
-neoclassical (physicality and intense emotions)
-dramatic, rhetorical gestures
-geometric forms with the contrasting curvy formed women
-single light shined upon them at the heightened drama of the scene
Content:
-“what are you willing to die for?”
-3 brothers saluting towards the swords which are held by their father (take oath to defend Rome)
-woman grieving in back ground because they have to deal with consequences of war (either lose husband or their bro)
-sacrifice oneself for good
Function:
-challenge aristocracy
Context:
-Jacques-Louis David 1784 (before the revolution)
-commissioned by King of France
104. George Washington
104. George Washington
Form:
-contrapposto
-neoclassicism (influenced by essence of Greek art as opposed to Rococo)
-realistic
-idealistic
Content:
-captured the duality of Washington (private citizen and public soldier)
-bundle of 13 rods (symbolizes not only power but strength found through unity
Function:
-commemorate momentous occasion after the revolutionary war
Context:
-artist: Jean-Antoine Houdon (commissioned by Jefferson)
-1788-92 CE made by foreigner
105. Self Portrait
105. Self Portrait
Form:
-oil on canvas
-portrait
-light brushwork and colors (Rococo style)
-Enlightenment
Content:
-shows her in process of creating the self portrait of Marie Antoinette (she was her court painter)
-holding palette and paint brush (showing she is skilled)
-interrupts her but she welcomes the interruption
Function:
-shows that she is a painter
-several different version
Context:
-artist: Elizabeth Louise Vigee Le Brun
-1790 CE, Rococo-Neoclassicism (in between)
106. Y no hai remedio (And There's Nothing To Be Done)
106. Y no hai remedio (And There’s Nothing To Be Done)
Form:
-style: romanticism (challenging power and oppression)
-etching, drypoint
Content:
-part of series of 82 called Disasters of War
-what human beings capable of
-government misuse of power on helpless victims
-man is blindfolded with head down tied to wooden pole (christ-like)
-recently deceased corpse with extreme detail of his grotesque face (behind body on pole is a dead body on pole)
Function:
-pictures the atrocities of war
-visual indictment and protest against French occupation of Spain
Context:
-publish 1863, made 1810-1823 CE
-artist: Francisco Goya (trained by Rococo)
107. La Grande Odalisque
107. La Grande Odalisque
Form:
-romanticism (exoticism)
-classical figure
-proportions are messed up
-oil on canvas
Content:
-physically unreal body
-peacock fan, turban, enormous pearls, hookah (eroticism based on exotic content)
Function:
-what a French male’s fantasy would look like
Context:
-artist: Jean-Auguste-Dominque Ingres (court painter for Napoleon
-1814 CE
108. Liberty Leading the People
108. Liberty Leading the People
Form:
-romanticism
-seems as though it is overpowered by chaos but filled with subtle order
-oil on canvas
Content:
-people of both the working class and middle class join in the fight against the government
-lady carrying the French flag meant to serve as an allegory, in this case a moral or political idea of Liberty (looking back to make sure people are following, represents an idea)
-background: Notre Dame
Function:
-allow us to believe anyone can be a revolutionary
Context:
-artist: Eugen Delacroix
-1830 CE
109. The Oxbow
109. The Oxbow
Form:
-romanticism
-Manifest Destiny
-not based of a real place
-oil on canvas
Content:
-reverence for nature
-filled with life
-based on real life area
-divides the painting into two unequal sections
-one shows sublime view of land untouched by man (wild, untamed)
-other side shows land humankind has taken over (overtaken by agriculture)
-self portrait of himself wandering
Function:
-landscape painting
-shows respect for nature
Context:
-Northampton, Massachusetts
-artist: Thomas Cole (leader of Hudson River School)
-1836 CE (19th century)
110. Still Life in Studio
110. Still Life in Studio
Form:
-classical art
-daguerreotypes record precise detail
-photography
Function:
-elevate photography to art
Content:
-reversed image
-long exposure and can’t record movement
-upstairs underneath the skylight due to no flash
-fills his photos with plaster casts (angels)
Context:
-artist: Louis Jacques Maude Daguerre
-1837 CE (earliest dated photography)
111. Slave Ship
111. Slave Ship
Form:
-romanticism (sublime)
-combines a beautiful and horrible scene together
-rich colors
-loose brushwork
-oil on canvas
Content:
-beautiful seascape looking at first but if u look close you see slaves drowning and being eaten alive
-disease breaks out on ship and overthrows all the dead and sick overboard so they can get insurance (money is motivator for what they did)
Function:
-political and social activist piece
Context:
-artist: Joseph Mallord William Turner
-1840 CE
-inspired by a book
112. Palace of Westminster
112. Palace of Westminster
Form:
-Hammer Beam Construction in the Westiminster Hall
-Romanticism
-classical building with a Gothic exterior, Gothic revival
-limestone, masonry, glass
Content:
-central lobby
-westiminster hall (oldest section)
Function:
-where the House of Lords and Commons meet
-rebuilt because a fire burned down old palace that was originally there
Context:
-London, England
-architect: Charles Barry
-designer: Augustus Pugin
-1840-70 CE
113. Stone Breakers
113. Stone Breakers
Form:
-Realism (anti-heroism
-oil on canvas/chunky
-rough brushwork
-against neoclassical style that dominated French art
-dark palette
Content:
-young and old man
-faceless men doing painful work that will neber get them out of poverty
-this owrk is punishment for chain gangs
-rock=faces
Function:
-“painting of nothing”
-cycle of poverty
-works: economically and physically trapped
-accurate display of abuse and deprivation that was common in French rural life
Context:
-1849 (destroyed during bombing of Dresden in 1942)
-artist: Gustave Courbet (prolific artist)
114. Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art
114. Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art
Form:
-lithograph: process of making a design on ston eblock with greasy crayon, ink applied to wet stone and stick to greasy parts to make a print (cheap way)
-Realism
Content:
-Nadar- awkward photographer/businessman on high and attempting to raise photography to high art (takes first aerial shots of France
Function:
-make lithographs as a new mass media print method
-crave of art in Paris
-new kind of photography
Context:
-artist: Honore Daumier
-made 6000+ lithographs
-satirist, uses caricatures
-1862, Paris
-published in Le Boulevard
115. Olympia
115. Olympia
Form:
-realism (genre scene)
-flatness of body
-rejection of use of space
-angle of body
-heavy paint application
-features not perfect or idealized
-woman makes eye contact with the viewer
Content:
-naked modern woman
-unidealistic features
-prostitute
-cat (wealth)
Function:
-looks like a real woman
-Olympia=prostitute (cortisone)
-genre scene
-sexual interest
-scandy
Context:
-Edowuard Manet 1863
-based on his favorite model
116. Saint-Lazare Station
116. Saint-Lazare Station
Form:
-oil on canvas
-diagonal but flat lines
-abstract
-everything=light or color
-non-heroic
Content:
-commuter railroads/trains
-urban scene with trains, not just outdoors/nature
Function:
-make modern life look beautiful
-emphasizes new ways of taking day trips on trains
-urbanization
Context:
-Claude Monet 1877 Paris
-impressionism
117. Horse in Motion
117. Horse in Motion
Form:
-impressionism
-Albumen print
-still photos/filmmaking
-take pics of horse using trip wire on cameras set up that could take pics at 25th of a second
-cut up and put on cylinders
Content:
-chronophotography
-motion
-horse with jockey
Function:
-photography on rise
Context:
-Eadweard Muybridge
1878 CE
118. The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel
118. The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel
Form:
-landscape painting
-romantic and neoclassical aesthetics (new type of genre painting)
-scientific accuracy
-landscape as historical narrative
-light/shadow directs our view
-vast panorama
Content:
-travelers (tiny detail of mother and children walking into nature away from city)
-island in middle of lake
-Tepoyac (spot of Virgin’s appearance
-volcanoes
-basilica of guadalupe
Function:
-about history of the land
-celebration of Mexico
-international movement towards nature
-shows effect of Industrial Revolution
Context:
-1882, Mexico City
-artist: Jose Maria Velasco
-different styles together: impressionism, nationalism, realism, romanticism
119. Burghers of Calais
119. Burghers of Calais
Form:
-big, powerful, emotional statues
-bronze
-public monuments
-fabric appears fused to ground
-put on our level
Content:
-6 men who gave up lives to go outside walls during 100 Years War
-nervous men before they were released
-can see each face individually
-look of anguish
Function:
-show desire to live vs. need to save their city
-shown equal in status
-make personal connection with each one
Context:
-Paris, 1884-95
-artist: Auguste Rodin
-impressionism
120. Starry Night
120. Starry Night
Form:
-oil on canvas
-post-impressionism
-color expression (express inner reality)
Content:
-study of the night
-everything has spiritual pulsing, swirling spin
-cyprus tree= cemetery tree
-church
Function:
-night has more color than the day
-everything shown alive
-gives hope
-request for love
Context:
-artist: Vincent Van Gough 1889
-painted in hospital
-St. Remy
121. The Coiffure
121. The Coiffure
Form:
-impressionism
-overall curves and crisp line
-drypoint/aquatint
-genre scene
-etching
Content:
-her prints are accessible and they can own them
-influenced by Japanese Wood Block Prints (ukiyo-e)
-preparing one’s hair refers to ideals of femininity and beauty
Function:
-gives image of glamorous woman in glam setting
-Japanese influence
-capture fugitive, fleeting moment of the busy lives of the working class
Context:
-America w/ Japan twist
-1890-91 CE
-artist: Mary Cassat
122. The Scream
122. The Scream
Form:
-post-impressionism
-dark and sinister colors
-elegant, graceful, and linear
-foreground and background blend together
-tempera and pastels on cardboard
-foreground and background blend
-gender unknown
Content:
-red clouds
-people in distance
-boardwalk where he grew up
Function:
-someone experiences mental breakdown
-outward display of inner thoughts
-world transforming
-scream through nature?
Context:
-artist: Edvard Munuch
-Norway, 1893
123. Where Do We Come From? What are we? Where are we going?
123. Where Do We Come From? What are we? Where are we going?
Form:
-human, animal, and symbolic figures across the isalnd landscape
-powerful oclors
-text (title)
-figures out of proportion
-read right to left
Content:
-lizard, cat, goat
-Eve in center
-blue idol representing the beyond
-cycle of life
-volcanic island in Pacific
-themes of life, death, poetry, and symbolic meaning
-synthetism: search for spiritual journey
Function:
-paradise
-where do we go after we die?
-cycle of life
Context:
-artist: Paul Gaugin (grew up in Paris and Catholic)
-post-impressionism
-1897-98, Tahiti
124. Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building
124. Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building
Form:
-Medium: iron, steel, glass, and terra cotta
-Horizontal emphasis
-Decorative elements
Content:
-Maximum window areas to admit light
-Terracotta tiles to decorate exterior
-Heavy cornice at top of building (historical touches)
-Elevator and glass (modernistic)
-Grand entrance
Function:
-Horizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of floor space
-Expressing democracy and capitalism
-Shopping
Context:
-influence of Art Nouveau in decorative touches
“form follows function”
-Louis Sullivan, 1899-1903 CE
125. Mont Sainte-Victoire
125. Mont Sainte-Victoire
Form:
-3 sections
-warm and cool contrast
-multiple vantage points
-shatters one point perspective
-faceted brushwork
-relationship of forms
Content:
-orange: rooftops
-green: trees
-mountain
Function:
-landscape painting
-paints how things relate to eachother
Context:
-Paul Cezanne
-1902-04
-Southern France, post impressionism
126. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (young woman of Avignon)
126. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (young woman of Avignon)
Form:
-style: Proto-Cubism
Content:
-incorporated works from different periods of times: Kouros, African masks, Manet’s works
-5 women (prostitutes) with direct stare at the viewer
Function:
-embodies new world of movement in art
Context:
-artist: Pablo Picasso
-1907 CE, street in Barcelona
127. The Steerage
Form:
-photograph/photogravure
-German Expressionism
Content:
-Alfred on way back to Germany
-below him: americans being sent back
-elites on top while lower class is on the bottom
Function:
-converys message about the immigrants who were rejected at Ellis Island or people returning to old country to try to encourage people to come to US
-show social status
128. The Kiss
128. The Kiss
Form:
-Art Nouveau (jugendstil)
-flat figures, rich colors
-gold (Byzantine influence)
Content:
-couple laying in a field of flowers
-“eternity of a kiss”
-both crowned with leaves or flowers
Context:
-artist: Gustave Klimt
-1907-08 CE
129. The Kiss
129. The Kiss
Form:
-modern abstraction, little detail
-symmetrical
-stone
Function:
-version of The Kiss by Klimt
Content:
-two bodies becoming one, interlocked with each other
-one thin line separating the two
Context:
-artist: Constantin Brancusi
130. The Portugese
130. The Portugese
Form:
-Analytic Cubism (no color, plain, simplified, cubes)
-text as art with images
-resembling broken glass, fragmented
Content:
-guitar player on a dock?
-stenciled text
Function:
-transitional piece into the new form of Cubism
Context:
-artist: George Braque
-1911 CE
131. The Goldfish
131. The Goldfish
Form:
-color expressionism (joy, emotion, physiological, spirituality)
-fauvism
-color contrast
-abstract
Function:
-relaxation of the viewer, goldfish represent a tranquil state of mind
-use of pictorial space
Content:
-graceful movement of goldfish
-plants and tables
-view of side and view from top of goldfish shown at the same time
-used his own memory of it to paint this
Context:
-artist: Henri Matisse
-1912 CE
132. Improvisation 28 (second version)
132. Improvisation 28 (second version)
Form:
-German Expressionism
-expressing things through colors
-non-objective
Content:
-concerning the spiritual in art
-synesthetic experience
-black diagonal lines
-color as the keyboard
Function:
-each color plays chord in your soul
-music as art
Context:
-artist: Vassily Kandinsky
-1912 CE
133. Self Portrait of a Soldier
133. Self Portrait of a Soldier
Form:
-German Expressionism
-angular/powerful colors
-explosion of color
Content:
-dehumanizing aspects of human life
-Kirchner as a soldier standing in his studio
-right hand amputated, bloody stump
-nude model behind him (showing that he is the artist)
Function:
-emotion expressed through color
-effects of war on a soldier or anyone involved
-call for young people to fight
Context:
-artist: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
-1915 CE
134. Memorial Sheet for Karl Liebknecht
134. Memorial Sheet for Karl Liebknecht
Form:
-german expressionism
-lamentation, woodcut
Function:
-honors the communist without depicting his ideologies so people would know she wasn’t a communist
-depicts this with great compassion
Content:
-densely packed with figures (multitudes coming to show their respects)
Context:
-artist: Kathe Kollwitz, approached by family to make this
135. Villa Savoye
135. Villa Savoye
Form:
-Domino House: concrete slabs
-Reinforced concrete
-Open floor plan
-Natural lighting
-Simplistic white
Content:
-Garage (green) that is very big and can fit limo cars in it for their chauffeurs
-Slender columns
-Non-load bearing walls
-Horizontal windows
-Roof garden
-Spiral staircase or ramps to go up
-Ribbon fenestration (windows wrap around house)
Function:
-Weekend home for the Savoye Family
Context:
-artist: Le Corbusier (architect)
-Poissy-sur-Seine, France
-Designed the furniture too
136. Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow
136. Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow
Form:
-Primary palette
-Nonobjective
-Dynamic asymmetry
-Grid with lines of varying thickness
-Neoplasticism: create new non-objective visual language
Content:
-Horizontal and vertical black lines
-Red, blue, and yellow blocks
Function;
-Utopian: aim for a state of perfection; idealistic
-Idealism about art’s potential to change society
Context:
-Piet Modrian, 1930
-Painted in Paris, France
137. Illustration from the Results of the First Five-Year Plan
137. Illustration from the Results of the First Five-Year Plan
Form:
-Photomontage: images combined and manipulated to express the message artist wants to convey
-Dynamic composition
-Graphic art (book and magazine)
Typography: text turned into art (what Stepanova is famous for)
Content:
-Stalin’s Five Year Plan of 1928 for agricultural, industrial, and military growth
-Vladimir Lenin
-Industrialism
-Red: color of the Communist Soviet Union
Function:
-Soviet propaganda
-Show Stalin’s economic policies to the world
-Constructivism as utilitarian modernism
-Artist’s interpretation
Context:
-Varvara Stepanova, 1932
-Russian Constructivism
138. Object
138. Object
Form:
-Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon
-Surrealism: pure physic automatism (unconscious/conscious), world of dreaming
Content:
-Saucer, cup, spoon
-Gazelle fur
Function:
-Turning something dainty into something naughty (pubic hair reference)
-Interpretations can be different for everyone
Context:
-French
-Meret Oppeheim (Surrealist painter)
-Was at a café with Picasso and wearing a fur covered bracelet. He exclaimed that anything could be covered in fur and she got inspiration because they were drinking tea together. Proceeded to go to a store right next to the café and get a cheap saucer, spoon, and, cup.
139. Fallingwater
139. Fallingwater
Form:
-Ribbon fenestration
-Organic plan/space
-Horizontality
-Irregularity and complexity of design
Content:
-Hearth in center of house
-Cantilevered porches extending over waterfall
-Living room with glass curtain wall around 3 of the 4 sides
Function:
-Weekend house for the Kauffman family (owned a department store in Pittsburgh)
-Harmony with nature
Context:
-architect: Frank Lloyd Wright, 1936-39 CE140
-Site specific
-Designed furniture as well
140. The Two Fridas
140. The Two Fridas
Form:
-Surrealist
-Ex Voto Tradition
-Victorian European (left)/ Mexican (right)
Function:
-Self portrait, search for herself
-Show her two heritages (European father, Mexican mother)
-Blood on lap suggesting abortions and miscarriages
Content:
-European Frida on left and Indian/Mexican Frida on the right
-Right: holds small portrait of (almost) ex-husband Diego as a child
-Left: holds hemostat (stop bleeding of her heart)
-Stormy sky (everything going wrong)
-Heart twined together by veins that are cut by scissors at one end and lead to portrait of husband
Context:
In midst of divorce with Diego Rivera
-Frida Jahlo, 1939.
141. Migration of the Negro, panel no. 49
141. Migration of the Negro, panel no. 49
Form:
-Synthetic cubism (flat, angular)
-60 panels in series
-Tempera paint on hardboard
-Unmodulated colors
Content:
-Anonymous faces
-Split down the middle
-Public restaurant in city segregated
Function:
-Historical narrative series that depicts the migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North after WWI
-Segregation emphasized by yellow poles that zigzag down the center
Context:
-artist: Jacob Lawrence, 1940-41
-Parents migrated North so he lived during this period of migration
142. The Jungle
142. The Jungle
Form:
– gouache on paper mounted on canvas
– more dense on top, more open on the bottom of the work
– surrealism and afro-Cuban elements
Function:
– large painting made after Wilfredo returned to his homeland of Cuba from Europe
– work of art rejects stereotypes bc of the slaves he shows growing sugarcane in the jungle
Content:
-cluster of faces, limbs, bamboo, and sugar cane
– shows slaves growing sugarcane in jungle (which didn’t happen)
-Santeria: mixes African beliefs and customs with Catholicism
-femme cheval: half woman, half horse
Context:
– Wilfredo Lam made this in 1943
– made during WWII in Cuba-
143. Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda Park
143. Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda Park
Form:
-Fresco, 50′ long, 13′ high
-Inspired by surrealism (dream/nightmare)
Function:
-Political propaganda and nationalism
-Historical narrative
-Decoration for a hotel across the street from the park
-Show how involved the government was in Mexico
Content:
-Big urban park in Mexico City
-Skeleton in middle- Diego as a young boy holding its hand
-Older portrait of Frida
-3 periods of Mexican history over 400 years (Conquest, Porfirio of Diaz dictatorship, revolution of 1910)
-Historical figures in the government/ revolution
Context:
-Diego Rivera, 1947-48
-Diego’s memories of the park (moved to Mex. City at age of 10)
144. Fountain
144. Fountain
Form:
-dada art
-approbation
-readymade, glazed sanitary china
Content:
-transforms a urinal by turning it around and signing it
Function:
-challenge notion
-moving something to a different context changed the meaning
Context:
-artist: Marcel Duchamp, 1917
145. Woman I
145. Woman I
Form;
-Slashing paint onto canvas (Picasso inspired)
-Aggressive movement of paint (action painting)
-Abstract style
-Many layers of paint
Content:
-Smile is from a magazine ad
-Great fierce teeth and huge eyes (not attractive)
-Large breasts
Function:
-Breasts were a satire on women who were in magazines
-Critical look at the post world war pinup and the disapproval of the pornographic culture
Context:
-Series of 60 “Woman” paintings
-artist: William de Kooning: Dutch-American abstract expressionist painter
146. Seagram Building
146. Seagram Building
Form:
-Steel frame with glass curtain wall
-Skyscraper
-International style
-Bronze veneer
Content:
-38 floors
-Public space in front (doesn’t take up the whole block) with reflecting pools
Function:
-Symbol of capitalism and economic power (used expensive material)
-Reflection of minimalist movement in painting “less is more”
-Balance classical traditions with industrial materials and modern forms
Context:
-architects: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Phillip Johnson
-Budhaus ideals: minimalistic, functional, efficient
-Midtown Manhattan
147. Marilyn Diptych
147. Marilyn Diptych
Form:
-Aimed at young people
-Emphasis on sex, sarcasm, comedy
-Pop art
-Photo reproduction
-Monumental scale (6 x 9ft)
-2 silver canvases artist silkscreened images on
Content:
-Marilyn Monroe’s image 50 times
-Image slowly disappears to the right
Function:
-Tribute piece
-The “mask” of a celebrity
-Illusion of commercial desires
-Shows what image mass media has given to celebrities such as her
-1D of the piece symbol for how she was just a one-dimensional sex symbol
Context:
-artist: Andy Warhol
-After Marilyn has died from an apparent suicide
148. Narcissus Garden
148. Narcissus Garden
Form:
-Mirror balls “kinetic carpet”
-Temporary installation/ been re-shown several times
-Artist part of installation
Content:
-“Your Narcissism for Sale” sign
-Sold the balls for $2 each
-The artist (Kusama) wearing a kimono standing in front
-1500 mass-produced plastic silver globes
Function:
-Wore a kimono to fulfill Japanese stereotypes about her
-Self-promotion of artist
-Infinity suggested by endless mirrored images
-Critique of commercialism in the art world
Context:
-artist/performer: Yayoi Kusama
-1966 Venice Biennale
Public place: lawn outside the Italian Pavilion
149. The Bay
149. The Bay
Form:
-Abstract expressionism
-Use of acrylic (had just been invented)
-Soak-Stain method: pouring wet paint onto a canvas and moving it around
-Paint seeps and flows and interacts with the fiber
Content:
-Prominent blue section shifting from violet to indigo then into navy
-Blurring of the colors, blues blend together
Function;
-Color as the subject of the painting
-Subject could also be a landform of some sort?
Context:
-Helen Frankenthaler, 1963 CE
150. Lipstick
150. Lipstick
Form:
-Cor-ten steel, aluminum, cast resin
-Painted with polyurethane enamel
-Enlarged scale (24′)
-Original was temporary (made permanent in ’74 with steel)
-Made to be seen as a missile or a tank
Content:
-Massive lipstick (feminine)
-“make love not war”
Function:
-War protest against Vietnam War
-Alludes to military because of the caterpillar tracks
-Pop art as seriousness and levity
-Public monument
-Combined feminine stereotype (makeup) with masculine stereotype (war)
Context:
-Claes Oldenburg, 1969-74
-Yale University alumni, Put on Yale’s campus
151. Spiral Jetty
151. Spiral Jetty
Form:
– earthwork: mud, salt crystals, rocks, water coil
– arranged in counterclockwise motion
Content:
– a pathway that goes out in the Great Salt Lake
Function:
– this work of art is ever-changing because of the water levels
– supposed to be a pilgrimage to get there
Context:
– Great Salt Lake, Utah
-site-specific
– made by Robert Smithson in 1970
152. House in New Castle County
152. House in New Castle County
Form:
– Wood frame
– Post-modernist
Content:
– Rear façade: Flat, classical, cartoony columns
– Music room: quirky chandelier, colors, weird vaulting
Function:
– Show post-modernist ideals
– We live in a diverse society, not simple
– House designed for a family of three
o Wife: musician (all the instruments and music room)
o Husband: bird watcher (windows facing the woods)
– Irony of using classical elements
Context:
-Robert Venturi, John Rauch, Denise Scott Brown 1978-83
-Delaware, USA
-Post modernism: whimsical, fun, playful “less is a bore”(modernist doesn’t embody what the world is really like)
153. Chavin de Huantar
153. Chavin de Huantar
Form:
-U-shaped temple
-sunken relief
-powerful curving
-stone architecture
-hammered gold alloy
-granite sculpture
Content:
-only priest and high officials could see the Lanzon (human/jaguar)
Lanzon statue:
-enormous, shape of agricultural tool, dark tunnels lead to the illuminated statue
-nose ornament: status symbol, serpent shape
relief: jaguar
Function:
-ceremonial center for the Chavin people
Context:
-Northern Highlands, Peru
Chavin People
-900-200 BCE
Center of Chavin culture
154. Mesa Verde Cliff Dwellings
154. Mesa Verde Cliff Dwellings
Form:
-indigenous North America
-geometric designs on murals
-sandstone
Content:
-living in communities
-harmonizes with landscape for functional reasons
-summer sun doesn’t hit the pueblos, but winter light warms it
-painted murals
Function:
-residential places
-storage places
-ritual places
-Kiva: communal gathering, ritual purpose for men
Context:
-Montezuma, County, Colorado
-450-1300 CE
-pueblo people, descendants are Hopi and Zuni
-Anasazi tribe
155. Yaxchilan
155. Yaxchilan
*picture shown is relief found in this building
Form:
-limestone
-built on platforms (ascent up)
-3 doorways to a single room
-corbelled vaulting
-panel over doors
-painted stucco designs
-roof combs
Content:
-glyphs: each tell about an event, person, and when
relief pictured:
-Lady Xok’s vision after suffering blood loss
-her and husband, Shiel Jaguar III
-pulling a piece of barbed rope through her tongue
-vision of great warrior coming out of serpent’s mouth
Function:
-affirms reign of Sheild Jaguar III
Context:
-Chipas, Mexico
-725 CE
156. Great Serpent Mound
156. Great Serpent Mound
Form:
-1300′ long, 3′ high
follows a river
east/west axis
earthwork
site specific
Mississippian culture
Content:
-numerous mounds forming the shape of a serpent
Function:
connection to Haley’s comet
might have been used to mark time/seasons
Context:
-Adams County, Ohio
1070 CE (11th century)
157. Templo Mayor (Main Temple)
*4 pictures for this but only the coyolxauqui stone is pictured here
Form:
-built in layers
-two great staircases
-stone temples
-the Coyolxauqui Stone: volcanic stone
-mask: jadeite
-calendar stone: basalt
Content:
-two temples on top (one for sun God Huitzilopochtli and one for the Rain God Tlaoc)
-base of the pyramid is a serpent and the Coyolxauhqui Stone
-Coyolxauhqui Stone: retells the story of Huitzilopochtli (after his sibs killed their mother, he takes revenge on them and dismembers his sister Coyolxauhqui which is shown on the stone)
-Calendar stone (central is the sungod, shows the days)
Function:
-ceremonial place for the Aztec people
-human sacrifice victims were thrown on this stone from atop the temple
Context:
-Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), only foundation of Aztec culture that exists today
Aztec 1375-1520 CE
158. Ruler's feather headdress
158. Ruler’s feather headdress
Form:
-featherworking
-gold
Content:
-very hard to get these feathers, they were acquired through the vast Aztec trading network
Function:
-unknown
Context:
-Axtec
-1428-1520 CE
-gift for Motecuhzoma II from the Viceroy of Spain
-made by artist who specialized in featherwork
159. City of Cusco
159. City of Cusco
Form:
-plan in shape of a cat and at the head is a fortress
-intricate stone work
-trapezoid shapes
-andesite
Content:
-city is divided by social class
-massive stone walls without using mortar
-foundation of city is all that is left today
-Qorikancha (central temple dedicated to the Sun God, Inti) walls covered in gold to show the shrines’ significance
-Saqsa Wayman: forstress that looks down on the city, zig-zagging walls, stones were quarried and hauled with incredible manpower
Function:
-capital of Incan empire
Context:
-Central Highlands, Peru
Inka empire
-Commissioned by Pachacuti 1440 CE
160. Maize cobs
160. Maize cobs
Form:
-Realism: sheet metal pressed against actual maize to get the texture (repousse)
-oxidized silver (black maize)
Content:
-corn was revered because of its importance to the diets of the Incans
Function:
-show importance of corn
Context:
-1440-1533 CE Inka
161. Machu Picchu
161. Machu Picchu
Form:
-careful placement of stones
-channels throughout
-built into mountain
Content:
-observatory with niches
-calendars
-cosmological though
-terrace common way of growing agriculture (potatoes)
-Intihuatana stone (carved from bedrock stone, corners are aligned with the compass points)
Function:
-religious pilgrimage site for the Inka
Context:
-agricultural complex
-Central highlands, Peru 1450-1540 CE
162. All-T'oqupu Tunic
162. All-T’oqupu Tunic
Form:
-camelid fiber and cotton
-squares filled with geometric motifs
-no repetitive geometric figures
Content:
-more colors=higher status
-dyes from different regions of the Incan empire
Function:
-elite men’s tunic
Context:
-Inka empire 1450-1540 CE
-foreigners wore black
163. Bandolier Bag
163. Bandolier Bag
Form:
-new art form resulting from trade for beads among Anglo-Americans
-rounded forms
-beadwork
Content
-decorations vary based on status
Function:
-worn primarily for decoration
-show social status
-worn by men and made by women
Context:
-Lenape Tribe (eastern Delaware)
-1850 CE
164. Transformation Mask
164. Transformation Mask
Form:
-animal and human share
-symmetrical
Content:
-pull string causing mask to open up
-bird=crow
Function:
-used in Potlatch
-Potlatch: used to memorialized the dead, mark union of families through marriage
-help tell a story, dance around
Context:
-Kwakiutl (N. Coast of Canada)
-late 19th century CE
165. Painted Elk Hide
165. Painted Elk Hide
Form:
-elk skin
Content:
-animal hide painting of the Sun Dance
Function:
-record history
Context:
-Constigo
-Wyoming
166. Black on black ceramic vessel
166. Black on black ceramic vessel
Form:
-Blackware ceramic
-Coil, not wheel
-Contrast of matte black and shiny, polished black finishes
-Symmetrical (walls evenly thick)
-Surfaces free from imperfections
Function:
-Food container
Content:
-Revival of ancient Pueblo pottery and designs
-Orgins from 1000 year old tradition in the Southwest
Context:
-Maria and Julian Martinez, New Mexico mid-20th century
-Maria made the pots, Julian painted the pots
167. Conical Tower + circular wall of Great Zimbabwe
167. Conical Tower + circular wall of Great Zimbabwe
Form:
-coursed granite blocks
-battered walls
-ornamental stonework
Content:
-adobe living structures
-towers (32 ft high)
-great enclosures
-narrow passageways
Functions:
-trade center in S. Africa (jewels, beads, gold)
-was a major city (most likely palace complex)
-granary tower
Context:
-Shona people
-Great Zimbabwe 1000-1400 CE
168. Great Mosque of Djenne
168. Great Mosque of Djenne
Form:
-adobe (clay and straw)
-takes on forms familiar in W. Africa
-raised on a platform (protection from flooding)
Content:
-pier buttressing, torons (types of posts)
-ostrich eggs on top to represent fertility
Function:
-mosque
-south sahara trade, learning, and cultural center
-center of religious and cultural life in Mali and community of Djenne
Context:
-Mali
-found in 1200 CE rebuilt 1906-1907
169. Wall Plaque
169. Wall Plaque
Form:
-high relief 3D
-hieratic scale (bigger they are more important)
-strong patterned background
Content:
-Oba: divine leader
-power: lack of narrative
-background contains healing river
-being attended to bye the covering
-someone always holding an Eben (fan-shaped sword)
Function:
-to show royal power (attached to the columns of the palace)
Context:
-Oba’s palace
-resemble books brought by the Portugese, who also brought large amounts of metals that was used in the Benin court
-Edo people (Benin, Nigeria)
-16th century
170. Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)
170. Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)
Forn:
-carved from a single piece of wood
-gold over wood
-four corner posts and open central post
-saddle shaped seat
-gold leaf
-retangular base
Content:
-Story of Golden Stool (priest named Anoyke had power to bring stool from the sky into lap of Osei
-gold in Ashanti culture= trade material
-at death, ancestral stools are blackened and kept in special shrine rooms
Function:
-symbolic stool signifying divine royal power (soul of the ashanti people)
Context:
-Ashanti royalty in Kumasi
-South central Ghana
-1700 CE
171. Ndop (portrait figure)
171. Ndop (portrait figure)
Form:
-hardwood, rubbed with palm oil
-seated in a cross-legend posture on a rectangular base with Kuba textile patterns
-emotionless
-epicene body
-often holding idol, symbol of particular ruler
Content:
-not idealized portrait
-associated with the king’s fertility
-symbol on the base identifies each specific Ndop
-at death, placed with his throne in a shrine near his grave
-once it rots or is damaged, new one is carved as a replacement
Function:
-symbolic portrait of Kuba leaders
-holds the spirit double of the Nyim
Context:
-royal spaces of Kuba people
-democratic republic of the congo
-1760-80 CE King Mishes
172. Power Figure (Nkisi n'kondi)
172. Power Figure (Nkisi n’kondi)
Form:
-wood with screws, nails, blades, cowrie shell,
-46″ high
-geometric abstraction: emphasis on belly and neck
-each one is unique and has different stuff in it
Function:
– used to address issues in the community like political unrest and social strife
Content:
-container in the belly that holds powerful materials indicated to activate the spiritual to protect the patron
Context:
– created by a nganga (holy person) of the Kongo peoples in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the late 19th century
173. Female (pwo) mask
173. Female (pwo) mask
Form:
-smooth, brown surface with rich patina created by red clay and oil
-eyes nearly closed
-long thing nose
-thick braided hair
-high forehead
-symmetric
-naturalistic form with slightly geometric abstraction
-protruding ears with earrings
Content:
-older female role model
-beautiful, archetypal woman
-forehead and right cheek are marked with cosmogram tear marks
-danced by mean with fiber costumes, bookbs, and carries flywhisk
Function:
-entertainment
-expression of female beauty
-initiation ceremony for young men to separate from theirs mothers
Context:
-Chokwe people (Congo)
-19th-20th century CE
174. Portrait Mask (Mblo)
174. Portrait Mask (Mblo)
Form:
-individual portrait that is naturalistic and abstract, refined features
-polished surface suggesting health
-complex coiffures
-scarifications
-introspective look on face
Content:
-individual portraits of specific people
-expressing beauty
-commissioned by husband
-kept out of sight until preformed
-preformance goes along with music
Context:
-Moya Yanso is the person who is portrayed
-Baule people
artist: Owie Kimou
-early 20th century CE
175. Bundu Mask
Form:
-three zones
-shiny surface evokes water
-“metal helmet”
-small and nearly closed eyes
-complex hair that comes in a great variety of forms
-sheen=beautiful
Content:
-ceremony takes place in the forest on the “outside” on the edge of society
-idealized beauty and moral guidance
-neck rolls (health)
Function:
-life transition
Context:
-kept hidden until preformed
-Mende people
-19th-20th century CE
176. Ikenga (shrine figure)
176. Ikenga (shrine figure)
Form:
-tall
-abstracted male figure
-wood
-prominent horns
-holding swords
-expresses strength
Content:
-a person object associated with an individual
-male power of the right hand
-large horns
-right hand holds the sword
-seated
-left hand holds severed trophy head
Function:
-given to young males
-Igbo person shrine figure
Context:
-Igbo people
-19th-20th century
177. Lukasa (memory board
177. Lukasa (memory board
Form:
– wood, beads, and metal
– covered in material and shaped like a turtle shell
Function:
-used by the Luba peoples (Mubydye people)
-interpreted by a specialist in different ways
– shows the different aspects of the Luba culture
Content:
-each is unique and shows different stories of the Luba people
Context:
-Democratic Republic of the Congo
-Luba peoples in the 19th and 20th century
178. Aka Elephant Mask
178. Aka Elephant Mask
Form:
-geometric beading on long, vertical fabric
-highly stylized
-triangle patterns refer to leopards
-body is covered with leopard skins and red feathered headdress
Content:
-worn by male during dance
-Bamileke people see the divine king (fon) as representing the supreme being and ancestors (supernatural powers extend into religion and politics)
Function:
-reaffirms the King’s power
Context:
-Bamileke people (Cameroon)
-Kuosi Society
-19th to 20th century CE
179. Reliquary figure (byeri)
179. Reliquary figure (byeri)
Form:
-bilateral symmetry
-abstract/stylized
-geometric shapes
-close or metal eyes
-clasped hands often hold an object
-exaggerate belly button
Content:
-for protection of relics and village as a community
-they can be male and female
Function:
-guardian of ancestral relics (bones and other materials in a container)
-used during certain rituals for young men
Context:
-Fang people (Cameroon)
180. Veranda post of enthroned king and senior wife (Opo Ugoga)
Form:
-veranda post
-frontal
-enlarged eyes
-elongated
-hieratic
-negative space
-deep blue color
Content:
-King is seated on the throne
-senior wide stands behind him
-secondary wife is smaller and underneath him
-family portrait
-associated with divine
Function:
-architectural support/sculpture
-expressing King Yoruba’s power
Context:
-was one of four carved posts by Olowe of Ise for the royal palace at Ikere
-Yoruba people 1904-10 CE
181. Petra, Jordan: Treasury and Great Temple
181. Petra, Jordan: Treasury and Great Temple
Form:
-cut rock
-treasury carved into a cliff
-red sandstone walls
-lower platform paved with hexagonal stones
Content:
-complex water system
-temple on platform like apadana and built on hillside
-buried dead in tombs cut out of sandstone cliffs
Function:
– city of powerful nomadic Arabic tradespeople (Nabataeans)
-important commercial center
-connected silk road and other trade routes
Context:
-found in 1812
-probably made around 400-100 CE
-ancient city in Jordan
-influence of Greek and Roman
182. Buddha
182. Buddha
Form:
-cut rock with plaster and polychrome paint
– carved into niches on the side of a cliff
Content:
-staircase that ascended up to the Buddha’s shoulder for travelers
-mutras: hand gestures
-hair in bun and big ears
Function:
-was the largest Buddha sculpture in the world until it was blown up in 2001 by Taliban
-travelers were Buddhists who offered gifts of thanks or prayers to the statue
Context:
-Bamiyan, Afghanistan- Gandaran 400-800 CE
-located on crossroads of the Silk Road
183. The Kaaba
183. The Kaaba
Form:
-calligraphy on cloth covering the cube (kisna)
-corner points on the cardinal points
-granite with silk curtain
-set in a mosque
Content:
-kaaba in middle of Mecca
-kaaba filled with pagon god statues and the Black Stone
Function:
-holds relics of Muhammad
-walking meditation in counter-clockwise motion
-place of pilgrimage-hajj (one of the 5 pillars)
Context:
– Mecca, Saudi Arabia
-pre-Islamic monument
-631-632 CE
184. Jowo Rinpoche
184. Jowo Rinpoche
Form:
-gilt metals with semiprecious stones, pearls, and paint
Content:
-various offerings, candles
Function:
-sacred image of Tibet
-idea is that you don’t have to meditate or site a mantra; just seeing this will be a religious experience itself
-pilgrimage site
-believed to have ability to grant wishes
Context:
-enshrined in the Jokhang Temple
-Llasa, Tibet- Yarlung Dynasty
-brought to Tibet in 641 CE
185. Dome of the Rock
185. Dome of the Rock
Form:
-octagonal centralized plan
-arcades, colonades
-heavily decorated on outside
-stone masonry decorated
-wooden roof and cermaic tile
-bronze dome
Content;
-building surrounding a rock
-mosaic contains no human or animal figures
Function:
-building over rock
Context:
-Jerusalem, Palestine 691-692 CE
-Umayyad- islamic
-rock is where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son
-Mohammed’s night journey
186. Great Mosque (Masjid-e Jameh)
186. Great Mosque (Masjid-e Jameh)
Form:
-stone, brick. wood. plaster, and glazed blue ceramic
-each entrance corbelled
Content:
-built around a courtyard with 4 arches coming from it
-madrassa- place for Islamic instruction
-iwan: vaulted space that opens on one side to the courtyard)
Function:
-prototype for future iwan-mosques
-connects political, commerical, social, and religous activities within the city
Context:
-Isfahun, Iran- 700 CE
-Islamic, Persian- Timrud and Safavid dynasties
187. Folio from a Qu'ran
187. Folio from a Qu’ran
Form:
-ink, color, and gold on parchment
-wide page rather than vertical like normal
Content:
-brown Arabic ink read from right to left
-vegetal and geometric motifs because animal and human figures not allowed
Function:
-made for a wealthy patron
-Mus’haf: a codex Qu’ran (bound version)
Context:
-Arab, North Africa, or Near East- Abbasid
-8th-9th century
188. Basin
188. Basin
Form:
-brass inlaid with gold and silver
-very detailed, interconnected
Content:
-battle scenes on interior
-sea animals interconnected designs
-men on horseback
-men hunting
-artist’s signature (6 times)
Function:
-orginially: washing hands at ceremonies
-later: used for baptism in the French royal family (St. Louis)
Context:
-Mumluk artists
-1320-40 (14th century)
-Egypt and Syria
189. Bahram Gur Fights the Karg
189. Bahram Gur Fights the Karg
Form:
-ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper
-shown wearing European clothing but background looks Chinese (combination of cultures)
Content:
-Bahram Gur went on the court of Hind disguised so he could observe the kingdom and its civilians
-king tricks him into showing his true identity and decided to send him away by making him slay a karg (horned wolf)- Barham pierces the wolf with arrows and cuts off his head
-this folio shows Bahram after he has defeated the wolf- confident and relaxed
Function:
-expresses political power attempting to legitimize the Elkhanid’s claim to Iranian kingship
-shows the ideal king (crown and halo)
Context:
-folio from the Great II-Khanid
-1330-1340 CE (Islamic/Persian)
-from the Book of Kings
190. The Court of Gayumars
190. The Court of Gayumars
Form:
-ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper
-clothing identifies who they are not their faces
-minute scale drawing and detail
Content:
-opening page of the Shahnama
-Gayumar is surrounded by his son and grandson he looks down on the court to address them
Function:
-telling ancient history of Persia
Context:
-folio from Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnama
-artist: Sultan Mohammad
-1522-1525 CE
191. the Arbabil Carpet
191. the Arbabil Carpet
Form:
-many many details
-silk and wool carpet
-central sunburst medallion creates illusion of a heavenly dome with lamps reflection in a pool of water full of lotus flowers
-slightly symmetrical
Content:
-two different lamps suspended from the ceilings
-one panel with inscription that tells you who made it and when
Function:
-made for the funerary shrine of Safi al-Din Ardabil
-prayer carpet
Context:
-Maqsud of Kashan 1539-40 CE
-one in a pair of carpets
192. Great Stupa at Sanchi
192. Great Stupa at Sanchi
Form:
-mandala plan (map of the cosmos)
-sandstone
Content:
-4 gateways
-hemispherical dome
-yakshis and yakshus- nature goddess/god
Function:
-monastery
-reliquary mound holds Siddhartha’s relics
-symbolic representations of the Buddha (footprints, lion, elongated pathway, empty seat)
-no actual pictures of Buddha’s face
-show inclusiveness of Buddhism
Context:
-300-100 BCE Madya Pradesh, India
-late Sunga dynasty
193. Terracotta warriors
Form:
-lifesize painted terra cotta warriors
Content:
-warriors with individual faces but same bodies
Function:
-funerary art
-express imperial power and authority
Context:
-Qin Dynasty in China
-221-209 BCE
194. Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui)
194. Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui)
Form:
-T-shaped painted silk banner
-over 6′ long
-set in registers
-depth shown
-naturalistic scenes not just abstract shapes
-bi: disc with a hole that represents the sky
Content:
-registers represent the 3 layers of the universe
-Lady Dai stands on platform with her servants as she is pictured ascending into heaven
-dragons frame the scene on both sides
-sacrificial funerary rituals shown taking place in a mourning hall in the bottom register
Functions:
-put over the tomb
Context:
-Han Dynasty, China- 180 BCE
195. Longmen caves (grottoes)
195. Longmen caves (grottoes)
Form:
-limestone
-guardians and vajrapani are more in motion and engaging figures
Content:
-110k Buddhist statues, 60 stupas, 2800 inscriptions carves on steles
-the Vairocana Buddha (representing the celestial Buddha) with bodhisattva, a heavenly king, and a thunderbolt holder on the sides
Function:
-signifies the arrival of Buddhism in China
Context:
– Luoyang, China- Tang Dynasty
– 493-1127 CE
196. Gold and jade crown
196. Gold and jade crown
Form:
-metal work with gold and jade
Content:
-3 prongs in the back; prongs look like antlers coming out the sides
-jade pieces hanging down- connected by thin wiring
Function:
-queen crown
Context:
-found in tomb of a queen
-Silla Kingdom, Korea
-Three Kingdoms Period
-5th-6th century CE
197. Todai-ji
197. Todai-ji
Form:
-bronze and wood (sculpture)
-wood and ceramic roofing (architecture)
-bracketing system to support the roof
-massive pillars
-contrapposto stance of the Nios (powerful, dynamic bodies)
Content:
-50′ tall wood statues: Ungyo (open mouth) and Agyo (closed mouth)
-Colossal Buddha image (bronze)
Function:
-Buddhist temple
-meant to meditate with the Buddha statue
-expression of Buddhism and State mixing in Japan
Context:
-743 CE rebuilt 1700 CE
-various artists of Kei school
-commissioned by emperor Shopu
-Nara, Japan 1st imperial capital, end of Silk Road
198. Borobudur Temple
198. Borobudur Temple
Form:
– relief sculptures
– elevates
– clockwise up and around
Content:
-72 stupas, 1460 reliefs, 9 platforms in sets of 3, 504 Buddha statues
-narrate Buddha’s teachings
-Jataka tales (Buddha’s past lives)
Function:
-built as monument to Buddha
-pilgrimage site/shrine
-narrative guides you
-physical and spiritual journey to higher state of consciousness
Context:
-Buddha- poet, thinker, and architect of this temple
-Saliendra dynasty commissioned this (the leaders of maritime power
199. Angkor, the temple of Angkor Wat, and the city of Angkor Thom
199. Angkor, the temple of Angkor Wat, and the city of Angkor Thom
Form:
-Panchayatana plan (one main room with 4 surrounding, on a platform)
-Mandala (cosmic map of the world)
-Enter a grand space
-Corbelled gallery roofing
Content:
-Water surrounding temple
-Angkor Thom: Buddhist part
-Angkor Wat: Hindu part
-Sculptures in rhymic dance poses
-Horror vacui of sculptural reliefs
Function:
-Meant to be a tomb, express the divine power of a leader
-Built complex to show his power and might
Context:
-Hindu and Buddhist parts of a medieval capital of Cambodia
-Cambodia, Hindu, Angkor Dynasty 800-1400 CE
200. Lakshamana Temple
200. Lakshamana Temple
Form:
-Sandstone
-Axial plan
-Panchayatana temple type: Configuration of 5 rooms is the typical setup for Indian temple
-High base/platform
-Deep entrance porch
-Complex horizontal banding crosses the ribs of the tower
Content:
-Series of rooms
-Tallest part of building: marks spot of most important part of building (inner sanctuary that holds the image)
-4 shrines/chapels around main room
-Lion statues (symbols of male figures)
-Murti: embodied image of a divine figure
-Mandapa: hall
-Sensuous couple (controversial figures): shows deeper connection with gods
Function:
-Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu
-Mandir temple: Space that is the house for gods (in this case, for Vishnu)
-place of worship, the divine endowed in its idealized architectural form
Context:
-Chandella Dynasty 950 CE
-Khajuraho, India (North Central India)
201. Travelers among Mountains and Streams
201. Travelers among Mountains and Streams
Form:
-hanging scroll (see all at once)
-ink and colors on silk
-in proper scale
-Neo-Confucianism ideals
Content:
-Chinese landscape (no specific place)
-waterfall, travelers, boulders, trees, mist
Function:
-reverence for rocks and stone because of their “chi” (energy)
-evoke Buddha
-after long period of political disunity
Context:
-artist: Fankuan (scholarly artist)
-Song Dynasty, China
-1000 CE
202. Shiva's Lord of Dance
202. Shiva’s Lord of Dance
Form:
-cast bronze
-stance signifies refuge for troubled soul
Content:
-Shiva: destroyer god-keeps us from afterlife, but also creator
-flaming circle crushing Apas mara (dwarf)
-Hindu trinity: Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer/transformer)
-Wedas: sacred texts of Hinduism
Function:
-shows the never-ending cycle of life Indians believe in
-immortal symbol that in this physical world there will always be ignorance or things we have to overcome
Context:
-Hindu, India
-Chola Dynasty 1000-1100 CE
203. Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace
203. Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace
Form:
-combining image and text
-Yamato-e: high vantage points, strong angles, cropping, narrative scroll
-read right to left
-strong angles
-handscroll
-extraordinary detail
Content:
-rival families (Fujiwara and Minamoto) attack the Taira clan and defeat them
-establish shotgun empire
-battle: 1159
-extreme detail of armor, weaponry, war tactics
-struggles between emperor and rising shogons
Function:
-turning point in Japanese history
Context:
-piece made 1250-1300 CE
-Karamkura Period, Japan
204. David Vases
204. David Vases
Form:
-Mongolian style
-white porcelain with cobalt blue underglaze from Iran
-2 1/2 feet tall
-text
Content:
-peonies= prominent scrolling flower
-inscription with date, location, temple, patron, and purpose
-phoenix and dragon balanced (symbol of Daoist faith- ying and yang)
-elephant handles
Function:
-made for Daoist temples to honor a military leader who was diefied
-expression of Silk Road
-held flowers beside an altar
Context:
-apart of wealthy man’s collection
-1351 CE
-Yuan Dynasty, Mongol Empire
-Beijing, China
205. Portrait of Sin Sukju
205. Portrait of Sin Sukju
Form:
-crisp and angular lines
-color characterization
-hanging scroll
-ink and color on silk
-possible collaborative pice
Content:
-head slightly turned (1 ear shown)
-rank badge worn on front and back
-peacocks with plants and cloud
-intellectual scholar
-seated in specific chair
Function:
-respect for one’s elders and ancestors
-officially honors for his distinguished service @ court and loyalty to the King during hard times
-portrait cherished by descendants
Context:
-Imperial Bureau of Painting, Korea
-1417-1475 CE
206. Forbidden City
206. Forbidden City
Form:
-Stone masonry, marble, brick, wood, and ceramic tile
-Layout based on Chinese philosophy
-Certain palette to signify (dark red-sun, yellow-earth, blue-heaven)
Content:
-30 ft. tall walls surrounding the city
-Moat around the wall
-Series of bridges
-Front Gate (Mao Zedong’s portrait over doorway), Meridian Gate
-Private realm: where the royal family lives (outer and inner court)
Numbers everywhere
-Complex of roughly 100 buildings, 9000 rooms
Function:
-Express that the emperor is the Son of heaven
-Political and ceremonial center for nearly 500 years
-Main building: to discuss the issues of the state
-Importance of numbers spiritually
-Walls provide privacy and protection for the families
Context:
-Largest political complex in the world
-City at center of a city
-Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty 15th century CE-later
207. Ryoan-ji
207. Ryoan-ji
Form:
-asymmetrical
-abstract
-gravel=flowing elements
-stones=islands, shore, bridges
Content:
-15 stones
-raked stone garden
-monastery (Zen Buddhist monks)
-mirror pond
Function:
-can only enter garden through your mind (spiritually enter)
-power of emptiness
-each rock is a different visual “pull”
-Zen seated meditation
Context:
-1480 CE, Kyoto, Japan
-Muramachi Period
-Zen Buddhist
208. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings
208. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings
Form:
-texts, geometry, natural world
-Persian traditions
-proportions play into importance
Content:
-manuscript pages
-Mugal leader sitting on throne
-text describing reign
-children dressed up
-guy at bottom is the court artist
-Suffi: Muslim mystic giving gift to Jahangir
-combo of the sun and moon symbolizing ruler’s emperorship and divine truth
Function:
-Mughal painting skill
-cross-cultural nature of Art
-artist puts himself at lowest class
Context:
-artist: Bichitr (Hindu)
-1620 CE
-signed
209. Taj Mahal
209. Taj Mahal
Form:
-Iwan
-Onion domes
-cross axial plan
-fused aspects of other Islamic traditions
-marble, stone masonry
-stone inlay
-symmetrical harmony
Content:
-charbagh- Persion garden into 4 quadrants representing paradise on Earth
-flowing water throughout
-Arabic text from the Quran
-chartriss
-mosaics
-cenotaphs: inscriptions (symbol of tombs, tombs are actually empty)
-minarets
Function:
-resting place for Shah Jahan’s wife, Mumtaz Mahal
-India 1632-53 CE
-architect: Usted Ahmad Lahori
-Mughal Empire
210. White and Red Plum Blossoms
210. White and Red Plum Blossoms
Form:
-ink, watercolor, gold leaf
-swirling illusion of expansion
-byobu: painted screen
-rich colors/gold
Content:
-swirling water
-nature/flowers alongside
-early spring
-two flowering trees
-vantage points
-turns simple landscape theme into dream vision
Function:
-rimpa school painting
-painted screen
Context:
-1710-16 CE Japan
-artist: Ogata Korin
-Edo period
211. Under the Wave off Kanagawa
211. Under the Wave off Kanagawa
Form:
-polychrome and woodblock priint made of ink and color on paper
-Ukiyo-e: Japanese woodblock prints made during Edo Period
-part of series of 36 showing Mt. Fuji in each
-genre scene in series/travel
-flat colors, high angles, cropped, large foreground, nature specific
-large foreground
Content:
-text: name of series, artist, censor’s seal
-crashing wave (dragon claws)
-Mt. Fuji in background (small in comparison)
Function:
-show moutain and wave’s resemblance
-show Dutch influence
-genre scenes in seires’travel of the sacred Mount Fiji
Context:
-artist: Katsushika Hokusai
-1830-33 CE Edo Period
212. Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan
212. Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan
Form:
-Propaganda
-Portraiture
-Socialist realism (clear, intelligible subject/emotionally moving themes)
Content:
-Mao on way to organize a coal worker/miner strike
-Portrait of Mao (oil paint)
-Telephone poll and water cascades from a dam (modernity)
-Chinese landscape
-Umbrella under his arm
Function:
-Used Chinese landscape to portray that Mao was capable of leading a revolution
-Combatting tradition Chinese art but still not modern
-Mao as a person working for the people
Context:
-based on oil painting by Lui Chunhua
-artist unknown 1969 CE
213. Nan Madol
213. Nan Madol
Form:
-basalt boulder
-prismatic columns
-headers and stacker (use of stacking)
Content:
-90-100 manmade structures
-lagoon
-“floating world”
-92 artificial islands
-canals running throughout site
Function:
-great lost city
-ceremonial complex
-political center
-tombs, dwellings, administrative centers
Context:
-Pohnpei, Micronesia
-Saudeleur Dynasty
700-1600 CE
214. Maoi on platform (ahu)
214. Maoi on platform (ahu)
Form:
-Mostly volcanic tuff but some are basalt
-Missing inlaid coral eyes
-Emphasis on head and ears
-Vary in size
-Later backs were reworked
-On platforms (ahu) facing the sea
-Basalt base
Function:
-Ancestors/rulers “mana” protection
-Connect with ancestors
-Guardian figures
Content:
-Ancestors watching the sea
Context:
1100-1600 CE, Easter Island, Rap Nui
215. Ahu'ula (feather cape)
215. Ahu’ula (feather cape)
Form:
-Semi-circular form/crescent shaped
-Feathers woven into fiber: knotted into fiber base
Function:
-Power of Ruler: identified with divine power
-Symbol of individual leader
-Worn into battle for protection/intimidate enemies
-Given as gifts to reinforce political transactions
Content:
-Only worn by men elite (usually royal)
-Feathers signifying wealth and power
Context:
-Worn in battle and during rituals
-Late 18th century CE, Hawaii
216. Staff god
Form:
-Wood; Carved by men- penis on one end and head on other
-Women wrapped tapa (barkcloth made by women) around the whole thing
-Feathers
-Figures in profile/abstract
-13′ high (largest known)
Content:
-Combination of male and female elements
Function:
-Wrapped staff god
-Protects ancestral power (mana) of the deity
-Contains it in the wrapping within its layers
Context:
-May 1827 this god figure was brought to John William and their wives
-Cook Islands, Central Polynesia; late 18th-early 19th century
217. Female deity
217. Female deity
Form:
-15″ high
-Breadfruit (wood)
-Minimalistic/simple form
-Oval head
-Smooth surface, flattened buttox, long torso
-Undefined hands and feet
Content:
-Male and female gods
-Facial features hinted or nonexistent
-Horizontal lines that indicate knee caps, navel, waistline
Function:
-Most likely part of ritual ceremonies honoring gods for harvest and fertility of land, sea, and people
-Collected by missionaries
-Some placed in central temple
Presented with food and flowers
Context:
-Nukuoro, Micronesia 18th-19th century
-Many kept in religious buildings that belonged to the community
218. Buk mask
218. Buk mask
Form:
-Turtle shell, wood, fiber, feathers, and shell
-Seashell eyes inlaid
-Raffia for hair
-Discs on wings amplify the sense of a bird in flight (dynamic
-Lattice work around the face
Content:
-Masks representing human forms, and some depict birds, fish, or reptiles, or both
-Perhaps a faith hero or ancestor
-Bird as a totem? (connected to the person or family)
Function:
-Male initiation ceremonies
-Funerals
-Used with grass costumes in ceremonies about death, fertility, or male initiation
Context:
-Torres strait (between Australia and New Guinea)
Mid-late 19th century CE
219. Hiapo (tapa) Niue
219. Hiapo (tapa) Niue
Form:
-Tapa cloth/bark cloth (woman would harvest inner bark of mulberry tree and pound it flat with an anvil or wooden beater)
-Freehand painting
-Abstract/geometric, in a grid
-Use of stencils; dyed the exposed parts of the tapa with paint to create shapes
Function:
-The most traditional uses for this would be clothing, bedding, and wall hangings
-Specially prepared and decorated for people of rank
Each set of designs interpreted symbolically (images with rich history)
Content:
-Plant and sometimes animal motifs
-Text (where and when it was made)
Context:
-Made by women
-Polynesia, 1850-1900
220. Tamati Waka Nene
220. Tamati Waka Nene
Form:
-19th century European academic style of painting
Content:
-Portrait of Tamati Waka Nene (Maori chief/warrior)
0Kiwi feather cloak, green stone earring
-Moko: facial tattoos
Function:
-Record likenesses and bring ancestral presence into the world of the living
not just a representation of Tamati but an “embodiment” of him
-After a person has died, portrait may be hung on walls of family homes or in community center
-Nene represents the time of change that was occurring in the Maori world
Context:
-Artist: Gottfried Lindaur
-1890 CE
221. Navigation Chart
221. Navigation Chart
Form:
– wood and fiber, cowrie shells (used to show the location of an island)
Function:
– horizontal and vertical sticks
– curved sticks represent wave swells
– used as to map out the wave swells of the Marshall Islands
Content:
-depicts the wave patterns surrounding the Marshall islands
-sailors would memorize them and then leave them behind
Context:
– Marshal Islands, Micronesia
– 19th-early 20th century
– made for sailors
222. Malagan Display and Mask
222. Malagan Display and Mask
Form:
-wood, pigment, shell, fiber
-anthropomorphic mask
Content:
-masks uniquely decorated for a deceased and worn by dancers in ceremonies celebrating the dead
Function:
-used in rituals that took place in Papua for the deceased people of their clans
-displayed in village for temporarily
-shows family importance
Context:
-New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea
-20th century
223. Presentation of Fijian mats and tapa cloths to Queen Elizabeth II
223. Presentation of Fijian mats and tapa cloths to Queen Elizabeth II
Form:
-Multimedia performance (costume, cosmetics, chant, movement)
-Photographic documentation
Content:
-Queen of England’s royal visit to Fiji
-Fijian women and men displaying their culture to the queen
-Women wearing barkcloth skirts
-Rolls of woven mats that each woman in procession carries (mats served as ritual exchange)
Function:
-Political pageantry as art
-Show the Fijian culture to the queen of England
-Performance art
Context:
-Fiji, Polynesia, 1953
224. The Gates
224. The Gates
Form:
-Mixed-media installation
– 7503 saffron-colored fabric panels stretched across two beams to created a 16ft tall gate
– gates make a 23 mile pathway through Central Park
Function:
– wanted to create “a golden ceiling creating warm shadows” after the struggling times NY was going through after 9/11
– wanted to create unity among the NY community and bring joy to them all
Content:
– gates put over 23 miles of sidewalks through Central Park
– site-specific
Context-
– Christo and Jeanne-Claude.
– took from 1979-2005 to make and was put up for only 16 days
– Central Park, NYC
225. Vietnam Veterans Memorial
225. Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Form:
-Black Granite
-Typography (words as art)
Content:
-Located between Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial (bringing together past and present)
-Thin walls sunken into the ground (cut into earth) with the names of all of the veterans that died in the Vietnam war (chronologically ordered)
-Names as the subject of the piece
Function:
-Use of polished granite to see our reflections and incorporate us in the memorial
-Connection to US history
-War monument that doesn’t focus on war heroes but focuses on everyone
-World we cannot enter
-People come to terms with their loss
-As a journey (walk down and out of the monument)
Context:
-Artist: Maya Lin, 1982 CE
-Washington D.C, USA
226. Horn Players
226. Horn Players
Form:
-Acrylic and oil paint stick on three canvas panels
-Words as part of art
-Triptych (3 panels)
-White swatches of paint on each panel
Content:
-Urban text of NY
-Words as shapes
-Picasso-inspired faces
-“ORINTHOLOGY”, “DIZZY”, “PREE”, “TEETH” repeated
Function:
-African American history
-black Jazz musicians
Context:
-1983 CE
-Artist: Jean-Michel Basquiat; based in NY (famous for graffiti there)
-“the black Picasso”
227. Summer Trees
227. Summer Trees
Form:
-Paint movement (abstract expressionism)
-Korean tradition of ink
-Ink wash painting (ink blend together)
Content:
-Abstract group of pine trees
-Parallel brush strokes
Function:
-Modern but rooted in tradition
-Song’s exploration of tone
-Reference to “literati painting” (ink wash painting)
-Express her Korean identity
-Could be her statement of optimism in the rediscovery of traditional values recreated in modern times
-Trees represent a gathering of friends?
Context:
-Song Su-nam 1983 CE
-Korean artist that grew up in the 30s-40s, lived through the Korean War
228. Androgyn III
Form:
-Burlap, wood, nails, strings, resin
-Figures in large groups
-Hollow cast, soaked coarse burlap
Content:
-Figure its on a stretcher made out of wood
-Characteristics of a woman and man (androgynous)
-Wrinkled skin and implication of backbones
-No arms, legs, or head (suffering)
Function:
-Alludes to the brutality of war and the totalitarian state
-Viewer reflects on this
-Enduring regine
Context:
-artist: Magdalena Abakanowicz. 1985 CE.
-Worked as a nurse caring for wounded soldiers in WWII as a teen
229. A Book from the Sky
229. A Book from the Sky
Form:
-mixed media installation
-3 long scroll-like pieces of paper on the ceiling
Content:
-paper filled with Chinese characters (real and made-up)
-waves of book on bottom= sea, writing on walls= landscape, writing on ceiling=sky
Function:
-Xu Bing invents new Chinese characters that don’t mean anything
Context:
-Xu Bing- artist: grew up in society where everything was structured
230. Pink Panther
230. Pink Panther
Form:
-Glazed porcelain
-Cartoonish
-Kitsch: cute, cliché, gaudy, tasteless but ironically compelling/moving
-Highly polished
-Life-size
Content:
-Hollywood star and pink panther cartoon thrown over her shoulder
Function:
-Take a cheap cartoon and make it into a permanent delicate and priceless object
-This kitsch thing treated as high art
-Idealized woman stereotype: big breasts, very blonde, red lips and fingernails
-Commentary on celebrity romance, sexuality, commercialism, stereotypes
Context:
-Porcelain from best porcelain factory in Germany
-American artist: Jeff Koons 1988
231. Untitled (#288)
231. Untitled (#288)
Form:
-Photograph, self portrait
-Costumes, decor
Content:
-The artist appears as the model, costumer, hairdresser, photographer, and makeup artist in each work
-Theme of Salome decapitating St. John the Baptist (mask-like, alert, bloodless)
-Richly costumed and decorative drapes
-Shows no emotional attachment to the murder
Function:
-Showing how history develops meaning
-Comments on gender identity and class distinction
-Heavy costuming and setting acts as commentary on late 19th century versions of the subject
Context:
-Did this in Rome, 1990 CE
-Cindy Sherman-New Jersey born, American artist
232. Dancing at the Louvre, from the series The French Collection, Part I.
232. Dancing at the Louvre, from the series The French Collection, Part I.
Form:
-Acrylic on canvas, tie-dye, fabric border
-Painting on quilt
-Narrative element
Content:
-Show her dream of being able to visit the Louvre with her family
-Creates a character who takes her friend and three daughters to the museum with her
-Quilting technique (always seen as female thing)
In the Davinci room of the louvre
Function:
-White feminist vs. black feminist
-Combines traditional use of oil paint with quilting technique of African Americans
-Act out history that might have never taken place
Context:
-1991 CE
-Faith Ringgold, NY born African American artist
233. Trade
233. Trade
Form:
-Mixed media/oil paint
-Collage elements
-Abstract expressionist brushwork
Content:
-Team logos that use Indians as their mascot in a stereotypical way (Noles, Braves, Redskins)
-String across top with emblems
-Newspaper clippings, images of conquest over a large canoe
Function:
-Native American stereotypes
-Stories within a community
-Red: symbolic of bloodshed of American Indians
-Show the social issues of Native Americans caused by European occupation stress: poverty, unemployment, disease, alcoholism
Context:
-Jane Quick-to-see Smith, Native American artist
-1992: 500th anniversary of Columbus sailing to America
234. Earth's Creation
234. Earth’s Creation
Form:
-Dump dot technique using brush to pound color into canvas creating layers of color and movement
Content:
-4 panels, 11 meters wide
Function:
-Simulates the color and lushness of the “green time” in Australia after the rains when the outback flourishes
-History of Australia
Context:
-Emily Kame Kngwarreye. 1994 CE. Alice Springs, Australia
235. Rebellious Silence, from the Woman of Allah series
235. Rebellious Silence, from the Woman of Allah series
Form:
-Black and white photography
-Ink on photograph
Content:
-Terrorist (gun)
-Gun splits picture in half into darker and lighter side
-Farsi text (would assume Arabic bc Muslim) poem on face
-Gaze at the viewer
Function:
-Muslim stereotypes (making judgements from partial information)
-Caught between American and muslim culture
-Female oppression
Context:
-1994 CE
-Cynthia Preston, Iranian born artist raised in the US
236. En la Barberia no se Llora
236. En la Barberia no se Llora
Form:
-Environment installation, site specific
-Big multimedia environment
-Tacky and grimy setting
-Kitsch items everywhere
Content:
-Photos of famous Latino men on walls
-Interior of barber shop where “no crying is allowed”
-Video screens on the headrests depict men playing, a baby being circumcised, and men crying
Function:
-Recreating the centering of Latino male culture (the barbershop)
-Kitsh items: symbols of consumerism culture
Context:
-Pepson Osorio, Puerto Rican artist 1994 CE
237. Pisupo Lua Afe
237. Pisupo Lua Afe
Form:
-Mixed media piece
-Life-size cow
Content:
-Reused corn beef cans
-Smalled concealed wheels
Function:
-Canned food was Pacific Islanders’ favorite source of food
-Canned food led to more health problems for people (obesity)
-Canned meat often given as gifts on special occasions
-Industrialization in the Pacific Islands
-Reflect on the ironic impact and exploitation of the Pacific’s resources
Context:
-Michael Tuffery 1994 CE
-Corn beef was favorite food in Polynesia
-Theme of recycling emphasized by the reuse of these cans
238. Electronic Superhighway
238. Electronic Superhighway
Form;
-Explosion of sound and images
-Neon lighting
Content:
-Video screens behind outline of the USA (each state has own video feed)
-Maps/travel
Function:
-Information overload (before web was created)
-Viewer incorporated in the piece (picture of you)
-Fascination with interstate highway system
-Neon symbolizes motel and restaurant signs
Context:
-Nam June Paik, Korean artist
-1995 CE
239. The Crossing
239. The Crossing
Form:
-Video and sound installation
Content:
-Two screens of color video projects from opposite sides of large dark gallery onto two large back to back screens suspending from the ceiling and mounted to the floor.
-Fire and water
-Figure walking in slow motion
-Film shot a very slow speed
Function:
-Promotes video as an art form
-Evokes eastern and western spiritual traditions
-Spiritual reality
Context:
-Performer: Phil Esposito
-Bill Volia, Artist from Queens, NY
240. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
240. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Form:
-Titanium , glass, and limestone
-CAD (computer assisted design)
-Titanium covered
-Bending and arching walls
-Effect of shimmering surface
-Deconstructionist architecture: seeks to create a seemingly unstable environment with unusual special arrangements
Content:
-Multiple galleries
-Central atrium like Wright’s Guggenheim in NY
Function:
-Bending walls represents how history is never-ending and never stops unfolding
-History has many ways of being constructed
-Swirling forms and shapes mark a contract with the industrial landscape of Bilbao
-“Bilbao effect”: refers to the impact that a museum can have on a local economy
Context:
-1997 CE
-Frank Gehry: Canadian-American architect based in Los Angeles
241. Pure Land
241. Pure Land
Form:
-Color photograph on glass
-Huge scale
-Basic iconography
Content:
-Artist= Model/musician/performer (hybrid)
-Self portrait
-Buddhist figures
-Creative interpretation of Japanese art forms
-Animated figures of lighthearted aliens play musical instruments on clouds
-Her as a deity that comes blessing and bearing good things
Function:
-Romanticized views of pop culture
-Looking back on Buddhist tradition but there are futuristic aliens and stuff
-Religious sense while incorporating religious background
Context:
-1998 CE, LA, California
– Mariko Mori: Japanese artist
-Constructs this whole thing (set designer)
242. Lying with the Wolf
242. Lying with the Wolf
Form:
-Skin-like paper feel
-Against contemporary art
-Large wrinkled drawing pinned to a wall
Content:
-Nude woman lying down with a wild wolf (emphasize woman strength)
Function:
-Contrast between delicate woman and wild wolf
-Sexual identity
-Based in religious, history, personal narrative, mystical worlds
-Wolf seen as traditionally evil or dangerous symbol but not in this drawing
-Wolf looks tamed by the woman’s embrace
Context:
-Kiki Smith: American artist, born in Germany, lives in NYC (2001)
243. Darkytown Rebellion
243. Darkytown Rebellion
Form: cut paper and colorful projection on the wall
Function:
– make the viewer apart of this time in history and question th
– shows the racial stereotypes but the black silhouettes do not show you the color or gender of the figure- that is for the viewer to decide
Content:
– depicts racial stereotypes and exaggerates the physical appearance of different groups of people
Context:
-made by Kara Walker in 2001
– Whitney museum in NY
244. The Swing
244. The Swing
Form:
-based on Fragonard’s Swing
-global contemporary/post modern
-3D version of the painting
Content:
-viewer becomes apart of the piece (we become the peeper in the painting)
-fabric used in the piece is Dutch Wax Fabric (Vlisco)
-textile worn in Africa
-deep respect for African Ancestors
-headless which refers to the Reign of Terror when French aristocracies were publicly beheaded
Function:
-pictures the increasing disparity between economic classes and the growing culture of paranoia, terror, and xenophobia (fear of immigrants) in post 9/11 world
Context:
-artist: Yika Shonibare
-2001
245. Old man's cloth
245. Old man’s cloth
Form:
-due to its flexibility, it can be hung in different ways forming differnt shapes
-repurposed arts
Content:
-feels like Kentai cloth
-liqour bottle caps are used to create the design of the “cloth”
-materials come from the West
-what gets dumped in Africa by Aristocratic europeans
-recalls African traditions and combines it with Western World
Function:
-contemporary piece
Context:
-El Anatsui
-2003 CE
246. Stadia II
246. Stadia II
Form:
-Ink and acrylic on canvas
-Gigantic scale painting
-Architectural drawing, using photographs
-Global modernism
Content:
-Flags, corporate icons
-Sweeping lines create a vibrant pulse
-Stadium architecture
-Multi-layered lines to create animated effect
Function:
-Sense of memory and time
-Invoking individual memories/experiences
-Form of this suggests excitement of a competition held in a circular space like a stadium, arena, etc.
Context:
-2004 CE
-Works with assistants
-Her art is about place
– Julie Mehretu: Artist from Ethiopia, lives and works in NYC
247. Praying Mantra
247. Praying Mantra
Form:
-Mixed media on mylar
-Twisting
-collage
Content:
-Female figure lost in patterns and twinkling lights reclined in relaxed position
-Kuba cloth
-Cyborg? Person whose function is aided by a mechanical device or computer implants
Function:
-Wordplay: “praying mantra” sounds like praying mantis
-Female praying mantis eat the males (symbol of female power and identity?)
-Kuba cloth showing African background
Context:
-2006 CE
-Wangchei Matu: Kenyan artist, now in Brooklyn
248. Shibboleth
248. Shibboleth
Form:
– crack in the concrete floor of the Tate Modern
Function:
– addressing racism in this modern culture
-sees what side of the “crack” someone is on (each person takes a side)
-addresses social exclusion in society
Content:
– 548 ft crack
Context:
– site specific- temporary installation in the Tate Modern (can still see where the crack was now)
– “shibboleth” comes from the bible and who ever could say the word correctly was apart of the group and if you couldn’t say the word correctly you were not in the group
– made by Doris Salcedo (cuban artist) in 2008
249. MAXXI National Museum of XXI Century Arts
249. MAXXI National Museum of XXI Century Arts
Form:
-CAD (computer designed architecture)
-Glass, steel, cement
-Walls flows and melt into one another
-Natural light
-Articulated geometry with lighting
-Concrete influenced by ancient Rome
Content:
-Public plaza
-Lit up stairs
-Open ceiling
-Wind through the spaces
Function:
-Walk through the art
-Library, auditorium, and cafeteria
Context:
-Zaha Hadid, 2009 CE
-North of the Tiber, no one ever went to this part of Rome
250. Kui Hua Zi (Sunflower Seeds)
250. Kui Hua Zi (Sunflower Seeds)
Form:
-Sculpted and painted porcelain
Content:
-Hired a lot of people to hand paint millions of individual sunflower seeds
-Crunching sounds of people walking all over them
Function:
-Political rebellion
-Ideology of Chairman Mao: He was the sun, the seeds were his followers
-Initially supposed to always be you as a participant but the ceramic dust rising when people walked on it became too harmful
-Seeds symbolically represent an ocean of fathomless depth
Context
-2010-11 CE
-Ai Weiwei: brave artist, often gets in trouble for what he says