AP America’s History 6th edition Chapter 7

Federalist Papers
-85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name “publius”) published in NY newspapers -used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
Judiciary Act (1789)
-Establishes a federal district court in each state and provided three circuit courts to hear appeals from the districts, with the Supreme Court having the final say
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Assumption Plan
-Federal government takes on state debts and pays them off
-Hamilton
Redemption Plan
-Congress to redeem at face value the millions of dollars of in securities issued by the Confederation
National Bank of US
-Hamilton
-Jointly owned by private stockholders and national government
-provide financial stability and a respected currency for the specie-starved American economy by making loans to merchants, handling government funds, and issuing bills of credit.
-Jefferson: unconstitutional
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Hamilton’s Economic Policies
Purpose:
-promote economic growth
-strengthen new nation’s finances
-give financial interests such as eastern merchants a stake in the new government
Proposals:
-establish national bank
-adopt a protective tariff to raise revenue
-fund the national debt
-assume state debts incurred during the revolutionary war
-tax distilled liquor to raise revenue
-expand domestic manufacturing
-subsidize domestic manufacturers (rejected)
Jay’s Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Naturalization Act (1798)
Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years
Alien Act (1798)
-Gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US
Sedition Act (1789)
-Makes it illegal for newspapers to print anything bad about the president of government
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a “revolution.”
Treaty of Greenville
-American negotiators acknowledged Indian ownership of their lands
-Indians ceded most of Ohio and varios strategic areas along the Great Lakes
Barbary Pirates
-Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa
-President Thomas Jefferson’s refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
–more trouble for him because Washington and Adams paid tribute to them
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review
-gave supreme court the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
Judicial Review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
The Louisiana Purchase
-violated Jefferson’s belief in a strict interpretation of Constitution
-Jefferson’s agrarian dream
-doubled size of country
-gave US complete control of Mississippi River
Louis and Clark
-Sent out by Jefferson to scout the Louisiana Purchase
–created better relations with certain native tribes
–development of national map
–recording os new species
Pinckney’s Treaty
agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Embargo Act (1807)
-Jefferson prohibits American ships from leaving their home ports until Britain and France repeal their restrictions to U.S. trade
-Hurts U.S. economy greatly; loss of $86 million dollars in revenue
-called on by many Americans for its repeal
War Hawks
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
War of 1812
Causes:
-British impressments of American seamen
-British interference with American commerce
-British aid to Native Americans on the frontier
Consequences:
-helps the demise of Federalist Party
-intenses nationalist feelings
-promotes industrialization
-advances career of Andrew Jackson
-Star spangled banner
-greater respect from other nations
McCulloch v. Maryland
-state bank cannot tax any federal institution
-Federal can create the bank with the implied powers
Gibbons v. Ogden
-gives federal power over interstate commerce
Fletcher v. Peck
Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
-state cannot change the “privateness” of something
James Madison
-goes to war with England
Quasi War (1798-1800)
-unproclaimed naval war with French
Jefferson’s dislike of Hamilton’s policies
-Hamilton used loose interpretation; uses “necessary and proper”
-Jefferson uses strict
Beliefs of Jeffersonian Democracy
-yeoman farmer best exemplifies virtue and no corruption
-federal government must not violate states rights
-freedom of speech and the press are essential rights
-scope and activities of the federal government should be reduced
-president should practice republican simplicity
Thomas Jefferson’s election
-seen as a referendum on John Adams
Battle of Fort McHenry (War of 1812)
-gave US national anthem
Protective Tariffs
-tariffs on imported goods from other countries
Revenue Tariffs
-pay interest on debt and defray the expenses of the national government
Proclamation of Neutrality
-Washington
-allowed U.S. citizen to trade with both sides
First Party System
Began in 1792. The federalist party and its opposing republican party competed for control of the presidency. Republican party was made because people saw the federalists as gaining too much power.
Virginia Dynasty
“dynasty” comprised of the four of the first five presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe), all of whom Virginian plantation owners
Homestead Act (1862)
gave farmsteads to settlers for no cost
Aaron Burr
-He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. -Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 due to Hamilton accusing him of conspiracy
-killed Hamilton
-then conspires with military governor of the Louisiana Territory
-acquitted for treason
National Republicans
-split from the Republican Party
-Led by Henry Clay
Bonus Bill
establishes a national fund for roads and other internal improvements
-VETOED by Madison
Rush-Bagot Treaty
-Quincy Adams
-limited American and British naval forces on the Great Lakes
Adams-Onís Treaty (1819)
-Quincy Adams
-Spain cedes Florida to United States in return for the U.S. responsibility for its citizens’ financial claims against Spain
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Era of Good Feeling
-James Monroe’s presidency