Anthropology Midterm #2

While conducting a study on hypoxia among individuals living in the Peruvian Andes, you have been able to show that individuals in the population have likely suffered hypoxia and/or resided there for long periods of time. You know this because
individuals who moved to the region as children have greater lung volumes than individuals who moved to the area as adults.
R. C. Lewontin found that human “races” have no taxonomic significance. He demonstrated this
through research indicating that most genetic variation is found across human populations.
Relative to people with a history of living in temperate climates, the Inuit and other cold-adapted populations
None of the above
Wolff’s law
accounts for the remodeling of bone when it is under stress.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
categorized skulls into five racial types.
Race is not a valid biological concept because
all of the above
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Johann Friedrich Blumenbach categorized humans into the following races
Mongoloids, Malays, Ethiopians, American Indians, and Caucasoids
Functional adaptations to high altitude include all of the following except
smaller diameter of blood vessels.
Global studies on human thermoregulation have revealed
populations adapted to hot climates have more efficient reactions to heat stress
Although Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules most often explain body shape and morphology, we occasionally see variations from the correct patterns. This indicates that
body shape and morphology reflect both evolutionary and developmental processes
When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses,
full adult height is attained.
Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection because Tibetan women
with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin had more surviving children
The strength and mass of bone
vary with an individual’s level of physical activity
Results from anthropomorphic measurements of Turkana pastoralists indicate long limbs. This suggests which of the following?
The population is one point on the continuum of variation observed in Allen’s rule.
C. Loring Brace argued that the race concept
can be traced to the Renaissance, when seafaring travelers observed differences between people from distant lands.
Osteoporosis is
a main cause of hip fractures in older women.
Which of the following is key to maintaining internal homeostasis?
adaptations
Which of the following is the expansion of blood vessels near the body’s surface in response to excessive heat?
vasodilation
Melanocytes ____.
produce melanin
Children living at high altitudes develop a larger chest cavity by adulthood than children living at lower altitudes. This is an example of
developmental adaptations that occur at the level of the individual during critical life stages
Dark skin (a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples) is likely a response to ultraviolet radiation, because UV radiation can cause
skin cancer
Ultraviolet radiation can be an important factor in selection for increased melanin production because UV radiation can cause which of the following?
C and D only
________ states that heat-adapted mammals will have long limbs, which maximize the body’s surface areas.
Allen’s rule
Bergmann’s rule ____.
states that bodies with increased mass or volume to surface area are optimal for cold climates
The average heights of European-American males in the United States fluctuated between 1710 and 1970 and
were positively affected by access to medical care
Franz Boas
showed that U.S.-born children had different head shapes than their immigrant parents.
DNA
schedules growth, but environment and events influence actual development
Research has shown that human growth and development
both a and b.
The fact that Turkana children are often initially shorter than American children is indicative of
the fact that growth is often related to nutrition and other environmental factors
Population geneticists use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation to determine ____.
whether evolution is occurring at a given locus
Which of the following contributes most to skin color?
melanin
Lactose intolerance ____.
all of these
Sweating evolved in humans as a response to what?
thermoregulatory adaptation to hair loss in humans
Relative to other primates, prosimian adaptations include
an enlarged olfactory bulb and enlarged scent glands
You are reading a scientific paper regarding the relationships of the anatomical and behavioral characteristics of chimpanzees and their implications for early hominid evolution. You note that the authors refer to human ancestors as hominids. This implies that
the researchers are relying on anatomical classifications of chimpanzees and humans, as this is most appropriate when looking at adaptation and anatomy
The genetic classification for apes and humans
includes three sub families within hominids: pongines, gorillines, and hominines.
Anthropoids differ from prosimians in that they
have better color vision
Which of the following are prosimians?
lemurs
Humans are the only primates who lack a sectorial complex on the premolar. This is an example of
a derived trait, because it is present in only one or few species of a group
Primate dietary adaptions is facilitated by
four functionally distinctive tooth types
While at the zoo you see an exhibit with a small group of primates you have not seen in your textbook. However you notice they have wet, snout-like noses similar to a dog’s. You tell your friend that this is
a species of prosimian, because they retain the rhinarium commonly found in other mammal species.
Chimpanzee material culture dates to
4,000-5,000 yBP.
In class your professor shows you an MRI scan of a primate brain. The professor points out the relatively large size of the olfactory bulb beneath the frontal lobe. This suggests to you that
this primate must be a species of prosimian, as that suborder of primates still relies heavily on the sense of smell for many aspects of daily life
The rhinarium is present in
ring-tailed lemurs
Relative to body size, primate brain size
is larger among humans than among other primates
Primates spend
much of their time foraging for food
The tarsiers belong to the taxonomic suborder of
Prosimii
Which of the following prosimians spend considerable amounts of time on the ground
ring-tailed lemurs
The use of different natural objects to obtain food, similar to that observed in chimpanzees, has been observed in
both b and c
In studies of primate cognition and tool use, researchers have taught chimpanzees to crack open nuts with stones. Later in life, these chimpanzees have taught other young chimpanzees and offspring the same skill. This could be considered
all of the above
Chimpanzees taught by humans to make a simple stone tools
passed this new behavior to relatives
While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to move throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely
a New World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet
Prehensile tails
are present only in some platyrrhines
Colobine primates
have specialized digestive anatomy for eating leaves
The two suborders of primates are
prosimians and anthropoids
Orangutans are an example of which residence pattern
solitary
Suspensory locomotion is characteristic of which primate?
gibbons
Sexual dimorphism in canine size
is greater in societies where males compete.
The suborder Prosimians includes
galagos, lorises, tarsiers, and lemurs
Suspensory primates generally have what type of body structure?
longer arms than legs
The typical dental formula of lorises and lemurs is
2 / 1 / 3 / 3
Sagittal crests are pronounced in some primates with highly developed ________ .
masticatory muscles
All of the anthropoids live in social groups except
orangutans
The Y-5 molar morphology is present in
chimpanzees.
Sexual dimorphism in body size is greater in societies where
males compete for access to females.
What trait makes humans unique?
They are the only primates known to depend on material culture for survival
Primates’ enhanced sense of vision stems from
both a and c.
Chimpanzee tool use challenges the assumption
that material culture is unique to humans.
Modern primates are characterized by arboreal adaptations including
opposable thumbs
The typical catarrhine dental formula is
2 / 1 / 2 / 3
The suborder Prosimians includes
lemurs, lorises, galagos, and tarsiers.
Monogamy is characteristic of
gibbons
The increased brain size observed in the order Primates
both a and c
Which of the following were identified by Sir William le Gros Clark as tendencies of primates?
all of the above
Primate females
give birth to fewer offspring than do many other mammals
Jane Goodall’s observations of chimpanzee behavior in the wild documented all of the following except
chimpanzees using spears to hunt for small primates.
A skull with a foramen magnum located on the back, which positions he skull in front of the body, belongs to
an individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a dog
A feature unique only to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is
a canine that shows wear on the tip.
A finger pad with primitive dermal ridges most likely belongs to which of the following?
pottos, lories, and other similar species
In nonhuman primates, grooming relationships serve
to reinforce social structures and cement social bonds.
Because of the enhanced sense of touch, most primate species have
nails instead of claws on all limbs.
The nose structure in all primates
is flatter against the face and contributed to a decreasing sense of smell
When observing primates at the zoo, you notice a male and female gibbon quite similar in size, unlike what you previously saw in the hamadryas baboon enclosure. You know that
the lack of sexual dimorphism you see is due to decreased competition for mates in a monogamous social structure
Living lemurs are found only in
Madagascar
James Goodall was the first to document
all of the above
Anthropoids include
monkeys, apes, and humans
The presence of a honing complex relates to
canine size
In comparison to Prosimians, anthropoids
have a reduced sense of smel
In terms of geologic time, when did human beings appear on Earth?
very recently
The Danish physician who developed the geologic principle of superposition, according to which rocks (and fossils) higher in a sequence are younger than those buried farther down, was
Niels Stensen (aka Nicolaus Steno)
Historically speaking, which came first in the science of giving ages to the fossil record?
relative age
Which of the following is not one of the main methods for reconstructing ancient environments?
40K/40Ar analysis of lava flows and of ash layers
Biostratigraphic dating relies on
the first and last appearances of species in the fossil record
Based on the molecular clock, it is estimated that the hominid lineage diverged from that of the chimpanzee about
6-8 mya
The absolute dating method that involves counting the annual rings visible in the cross-section of a tree is called
dendrochronology
Which of the following is false regarding absolute dating techniques?
Each can work with any type of material
Phylogeny is important to the study of human evolution because
all of the above
Fossils are typically recovered within ____ exposures
sedimentary rock
In an excavation you find the remains of two human skeletons along with the antler of an antelope. How can you attempt to date these skeletons?
You can research the antler bone to find out which species it belongs to an then use faunal dating
if fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil species B, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of
superposition
Which type of plants is associated with open grasslands typical of tropical savannas
C4 plants
While on a paleontological dig in the United Kingdom, you come across a completely preserved (including skin) extinct species of mammal within a bog. You note that for a mammal it is relatively hairless. In order to determine the adaptive significance of hairlessness, you must
collect data that will help you to reconstruct the environment of hat time
Which of the following has the greatest likelihood of becoming fossilized
teeth
As recently as a few hundred years ago, most Westerners thought the earth was about how many years old?
6,000
The significant drying up of the Mediterranean Basin at the end of the Oligocene epoch was probably due to
the appearance of huge ice sheets in Antarctica.
Studies of temperatures during the Cenozoic era suggest that
temperatures have fluctuated, sometimes greatly, over time.
________ is the process of matching strata from several sites using chemical, physical, and other properties
Stratigraphic correlation
Ocean-dwelling microorganisms called foraminifera are important in evolutionary studies mainly because
the chemical composition of their shells records past temperatures
The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is called
taphonomy.
The first logical step in a sequence of events that leads to the discovery and analysis of primate fossils is the
selection and surveying of potential sites
High levels of 18O in now-fossilized foraminifera shells indicate
a decrease in temperature.
One of the only fossil sites in the world that preserves a great deal of evidence for anthropoid evolution during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs is
Fayum, Egypt.
Prior to the invention of absolute dating techniques, one of the chemical dating methods useful for establishing the relative age of fossils from a single site was
fluorine dating.
The absolute dating technique that emerged as a result of research into constructing the atomic bomb during World War II is
14C dating
The “supercontinent” that existed about 200 mya, from which the modern continents ultimately emerged, is called
Pangaea.
The English surveyor who developed the technique of stratigraphic correlation between regions was
William Smith
The ratio of C3 to C4 plants in a paleoenvironment can be estimated using the ratio of two stable isotopes of which element derived from fossils or ancient soils?
carbon
Variants of elements that differ based on the number of neutrons in the atom’s nucleus are called
isotopes
Paleomagnetic dating relies on
the periodic reversal of the earth’s magnetic poles
With a half-life of 5,730 years, 14C dating is useful for dating carbon-bearing objects as far back as
50,000 years ago.
Which U.S. president reported the discovery of a fossilized ground sloth in Virginia to the American Philosophical Society?
Thomas Jefferson
A diagram (family tree) that proposes hypothetical ancestor-descendant relationships between species is a
phylogeny
The chemical signature of volcanic ash layers can be used to
correlate sites across vast regions.
Which geological time period is referred to by geologists as the oldest portion of Earth’s history, accounting for roughly 87% of that history?
Precambrian eon
Recent paleoenvironmental reconstructions suggest that the earliest members of the hominid lineage evolved in
woodlands along both rivers and lakes.
The earth is about ________ old.
4.6 billion years
Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from an early hominid site in eastern Africa?
40K/40Ar dating
The time it takes for 50% of an unstable isotope to decay to a stable form is called the
half-life
Electron spin resonance dating would be most useful in attempting to date which object?
a fossilized tooth