Anthropology Final

Prehistory
The time before written records is referred to as_________________.
Biological, Archaeology, Linguistics, and Cultural
What are the four main subfields of anthropology?
Holistic
Anthropology adopts a(n) __________ perspective on humanity, which means it is concerned with all aspects of the human experience.
Archaeologists
__________ seek not only to reconstruct the daily life and customs of past or extinct peoples but also to trace cultural changes and offer possible explanations for those changes.
adaptive
The customs of a society that enhance survival and reproductive success are ____________ and are likely to persist.
Human origins and human variation
What are the two primary research topics within physical anthropology?
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Cultural Anthropology
What is the subfield of anthropology in which researchers study the customs and behavior of contemporary or recent societies?
globalization
The ongoing spread of goods, people, information, and capital around the world is referred to as _________________.
sociolinguistics
The study of how language is used in social contexts, such as the idea that slang would not be considered appropriate language in a business or professional setting is called _________________.
Acculturation
When a group or society is in contact with a more powerful soceity, the weaker group is often obliged to acquire cultural elements from the dominant group. What is this process of borrowing between a dominant and subordinate culture called?
Charles Darwin
Who proposed the mechanism of natural selection to account for the evolution of species?
Natural Selection
___________ operates on the principles of variation, heritability, and differential reproductive success.
Genes
Mendel’s units of heredity are what we now call ___________.
Speciation
__________ is the development of a new species.
homozygous
If the two genes, or alleles, for a trait are the same, the organism is _____________.
aboreal
Many skeletal features of the primates reflect a(n) _________________________ existence.
bipedal
Humans are _________, that is our predominant for of locomotion is on 2 legs.
sexual dimorphic
If the characteristics of one sex of a species is noticablely different (e.g., larger, longer, more brightly colored) than the other sex, we refer to that species as being __________.
Diastema
What is the gap between the canines and premolars called? This gap is typically found in apes and other mammals with large canines.
False
Humans are the only primate to make and use tools.
bipedalism
What was the crucial and defining change in early hominin evolution that occurred before any other of these changes?
Homo erectus
Which hominin species was the first to migrate out of Africa?
Australopithecus afarensis
The Laetoli footprints, discovered by the Leakeys in Tanzania, are believed to have been created by which bipedal hominin?
Homo neandertalensis
For which hominin species is there evidence of deliberate burials in the form of substantial amounts of pollen and grave goods?
Direct percussion
Early stone tools were apparently made by striking one stone with another stone, a technique called ____________.
Single Origin Model
Which of the following is the best supported theory for the origin and spread of modern humans that emphasizes the movement of humans out of Africa as opposed to evolving independent in other locations?
s sagittal crest
The ridge of bone on the top of the robust australopithecines heads that anchored the heavy musculature for their teeth and jaws is called _______________.
bipedalism
A central located foremen magnum, a dish-shaped pelvis, a lumbar curve in the spine, straight lower limbs, and non-prehensile feet are human traits related to ____________.
False
The oldest fossils classified as Homo sapiens sapiens (i.e., modern day humans) come from central Asia.
True
Modern day humans first appear in Europe approximately 35,000 years ago.
Malaria
A biological abnormality of the red blood cells, referred to as sickle-cell anemia, is also an adaptive response to what disease found primarily in Central and West Africa?
Gloger’s rule
____________ refers to the rule that populations of birds and mammals living in warm, humid climates have more melanin (and therefore darker skin, fur, and feathers) than populations of the same species living in cooler, drier areas.
ethnicity
The process of defining ____________ usually involves a group of people emphasizing common origins and language, shared history, and selected aspects of cultural differences such as a difference in religion.
human populations do not unambiguously fall into discrete groups, defined by a particular set of biological traits
Most biological anthropologists today agree that race is not a useful way of referring to human biological variation because ____________.
adaptation
Which term refers to genetic changes which give their carriers a better chance to survive and reproduce than individuals without the genetic change who live in the same environment?
lactase
Natural selection may favor production of the enzyme ____________, a genetic way of making milk digestible in populations far from the equator.
the belief that some human populations are superior to others because of genetic differences
Racism can be defined as:
True
Population of humans that live closer to the equator typically have darker skin color.
True
Archaeological sites dating before about 8,000 years ago do not show extensive evidence of inequality.
False
Signs of inequality first appeared in Mesoamerica around 2,000 years ago.
Archaeology
__________ is the study of the human past focusing on the recovery of material remains, observing changes in those remains, and providing possible explanations for those changes.
Prehistory
The study of a society’s material culture prior to the advent of writing is known as:
Relative dating
A method of dating used to determine the age of one specimen relative to another is called __________.
lithics
What are the only artifacts available for 99% of human history?
Excavation
The systematic uncovering of archaeological deposits and the recovery of material remains from those deposits is called __________.
Artifact
a portable object made or modified by humans
Ecofact
a natural item that is a byproduct of human activity
feature
a non-portable human-made object
Site
a concentration of material culture
Context
the spatial relationship among material remains
true
Caste systems are a closed system, in which membership is determined at birth, and marriage is restricted to members of one’s own caste.
Cuneiform
Sumerian writing or __________ was formed by pressing a wedge-shaped stylus against a damp clay tablet.
Central Europe
Which one of these was not a location of the six earliest state-level societies?
Hieroglyphics
In ancient Egypt, the earliest writing is known as __________, and were typically written or rolls of woven of papyrus reeds.
Irrigation
Which of the following is not a conventional characteristic of civilization?
State
A strong, hierarchical, centralized political system is best described as a:
False
Within a class, individuals have differential opportunity to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige.
Egalitarian societies
Equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige.
Rank societies
Fairly equal acess to economic resources and power but unequal access to prestige.
Class societies
Unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige.
Secondary
The boc mo is an example of a(n) __________ burial – a body interred in the ground then later removed and relocated to another location or cremated.
Sun Dagger
In Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, the __________site is a set of 3 large stone stabs that allow light to be projected onto spiral petroglyphs during specific times of the year, marking both solstices and equinoxes.
Flexed
__________describes a body placed in the ground in the fetal position – resting on one side with the legs bent towards the chest.
Solstice
A(n) __________ is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year when the Sun reaches its northernmost or southernmost extremes.
Cahokia
Mound 72, at __________ in southern Illinois is a Native American burial mound that contains numerous burials, including sacrificial victims and elites with highly prestigious grave goods.
Homo neanderthalensis
Although disputed, __________ are generally believed to be the first hominin species to bury their dead, as evident at Shanidar Cave, Israel where an adult male was found buried with high pollen concentrations, suggesting he was laid to rest on a bed of flowers.
Prone
As the practice is found throughout history, archaeologists believe that to bury someone in the _______________ position is a nearly-universal cultural insult.
True
In a non-disease related catastrophic event, it is not important to allocate labor and resources for the sanitation and disposal/interment of the dead. In other words, leaving the dead unburied will not adversely affect the survivors.
True
All calendar systems have some form of intercalation (days added to adjust the calendar year to the rotation of the Sun).
True
The calendar system we use today is called the Gregorian calendar.
Historal Linguistics
__________ focuses on how languages change over time.
Ethnography
If an anthropologist wanted to conduct a non-historical study on a single society in Africa, what type of research would be the most appropriate?
Theory, Evidence
_________ is a set of propositions that are logically connected and provide an explanation for some phenomenon, whereas __________ are the observations of the world that support or oppose the explanation for a specific phenomenon.
Code-switching
The concurrent use of more than one language in the course of conservation (ex., “Your cooking is excelente” [Spanish for excellent]) is an example of __________.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
The __________ states that language affects how individuals in a society perceive and conceive reality.
sounds, meanings
To put it in its simplest terms, phonology is the study of __________, whereas morphology is the study of ___________.
True
According to Whiting’s theory, a society’s postpartum sex taboo, the prohibition against husbands and wives having sexual intercourse for a period of time following the birth of a child, is heavily influenced by the availabilty of protein.
False
Participant observation does not always involve fieldwork.
Ethnohistory
____________ includes studies of descriptive materials regarding a single society at more than one point in time.
Pidgin Languages
____________ are considered simplified languages that often lack many of the grammatical building blocks common to whole languages such as prepositions.
False
Egalitarian societies are the only societies that do not have divisions in labor based on age and sex.
Necklaces and Armbands
What are the two items used in the Kula Ring of the Trobriand Islanders?
10,000
The first evidence of food production occurred in the Near East about __________ years ago.
Agriculture
Based on the photograph, what type of subsistence is being practiced?

Picture of steppes

Horticulture
The Yanomamö of the Amazon practice what form of subsistence?
Foraging
Which of these subsistence practices are associated with most egalitarian societies?
False
The Kula Ring is an example of generalized reciprocity
False
Slash and burn techniques are most common among intensive agriculturalists.
Generalized Reciprocity
When goods or services are given to another, without any apparent expectation of a return gift, it is called _______________.
True
Bartering is a good example of balanced reciprocity.
sex, gender
Biological differences in the physical traits between males and females is referred to as __________, while the set of behaviors expected by society is referred to as __________roles.
true
Humans are sexually dimorphic.
Postpartum Sex
Which of these theories is not an explanation for a universal taboo on family incest?
Polyandry
The marriage of one woman to more than one man at a time is known as __________.
Endogamous
If a cultural group has a preference for selecting marriage partners from within their own village, then they are __________ at the village level.
Economy-of-effort
According to the __________ theory, men may produce musical instruments from wood because they are the ones who collect the wood in the first place and probably understand its physical properties better than women.
Bride price
__________ is a gift of goods or money from the groom and his kin to the bride’s kin.
Cross Cousins
_____________________ are children of siblings of the opposite sex, such as a father’s sister’s children or a mother’s brother’s children.
Two-spirit
The Cheyenne, Native Americans of the Great Plains, recognize 3 distinct genders; male, female, and a third gender, referred to as a __________.
True
There is much variation cross-culturally regarding sexuality, specifically homosexuality, premartial sex, and extramartial affairs.
Sorcery
__________ is the attempt to invoke the supernatural to work harm against people by means of tangible objects such as voodoo dolls or magic charms.
Animism
According to the Religion tegrity lecture, a belief in the presence of a psychic, invisible soul for all things is known as?
Witchcraft
__________ is usually impossible to prove because no physical objects are used in its practice.
Shaman
A __________ is a religious intermediary, usually part-time, whose primary function is to cure people through sacred songs, pantomime, trance, and other means, and is sometimes referred to as a witch doctor by Western cultures.
Religion
Any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power, whether that power rests in forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons is the anthropological definition of what?
Need for Economic Resources
According to your tegrity lecture on Religion, which of these is not an explanation for religion and its universality?
Polytheism
__________ refers to a religion in which more than one high god is recognized.
Nomadic or Seminomadic Food Collectors
Societies with only one type of religious or magical practitioner tend to be_____________.
Mana, Taboo
Among the supernatural forces discussed in your textbook, things containing __________ are to be touched, whereas ____________ things are not to be touched.
True
Religion is present in all known societies.
Within a population those ancestral giraffes with longer necks were at an advantage being better able to reach higher leaves to feed themselves and this beneficial trait was selected for in times of famine resulting in today’s long necked giraffes
How does the concept of natural selection explain the long neck of a modern giraffe?
32
How many adult teeth did Australopithicus africanus have?
globalization
The ongoing spread of goods, people, information, and capital around the world is referred to as _________________.
mutation and natural selection
In biological evolution, genetic variability comes from _________________.
Homo neandertalensis
For which hominid species is there evidence of deliberate burials in the form of substantial amounts of pollen and grave goods?
Miocene
The first Tertiary epoch in which animals that most biologists would classify as primates are found is the __________.
mobile ears
Which of the following primate traits is particular to prosimians?
4.6 billion years
How old is the earth?
Speciation
__________ is the development of a new species.
new species
Creationists argue that while natural selection can produced variation within species, it cannot produce___________.
homozygous
If the two genes, or alleles, for a trait are the same, the organism is _____________.
Biological, Archaeology, Linguistics, and Cultural
What are the four main subfields of anthropology?
malaria
A biological abnormality of the red blood cells, referred to as sickle-cell anemia, is also an adaptive response to what disease found primarily in Central and West Africa?
lactase
Natural selection may favor production of the enzyme ____________, a genetic way of making milk digestible in populations far from the equator.
foramen magnum
In bipedal hominids, the spinal column enters the skull through the bottom, through the __________.
survival of the fittest
Which of the following terms is not one of the principles of natural selection?
Homo erectus
What was the first hominid species to be found outside Africa?
6-8 mya
Humans and chimps diverged from a common ancestor around __________ (million years ago).
Cultural Anthropology
What is the subfield of anthropology in which researchers study the customs and behavior of contemporary or recent societies?
Neandertals were replaced by modern humans
The Single-Origin Theory model for the evolution of modern humans offers which explanation for the disappearance of Neandertals?
United States
In Miner’s article he described the rituals and habits of the Nacirema culture. Where are the Nacirema located?
Australopithecus afarensis.
Some of the most famous early hominid fossils yet discovered— including “Lucy” and the Laetoli footprints—all belong to the same proposed species. Which species is that?
Madagascar
Lemurs are found only in _____.
arboreal
Many skeletal features of the primates reflect a(n)__________ existence.
the hierarchical classification of species
Carolus Linnaeus is best known for:
megadonts, stone tool
Hominids radiated into two major groups around 3-2 million years ago, one group developed large teeth, are probably NOT direct ancestors of humans, and are called ___________, the other developed _____________ adaptations and are considered human ancestors.
adaptive
The customs of a society that enhance survival and reproductive success are _______ and are likely to persist.
afarensis
Based on the skeletal remains of Lucy and the Laetoli footprints, which is perhaps the most well-represented australopithecine species?
Diastema
What is the gap between the canines and premolars called? This gap is typically found in apes and other mammals with large canines.
reproductively isolated
Speciation occurs when groups are:
bipedalism
Hominid status is defined by _____.
uniformitarianism
Hutton and Lyell developed the concept of_______________ which explains that the geological processes occurring today are essentially the same as those in the past.
Africa
What region has yielded all of the earliest hominid fossils?
Glober’s Rule
____________ states that populations of birds and mammals living in warmer climates have more melanin, and therefore darker skin, fur, or feathers, than do populations of the same species living in cooler areas.
objectively viewing a society in the context of its own problems and opportunities
According to your text, cultural relativism is:
humans have reduced canines compared to chimps
What is the main difference between the dentition of humans and chimpanzees?
organized system of learned behaviors shared among a group of people
The anthropological definition of culture is __________.
Genes
Mendel’s units of heredity are what we now call ___________.
primates, hominids
In terms of the biological hierarchy, the classification ___________ includes prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans, whereas __________ only includes humans.
Raymond Dart
The first fossil specimen of Australopithecus africanus was discovered by:
bipedalism
What was the crucial and defining change in early hominin evolution that occurred before any other of these changes?
mutation
A change in the DNA sequence that is ultimately responsible for new genetic variability is ____________.
two nipples
Females of most primate species have __________ on the chest.
blood pressure
According to your Tegrity lecture, measuring ____________________ allows anthropologists to assess the impact of adaptation on health status, because it is associated with most of the major modern diseases.
500,000-600,000 or 200,000-300,000
Based on analysis of Neanderthal DNA, researchers have estimated that they diverged from the other Homo species approximately _______________ years ago.
sociolingusitics
Which is the term that describes the study of how language is used in actual social contexts?
human origins and human variation
The study of ______________ are the two primary fields of study in physical anthropology.
Homo habilis and Oldowan
What was the first hominid species to found in association with stone tools and what were the name given to those early tools?
holistic
Anthropology adopts a _________ perspective on humanity, which means it is concerned with all aspects of the human experience.
an explanation of how new species originate
Darwin’s unique contribution to science, as well as general human knowledge was:
specific questions that the archaeologist wants to answer
Based on your understanding of the methods employed in anthropological research, the choice of where an archaeologist digs is primarily guided by what?
Features
__________ are a kind of artifact, but archaeologists distinguished them from other artifacts because they cannot be easily removed from an archaeological site.
Chronometric Dating
__________ is/are used to measure how old a specimen or deposit is in years.
it was unified under a central state
The layout of the city of Teotihuacan, which shows a tremendous amount of planning, suggest that ________.
Neolithic
Archaeologists generally define the ________ in terms of the presence of domesticated plants and animals.
decreased elaboration of material possessions and long distance trade
Which of the following is not a consequence of food production?
cuneiform
Sumerian writing was wedge-shaped, or ________, formed by pressing a stylus against a damp tablet.
North America
Early writing systems developed in each of the following areas except:
Pressure flaking
If a tool is being worked by applying force with an implement of wood, antler, or bone along the edge of a tool to remove small flakes, what techinque is being used?
Central Europe
Which of these areas is not one of the six earliest civilizations?
Boc mo
Which of the following is not an example of an archaeological burial monument commemorating the dead?
2,300 B.C.
In the Indus Valley of northwestern India, a large state society had developed by ____________.
sedentarism
Which term refers to a switch to a more settled lifestyle in which people cultivate and domesticate plants and animals while living in permanent villages?
Western Europe
Many occurrences of cave art in the Upper Paleolithic are clustered in which geographical areas?
Inuit
Which one of these is not considered to be a state-level society?
False
Potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating is best used to date archaeological samples under 5,000 years of age.
maize, beans, and gourds
Which items were first domesticated in Mesoamerica?
true
Caste class systems are closed systems in which membership is determined at birth and movement between classes is virtually impossible.
artifact
Anything made or modified by humans is a(n) __________.
fishing
According to your tegrity lecture, the majority of foraging societies actually gain most of their food calories from ______________.
Equinox
A(n) __________ is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year when the sun falls most directly on the equator and the total time of daylight and night are equal all over the world.
Clovis
The Paleo-Indian culture in North America, named for their spear points frequently found at mammoth kill sites, is referred to as the ______________ culture.
Near East
What general area was the site of the first domestication of plants and animals?
Mesolithic
The cultural period in Europe during which preagricultural developments took place is called the ________.
organic remains to be well preserved
Anaerobic, cold, and dry environments are all good conditions for what?
Features
Pits, living floors, middens, and hearths are all common examples of archaeological ___________.
True
Burials excavated at Mound 72 of the Cahokia site in southern Illinois provide evidence of social differentiation or stratification among the prehistoric Native American occupants of the site and region.
Homo neanderthalensis
Although disputed, _____________ are generally belived to be the first hominin species to bury their dead, as evident at Shanidar Cave, Isreal where an adult male was found buried with high pollen concentrations, suggesting he was laid to rest on a bed of flowers.
Asia
The general consensus is that Native Americans originally came to the New World from which continent?
False
Archaeologists are able to identify evidence of domestication by the presence of a fragile rachis (the seed bearing part of the stem) on ancient plant remains of grain.
Egalitarian societies
Equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige.
Rank societies
Fairly equal access to economic resources and power, but unequal access to prestige.
Open class societies
Unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige but with the possibility of moving from one class to another.
Caste class societies
Unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige without the possibility of moving from one class to another.
False
Within a class, individuals have differential opportunity to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige.
Ethnographic Analogy
A method of comparative cultural study that extrapolates to the past from modern societies is referred to as ______________.
domestication
It is only when the crops cultivated and the animals raised are modified that we speak of ________.
stone tools
The most common artifacts of the past found in the archaeological record are __________.
State
A strong, hierarchical, centralized political system is best described as a:
Prehistory
__________ is the study of extinct non-literate societies before the local advent of writing systems.
Homo habilis
Oldowan
Home erectus
Acheulean
Homo neandertalensis
Mousterian
Homo sapiens
Cave paintings
stratigraphy
The study of how different rock or soil formations are laid down in successive layers or strata is the rule of ___________.
obsidian
________ is also known as volcanic glass.
False
A “supine” burial describes a body placed in the fetal position – resting on one side with the legs bent toward the chest.
Excavation
The systematic uncovering of archaeological deposits and the recovery of material remains from those deposits is called __________.
atlatl
During the Upper Paleolithic, spears were propelled with a spear-thrower rather than thrown with the arm. What is the name of this device?
Indirect Percussion
If a shaped core is being worked to produce blades by hitting an implement of wood, antler, bone, or stone with a hammerstone, what technique is being used?
Acheulean
What is the name of the stone tool technology created by early hominins during the Lower Paleolithic that was the first bifacial and high standardized tool in early human history? (Hint: the Swiss Army knife of the Paleolithic)
Homo habilis
Oldowan
Homo erectus
Acheulean
Homo neandertalensis
Mousterian
Homo sapiens
Cave paintings in Spain/southern France
Ethnographic Analogy
A method of comparative cultural study that extrapolates to the past from modern societies is referred to as ______________.
Clovis
The Paleo-Indian culture in North America, named for their spear points frequently found at mammoth kill sites, is referred to as the ______________ culture.
atlatl
During the Upper Paleolithic, spears were propelled with a spear-thrower rather than thrown with the arm. What is the name of this device?
Neolithic
What period time is characterized by the presence of domesticated plants and animals as well as the widespread use of pottery and ground stone tools?