Anthropology Ch. 4

descriptive linguistics
the part of anthropological linguistics that focuses on the mechanics of language
phonology
the general study of the sounds used in human speech
phoneme
the smallest unit of sound in speech that will indicate a difference in meaning
morpheme
the smallest combination of sounds in human speech that carry a meaning
syntax
the manner in which minimum units of meaning (morphemes) are combined
historical linguistics
the study of the history of languages, including their development and relationship to other languages
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ethnolinguistics
a field study in linguistics that analyzes the relationship between a language and culture
Sapie-Whorf hypothesis
a hypothesis about the relationship between language and culture that states that language constructs perceptions
recursion
a feature of language that allows for the generation of variations insentences by using embedded or added clauses and phrases
sociolinguistics
a subfield of linguistics that analyzes the relationship between language and culture with a focus on how people speak in social context
displacement
the ability of humans to communicate symbolically about distant time and place
lexigrams
geometric figure symbols used to teach apes symbolic communication
silent language
all of a culture’s nonverbal symbolic systems of communication, including kinesics and proxemics
kinesics
the use of the body to communicate-gestures, posture, and facial expression
proxemics
the study of the use of space in communication