Anthrop 2200 online final osu

Each of the following traits is found in a bipedal hominin EXCEPT:
a) a wide and short pelvis
b) a big toe in line with the other toes
c) a foramen magnum far back (posterior) on the skull
d) an S-shaped vertebral column
C
Fossil evidence of bipedalism first appeared in the hominin lineage about ___ million years ago.
a) 2
b) 4
c) 7
d) 20
C
How does the shape of the vertebral column differ between human adults and fetuses?
a) human fetal vertebral column is C-shaped, while the human adult vertebral column is S-shaped
b) both are C-shaped, but the human adult vertebral column is larger
c) both are S-shaped, but the human adult vertebral column is larger
d) human fetal vertebral column is S-shaped, while the human adult vertebral column is C-shaped
A
What angle does the femur form in relation to the knee in hominins?
a) 90 degrees
b) less than 90 degrees
c) more than 90 degrees
d) the femur is not part of the knee structure
B
What limb proportions would you expect to see on a hominin?
a) long arms relative to legs
b) long legs relative to arms
c) long arms and legs relative to trunk
d) short arms and legs relative to trunk
B
The human foot is best described as
a) big toe is adducted, and there is no longitudinal arch
b) big toe is divergent, and there is no longitudinal arch
c) big toe is adducted, and there is a longitudinal arch
d) big toe is divergent, and there is a longitudinal arch
C
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Modern humans are considered
a) quadrupedal
b) occasional bipeds
c) habitual bipeds
d) obligate bipeds
D
______________ is when different anatomical traits evolve at different times in a lineage
a) mosaic evolution
b) puzzle evolution
c) morphological evolution
d) random evolution
A
Hominins have a _________ knee
a) varus
b) valgus
c) longitudinal
d) divergent
B
Modern humans have an opposable hallux.
True
False
False
Study of morphological changes due to growth and development of body parts is called _______________.
a) intra-specific variation
b) sexual dimorphism
c) the fossil record
d) allometry
D
The fossil record is incomplete because:
a) most organisms do not fossilize
b) it is difficult to find fossilized individuals
c) complete species variation is not always represented
d) a and b only
e) all of the above
E
Which of the following features is used to distinguish hominins from other apes?
a) bipedalism
b) lack of CP3 honing complex
c) increased encephalization
d) b and c only are used
e) all of the above are used
E
Which of the following is NOT a hominin trait?
a) increased prognathism
b) parabolic dental arcade
c) thick enamel
d) decreased prognathism
A
Gracile australopithecines evolved several traits that may assist in hard-object feeding.
True
False
False
Which of the following is a derived trait among robust australopithecines?
a) bipedalism
b) increased prognathism
c) flared zygomatics
d) sexual dimorphism
C
The earliest hominin to appear in the fossil record is __________.
a) Australopithecus robustus
b) Australopithecus africanus
c) Sahelanthropus tchadensis
d) Australopithecus afarensis
C
Which of the following features allow us to infer diet?
a) bipedalism
b) enamel thickness
c) encephalization
d) parabolic dental arch
B
Which of the following is not a proto-hominin genus?
a) Sahelanthropus
b) Orrorin
c) Ardipithecus
d) Australopithecus
D
Which of the following fossils is the oldest and therefore would be expected to share some anatomical similarities with the Miocene apes?
a) Australopithecus afarensis
b) Australopithecus anamensis
c) Ardipithecus ramidus
d) Australopithecus aethiopicus
C
What general trends characterized the evolution of Homo cranial morphology?
a) increasing cranial capacity and more oval-shaped crania through time
b) decreasing cranial capacity and more oval-shaped crania through time
c) increasing cranial capacity and more rounded crania though time
d) decreasing cranial capacity and more rounded crania through time
C
What trait remained constant throughout the evolution of Homo cranial morphology?
a) cranial size
b) supraorbital torus size
c) prognathism
d) location of the foramen magnum
D
Which hominin is most commonly associated with Oldowan stone tool technology?
a) Homo sapiens sapiens
b) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
c) Homo habilis
d) Homo erectus
C
Who was the first member of the genus Homo?
a) Homo sapiens sapiens
b) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
c) Homo habilis
d) Homo erectus
C
Which of the following tool types were the first bifacial tools?
a) Oldowan
b) Levallois
c) Mousterian
d) Acheulian
D
Which of the following are hypothesized to have been the first stone tools of hominins?
a) Oldowan
b) Levallois
c) Mousterian
d) Acheulian
A
Which hominin developed Acheulian stone tool technology?
a) Australopithecus africanus
b) Australopithecus afarensis
c) Homo habilis
d) Homo erectus
D
Which hominin is associated with the Levallois, or “prepared-core” technique?
a) Homo sapiens sapiens
b) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
c) Homo habilis
d) Homo erectus
B
Some splitters believe certain fossil skulls within Homo habilis are different enough to necessitate an additional species, Homo rudolfensis.
True
False
True
Which hominin was the first to leave Africa?
a) Homo sapiens
b) Homo habilis
c) Homo erectus
d) Australopithecus africanus
C
Bioarchaeology can provide information about the __________ of past populations.
a) health
b) activity
c) nutrition
d) all of the above
D
Forensic anthropology is the scientific application of physical anthropology in:
a) an archaeological context
b) an historical context
c) a medico-legal context
d) an academic context
C
Although they share many of the same methods, forensic anthropologists often analyze the skeletal remains of only a single individual at a time, while bioarchaeologists usually analyze skeletal samples of many individuals.
True
False
True
Sex, age, ancestry, and stature estimation comprise the __________ profile.
a) biological
b) individual
c) identifying
d) legal
A
Based on anthroposcopic examination of an individual’s skeletal remains, sex can be determined if that individual is
a) a subadult
b) an adult
c) neither a nor b
d) both a and b
B
Methods used to estimate an age range for subadult skeletal remains are based on patterns of
a) degeneration
b) tooth development and eruption
c) sexual dimorphism
d) cranial fusion
B
A forensic anthropologist is called to a crime scene where skeletal remains of an adult have been discovered. Most of the remains are highly fragmentary and poorly preserved; however, the pelvis is largely intact. Which of the following might be determined from these remains?
a) age and stature
b) stature and sex
c) occupation
d) sex and age
e) all of the above
D
Bioarchaeologists often use stature as a measure of health in past populations because stature is influenced by environmental stressors encountered during growth and development.
True
False
True
A lesion with rounded edges and additional bone growth occurred
a) antemortem
b) perimortem
c) postmortem
d) no way to tell
A
In ballistic trauma, the entry hole and exit hole are the same size, so the direction of the gunshot cannot be determined.
True
False
False
LAB 9
The Evolution of bipedalism
S-shaped Vertebral Column
Modern human
C-shaped Vertebral Column
Modern chimp
What is the position of the foramen magnum in the modern chimp skull, compared to the modern human skull?
More posterior
What is the position of the foramen magnum in the modern human skull, compared to the modern chimp skull?
More anterior
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in foramen magnum placement?
Modern human
What is the width of the modern chimp pelvis, compared to the modern human pelvis?
Narrow
What is the width of the modern human pelvis, compared to the modern chimp pelvis?
Broad
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in pelvis width?
Modern Human
What is the height of the modern chimp pelvis, compared to the modern human pelvis?
Tall
What is the height of the modern human pelvis, compared to the modern chimp pelvis?
Short
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in pelvis height?
Modern human
What is the length of the femoral neck in the chimp, compared to the human?
Short
What is the length of the femoral neck in the human, compared to the chimp?
Long
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in length of the femoral neck?
Modern human
Does the femur angle inward or form a right angle in the chimp?
Femur does not angle inward (i.e. varus knee; articulating with the knee at approximately 90 degrees)
Does the femur angle inward or form a right angle in the human?
Femur angles inward (i.e., valgus knee)
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in angle of the femur at the knee joint?
Modern human
What is the length of the hallux (or big toe) relative to the other toes in the modern chimp?
Short relative to other toes
What is the length of the hallux (or big toe) relative to the other toes in the modern human?
Long relative to other toes
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in length of the hallux relative to the other toes?
Modern human
What is position of the hallux in relation to the other toes in the modern chimp?
Divergent
What is the position of the hallux in relation to the other toes in the modern human?
Adducted (i.e., in line with the other toes)
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in position of the hallux relative to the other toes?
Modern human
Are the phalanges curved in the modern chimp?
Yes
Are phalanges curved in the modern human?
No
Who is more similar to Australopithecus afarensis in curvature of the phalanges?
Curvature is intermediate between modern human and modern chimp
Based on the characteristics of these Australopithecus afarensis footprints, what is the length of the hallux (or big toe) relative to the other toes?
Long relative to the other toes
Based on the characteristics of these Australopithecus afarensis footprints, what is the position of the hallux?
Adducted (in line with the other toes)
Do these footprints appear to belong to a quadruped or a biped?
Biped
Found in Ethiopia and dated to 4.4 million years ago, Ardipithecus ramidus is one of the earliest known hominins. Contrary to earlier hypotheses on bipedalism, Ardipithecus ramidus likely lived in a woodland environment. Ardipithecus ramidus provides a glimpse of early bipedal evolution and environmental influences on these anatomical changes. You will observe traits of Ardipithecus ramidus and indicate if they appear associated with bipedalism, and more human-like, or with quadrupedalism, and more ape-like.
graphic of ar. ramidus
Using the information presented in the table above, indicate which anatomical features in Ardipithecus ramidus are more ape-like (select all that apply).
Short hallux (relative to other toes) Divergent hallux
Curved phalanges
Using the information presented in the table above, indicate which anatomical features in Ardipithecus ramidus are more human-like (select all that apply).
Anteriorly-positioned foramen magnum
S-shaped vertebral column
Broad pelvis
Short pelvis
Long femoral neck
Femur angles inward
Valgus knee
True or False: These features suggest that bipedalism is an example of mosaic evolution.
True
Which skeletal element evolved to be human-like later in the hominin lineage, after Ardipithecus ramidus?
Foot
Lab 10: The earliest hominins
Lots of diagrams
Chimp and Ardipithecus ramidus
diagram then..

More
Less
Sloping
Sloping
More posterior
More anterior

Based on the position of the foramen magnum, do you think Ardipithecus ramidus was a biped? Why or why not?
The foramen magnum is more centrally located than it is in chimpanzees. Therefore Ardipithecus ramidus should be a biped and ultimately a hominin.
Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus afarensis
diagram then…

Similar
Similar
Sloping
Sloping
More anterior
More anterior

Compare your observations for Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus afarensis. Which cranial traits do you think are more derived in Australopithecus afarensis compared to the earlier Ardipithecus ramidus species?
The increase in brain size is the most prominent cranial change.
Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus
diagram then…

Similar
Similar
Sloping
Sloping
More anterior
More anterior
Smaller
Larger

Australopithecus afarensis is a gracile australopithecine. Would you also classify Australopithecus africanus as gracile, or is it a robust australopithecine? What features support your argument?
Answers will vary. Some paleoanthropologists consider Australopithecus africanus to be robust despite its gracile cranium, due to its large molars. Others place this hominin among the gracile australopithecines.
Australopithecus (Paranthropus) aethiopicus and Australopithecus (Paranthropus) boisei
diagram then…

more
less
similar
similar
less flared
more flared
similar
similar

Do you think Australopithecus aethiopicus is ancestral to Australopithecus boisei? What might you determine behaviorally based on the changes from Australopithecus aethiopicus to Australopithecus boisei?
Yes, Australopithecus aethiopicus is ancestral to Australopithecus boisei and it appears that this lineage is getting larger and more specialized cranially. This could be due to them consuming harder and/or tougher foods. Note that decreasing prognathism is a characteristic of robust australopithechines.
Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus platyops
diagram then..

similar
similar
least
sloping
sloping
sloping
U-shaped
U-shaped
U-shaped

Is Australopithecus afarensis or Australopithecus platyops a better candidate for the ancestor to Homo habilis? Why?
Answers will vary. Australopithecus afarensis is more commonly considered ancestral to the Homo lineage. You might note the unusual flatness of Australopithecus platyop’s face.
Lab 11: The Genus Homo
some graphs and pdf on top
Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis
diagram then…

Similar
Similar
Bony ridge
Bony ridge
Sloping
Sloping

Do you think these individuals are different enough to belong to different species? Which features were most important for making your conclusion?
Answers will vary. You might observe that Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis have similar feature proportions, although they are larger in absolute size in Homo rudolfensis.
Are there variations in Homo erectus?
Compare Peking Man and Turkana Boy.
Turkana Boy and Peking Man
diagram then…

similar
similar
bony ridge
bony ridge
sloping
sloping

Based on the features of Turkana Boy and Peking Man, do you think these should be separate species or does it represent geographic variation of Homo erectus? What features lead you to your conclusion?
Answers will vary. Turkana Boy is a fairly gracile example of African Homo erectus, perhaps due to his youth or early appearance in evolutionary history, so you might observe more similarity between the two geographic variants. Later African Homo erectus are much more robust than Turkana Boy.
Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis.
diagram then…

Similar
Similar
Bony ridge
bony ridge
sloping
sloping

Do you think it is likely that Homo erectus is ancestral to Homo heidelbergensis? What features lead you to this decision?
IT GAVE NO ANSWER
archaic Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals to anatomically modern Homo sapiens
diagram then…

Medium
Largest
Smallest
Bony ridge
Bun
Smooth
Sloping
Sloping
Vertical
Medium
Largest
Smallest
No
No
Yes

Do you think Homo heidelbergensis is ancestral to either Homo sapiens or Neandertals? What features lead you to this decision?
Answers will vary. Homo heidelbergensis is often considered ancestral to Neandertals in Europe and Asia. The particular Homo heidelbergensis used in this station is European, and thus would be ancestral to Neandertals. In Africa, Homo heidelbergensis gave rise to Homo sapiens, which migrated out to Europe and Asia to interbreed with Neandertals in those locations
Do you think that Neanderthals are a subspecies of Homo sapiens or are they a separate species? What features lead you to this decision?
Answers will vary between students. Neandertals share genetic material with Homo sapiens with European or Asian ancestry, indicating interbreeding between these populations.
Homo floresiensis (“The Hobbit”) and Homo sapiens
diagram then…

Largest
Smallest
Bony ridge
Smooth
Sloping
Vertical
No
Yes

Is Homo floresiensis more similar to Homo erectus or Homo sapiens? What features lead you to this decision?
Answers will vary. You might note the similarity of cranial features between Homo floresiensis and Homo erectus.
Compare the cranium of the La-Chapelle-Aux-Saints, a Neandertal, to Homo sapiens
pdfs
Which skull has a larger nasal aperture compared to the size of its face?
Neandertal
Which skull is more robust overall?
Neandertal
How could a large nasal aperture aid survival in a cold climate?
The large nasal aperture allows the cold air to become warm and moist before passing into the lungs.
Oldowan, Acheulian, and Mousterian tools
Is the tool unifaced (flaked on one side) or bifaced (flaked on both sides)?
Unifaced
Bifaced
Bifaced
Was the tool likely primarily used for hunting or scavenging?

Oldowan Hunting

Acheulian Scavenging

Mousterian Scavenging

Scavenging
Scavenging
Hunting
Which tools are most commonly associated with which hominins?
Homo habilis = oldowan
homo erectus = archeulian
neadertals = mousterian
Lab 12: Forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology
diagrams on skulls
Skulls with diagrams
1 = Female

2 = Probable Female

3 = Indeterminate

4 = Probable Male

5 = Male

Skull #1: Mastoid process
Male (4 or 5)
Skull #1: Nuchal crest
Male (4 or 5)
Skull #2: Mastoid process
Female (1 or 2)
Skull #2: Nuchal crest
Female (1 or 2)
Estimate the sex of these skulls.
Female = skull 2
Male = skull 1
pelvis diagrams
1 = Female

2 = Probable Female

3 = Indeterminate

4 = Probable Male

5 = Male

Greater sciatic notch:
Male (4 or 5)
Score the subpubic concavity of the pelvis in the right side image as concave or convex.
Convex (Male)
Assume that the pelvis you scored for the greater sciatic notch is the same pelvis you scored for the subpubic concavity. Estimate the sex of this pelvis.
Male
Diagram of dentition
A mean age of 10 years is associated with the stage of dental development and eruption in the skull pictured above.
12 years
femur diagrams
diagrams of femurs…

No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes

The osteometric board measures in millimeters, so divide your measurement by 10 to convert to centimeters.

Blank 1: Calculate the mean stature using the formula:

2.38 x (Femur length in cm) + 61.41 =
165

Blank 2: Calculate the minimum stature using the formula:

Mean stature – 3.27 =
162

Blank 3: Calculate the maximum stature using the formula:

Mean stature + 3.27 =
168

In all cases, round to the nearest whole centimeter. Enter the number in the blank WITHOUT unit notation (e.g. 160)

Select the answer that best describes the cranial trauma pictured above.

Trauma: Case #1

Blunt force trauma (Antemortem)
Select the answer that best describes the cranial trauma pictured above.

Trauma: Case #2

Sharp force trauma (Antemortem)
Select the answer that best describes the cranial trauma pictured above.

Trauma: Case #3

Blunt force trauma (Perimortem)
Select the answer that best describes the cranial trauma pictured above.

Trauma: Case #4

Ballistic trauma (Perimortem)
Select the answer that best describes the cranial trauma pictured above.

Trauma: Case #5

Sharp force trauma (Perimortem)
Select the answer that best describes the cranial trauma pictured above.

Trauma: Case #6

Ballistic trauma (Perimortem)