ANTH101 Midterm

False
Anthropologists would agree that a comparative, cross-cultural approach is unnecessary as long as you are diligent in your work.
False
Anthropologists study only non-Western cultures.
False
The experience of hyperventilation upon reaching a high altitude environment illustrates a long-term physiological adaptation to high altitude.
True
Linguistic anthropologists study how languages vary in time and space, and how language and culture influence each other.
False
Academic anthropology refers to the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to identify and solve social problems.
A. Ancient Languages
Biological anthropologists study all of the following except:
A. Ancient languages
B. human biological plasticity
C. primates
D. hominid evolution
E. human genetics
C. biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
What are the four main subdisciplines of anthropology?
A. Medical anthropology, ethnography, ethnology, and cultural anthropology
B. Archaeology, biological anthropology, applied linguistics, and applied anthropology
C. Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
D. Genetic anthropology, physical anthropology, psychological anthropology, and linguistic anthropology
E. Primatology, ethnology, cultural anthropology, and paleopathology
C. You may have more genetic material with someone who looks totally different from you than with someone considered your own “race.”
According to the text, what can we appropriately conclude from geneticists’ finding that someone of African ancestry may have more in common biologically with someone of native Australian, Asian, or northern European descent than with a fellow African?
A. People of African descent have migrated to Australia, Asia, and northern Europe and mixed their genes with local populations.
B. People of Australian, Asian, and northern European descent have migrated to Africa and mixed their genes with local African populations.
C. You may have more genetic material in common with someone who looks totally different from you than with someone considered your own “race”.
D. African populations are divided into a number of races, some of which have evolved to look like peoples of other regions of the world.
E. Because Homo sapiens evolved in Africa, African peoples have much in common with peoples of all regions of the world.
D. Adaptation
What is the term for the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses?
A. Ethnology
B. Ethnography
C. Cultural resource management
D. Adaptation
E. Phenotype
B. People share society– organized life in groups– with other animals, but culture is distinctly human.
What distinction do Gezon and Kottak draw between culture and society?
A. Culture is the result of higher education, whereas society is shared by all people.
B. People share society―organized life in groups―with other animals, but culture is distinctly human.
C. Culture is genetically programmed, whereas society is transmitted through social learning.
D. People attain culture through international travel but society is the social environment of their native land.
E. Society rests more upon certain features of human biology than culture does.
E. Material remains
What to anthropological archaeologists study?
A. Language
B. Race
C. Biological adaptation
D. Modern cultural diversity
E. Material remains
B. The comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology.
Ethnology is
A. the study of human speech sounds.
B. the comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology.
C. the most important subfield of anthropology.
D. the study of ancient ethnic groups.
E. a synonym for ethnography.
A. the firsthand, personal study of local settings
Ethnography is
A. the firsthand, personal study of local settings
B.the process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations
C. the study of interrelationships among all living things in an environment
D. a policy aimed at removing groups that are culturally different from a country
E. the cross-cultural comparison of cultural data.
D. Anthropology’s biocultural approach entails finding evolutionary explanations for all human behaviors.
Which of the following statements about anthropology is not true?
A. Anthropology is the exploration of human diversity in time and space.
B. Anthropology studies the whole of the human condition.
C. Anthropologists focus in part on the diversity that arises through human adaptability.
D. Anthropology’s biocultural approach entails finding evolutionary explanations for all human behaviors.
E. Anthropology offers a comparative, cross-cultural perspective to the study of the human condition.
E. studies human biological, cultural and linguistic variation across both time and space.
Anthropology is a holistic discipline in that it
A. has traditionally focused on nonindustrial societies.
B. deals with human culture.
C. does not attempt to make generalizations about humanity.
D. now focuses on industrial societies.
E. studies human biological, cultural, and linguistic variation across both time and space.
B. paleoecology
The study of interactions among past living things in a past environment is
A. paleoanthropology.
B. paleoecology.
C. garbology.
D. social archaeology.
E. adaptive anthropology.
D. It is comparative and holistic
Which one of the following statements most completely characterizes anthropology as a unique field of study?
A.It studies only ancient and nonindustrial societies.
B. It includes biology
C. It deals with crucial world dilemmas
D. It is comparative and holistic
C. Their transmission through learning rather than through biological inheritance.
What is the most critical element of cultural traditions?
A. Their stability owing to the unchanging characteristics of human biology.
B. their tendency to change radically every generation.
C. Their transmission through learning rather than through biological inheritance.
D. Their tendency to remain unchanged despite changing historical circumstances.
B. Humans have become increasingly dependent on them.
How has human reliance on cultural means of adaptation changed?
a. Humans are just beginning to depend on them.
B. Humans have become increasingly dependent on them.
C. Humans have become entirely reliant on them.
D. Humans no longer use cultural means.
A. was shaped largely by early American anthropologists’ interests in Native Americans
Four-field anthropology
A. was shaped largely by early American anthropologists’ interests in Native Americans.
B. lacks unity, since only archaeology and biological anthropology consider variation in time and space
C. lacks unity because the four subfields do not share key assumptions.
D. is weak in examining the relation between biology and culture
D. Ethnologists look beyond the particular cultural data that ethnographers describe and interpret to compare and contrast and make generalizations about society and culture.
Which of the following accurately distinguishes ethnography from ethnology?
A. ethnology focuses on the study of particular cultures, while ethnography looks at cultures comparatively.
B. traditionally, ethnography was done in large societies with wealth and power, while ethnology focused on small societies with little wealth.
C. ethnography studies cultures that are isolated from one another, while ethnology studies nations influenced by globalization.
D. Ethnologists look beyond the particular cultural data that ethnographers describe and interpret to compare and contrast and make generalizations about society and culture.
b. it discovers, describes and attempts to explain similarities and differences among humans, with concern for the full diversity of worldviews and voices
Anthropology is a humanistic science most particularly because
a. the techniques it uses come from a variety of sciences, including those that study humans’ relations with other animals.
b. it discovers, describes, and attempts to explain similarities and differences among humans, with concern for the full diversity of world views and voices.
c. it is a systematic study that respects experiment, observation, and deduction as applied to both contemporary human life and human evolution.
d. over the years it has compiled an impressive body of knowledge about human life.
C. it is less relevant for archaeology since archaeology concerns the material culture of societies that no longer exist.
all of the following are true about applied anthropology EXCEPT that
a. it uses knowledge, perspectives, or methods of the four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical human problems.
b.it is a growing aspect of anthropology, with increasingly more anthropologists developing applied components of their work.
c. it is less relevant for archaeology, since archaeology concerns the material culture of societies that no longer exist.
d. it has many applications because of anthropology’s breadth.
Biocultural
A ______ approach refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem.
A. allows the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem.
Anthropology’s biocultural perspective
A. allows the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem.
B. is the reason it has traditionally studied nonindustrialized societies
C. is insignificant, since evolution is studied by biological anthropologists while culture is studied by cultural anthropologists
D. is a product of the participant observation approach
E. places it in the humanities
Ethnography
_______ provides an account of fieldwork in a particular community, society, or culture.
Applied Anthropology
______ encompasses nay use of the knowledge and/or techniques of the four subfields of anthropology to identify, assess, and solve practical problems. More and more anthropologists increasingly work in this dimension of the discipline.
Scientific method
The ______ characterizes any anthropological endeavor that formulates research questions and gathers or uses systematic data to test hypotheses.
B. cultural and applied anthropologist
President Barack Obama’s mother , Dr. Ann Dunham was a(n)
A. primatologist
B. cultural and applied anthropologist
C. biological anthropologist
D. medical anthropologist
E. archaeologist
E. it has an exclusive focus on contemporary cultures
Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of four-field anthropology?
A. it has a holistic approach
B. it has a broad cross-cultural comparison
C. it is the study of human biology, culture and language
D. it is a science and a humanity
E. it has an exclusive focus on contemporary cultures
D. cultural adaptation
The pressurized cabin of an airplane flying at high altitude provides an example of a(n)
A. genetic adaptation
B. long-term physiological adaptation
C. short-term physiological adaptation
D. cultural adaptation
E. archaeological adaptation
D. science
A systematic field of study that uses experiment, observation, and deduction to produce reliable explanations of phenomena is
A. culture
B. religion
C. humanities
D. science
E. folk lore
B. where did Native Americans come from?
Which question was important in the origins of American anthropology?
A. How are the Neandertals related to us?
B. where did Native Americans come from?
C. When and where did food production first begin?
D. How much beer do people in Arizona drink today?
E. Where do ideals of attractiveness come from?
E. Brazil
Which of the following countries is least likely to sent female swimmers to the olympics?
A. USA
B. Germany
C the Netherlands
D, Norway
E. Brazil
B. is archaeology of modern people
Rathje’s garbology project
A. studies the stratification of landfills
B. is archaeology of modern people
C. answered the question why people leave things behind for archaeologists to find
D. is a study of potsherds
E. was conducted in ancient Egypt
A. paleoanthropologist
A scientist who studies the fossil record of human evolution is a(n)
A. paleoanthropologist
B. archaeologist
C. ethnologist
D. treasure hunter
E. primatologist
E. sociolinguistics
The study of the relationships between social and linguistic variation is called
A. historic linguistics
B. applied linguistics
C. cultural resource management
D. adaptation
E. sociolinguistics
A. applied anthropology
The use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end is known as
A. applied anthropology
B. economic anthropology
C. conceptual anthropology
D. sociobiology
E. participant observation
C. archaeolgy
Cultural resource management is an example of applied
A. ethnology
B. biological anthropology
C. archaeology
D. linguistic anthropolgy
E. ethnography
A. cultural anthropologist
An anthropologist is studying ethnic-religious conflict in contemporary Sri Lanka. She or he is most likely a(n)
A. cultural anthropologist
B. linguistic anthropologist
C. paleoanthropologist
D. archaeological anthropologist
E. biological anthropologist
A. genetic transmission
Which of the following is not one of the ways in which individuals learn culture?
A. genetic transmission
B. unconscious acquisition
C. through observation
D. through direct instruction
E. conscious acquisition
E. practice theory
Which anthropological approach focuses on how people with different motives, intentions, and degrees of power and influence manage to create and transform the society in which they live?
A. cultural relativism
B. experimental anthropology
C. interpretive anthropology
D. neoevolutionism
E. practice theory
B. process of voting to elect leaders
Which of the following processes would be considered an example of civic culture?
A. television shows
B. process of voting to elect leaders
C. McDonald’s
D. Unspoken dress codes for funerals
E. a musical performance at the city civic center
B. culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups
What do anthropologists mean when culture is shared?
A. culture is an attribute of particular individuals
B. culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups
C. culture is what ensures that at all people raised in the same society have the same opinions.
D. culture is universally regarded as more important than the concept of the individual
E. enculturation is accomplished by more than one person
D. Symbol
What is the term of a sign that has no necessary or natural connection to the thing it stands for or signifies?
A. Morpheme
B. Lexicon
C. Phoneme
D. Symbol
E. Collateral
B.the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
What is cultural relativism?
A. a cultural universal, based upon the human capacity to use symbols
B.the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
C. a cultural particular, based upon the interrelatedness of humans
D. the opposite of participant observation
E. the same thing as ethnocentrism, but it applies only to family structures
E. Some kind of family
Which of the following is a cultural universal?
A. Hypodescent
B. Hyperdescent
C. Bifurcate merging kinship terminologies
D. Transhumance
E. Some kind of family
B. viewing another culture by your own culture and values
What is ethnocentrism?
A. viewing another culture by their own standards.
B. viewing another culture by your own culture and values
C. viewing another culture by government standards
D. viewing another culture by the universal moral code that we all follow
E. viewing a culture through rose-colored glasses
B. Features unique to ta given culture, not shared with any others
What are cultural particulars?
A. features of a culture that are isolated from other features in the same culture
B. Features unique to ta given culture, not shared with any others
C. different levels of culture
D. the most general aspect of culture patterns
E. cultural features exhibited by individual rather than groups
B. cultural relativism argues that some cultures are better than others
Which of the following statements about cultural relativism is not true?
A. cultural relativism argues that cultural values vary between cultures
B. cultural relativism argues that some cultures are better than others
C. cultural relativism argues that we we shouldn’t use our own standards to judge conduct in other cultures
D. cultural relativism argues that no one culture is better than any other
E. cultural relativism argues that each culture is a unique, integrated whole
C. cultural rights are vested in groups, not individuals
How are cultural rights different from human rights?
A. Human rights are real, while cultural rights are just percieved
B. cultural rights are morally based, while human rights are methodologically based
C. cultural rights are vested in groups, not individuals
D. cultural rights are more clear-cut than human rights
E. the term cultural rights is a politically correct synonym for human rightw
E. nuclear family
Which of the following is a cultural generality?
A. life in groups
B. the use of fire
C. incest taboo
D. use of symbols
E. nuclear family
B. Direct diffusion
What type of diffusion takes place when two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another?
A. Forced diffusion
B. Direct diffusion
C. Indirect diffusion
D. enculturated diffusion
E. bilateral diffusion
A. acculturation
What is the term for cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous firsthand contact?
A. acculturation
B. enculturation
C. independent invention
D. colonization
E. imperialism
C. Globalization
What is the term for processes that are causing nations and people to be increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent.
A. acculturation
B. diffusion
C. Globalization
D. enculturation
E. independent invention
E. diffusion
Although rap music began in the United States, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this?
A. acculturation
B. enculturation
C. independent invention
D. colonization
E. diffusion
C. independent invention
The emergence of agriculture in at least seven different regions of the world is an example of
A. acculturation
B. enculturation
C. independent invention
D. colonization
E. diffusion
D. ideal culture
What do people say they do or should do (as opposed to what they actually do) is known as
A. imagined culture
B. ethnocentrism
C. agency
D. ideal culture
E. verbal culture
A. subcultures
What term refers to the different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups within the same complex society?
A. subcultures
B. Globalization
C. Diffusion
D. Hypodescent
E. Pidgins
E. All people
What kinds of people do anthropologists consider to be “cultured”?
A. educated people
B. key cultural consultants
C. ethnocentric people
D. culturally sensitive people
E. All people
B. acculturation
What mechanism of cultural change is responsible for pidgin English?
A. enculturation
B. acculturation
C. independent invention
D. migration
E. diffusion
C. independent invention
What term refers to the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems?
A. enculturation
B. acculturation
C. independent invention
D. globalization
E. diffuison
false
The internet has hindered the process of globalization
True
The idea of universal inalienable human rights that are superior to the laws and customs of particular cultures challenges the notion of cultural relativism
False
The nuclear family is a feature of all known cultures
True
Although culture is one of the principal means by which humans adapt to their environment, some cultural traits may threaten a groups survival.
Globalization, diffusion
______ encompasses a series of processes, including migration, acculturation, and ________, which is the borrowing of traits between cultures
Civic culture
__________ includes citizens’ compliance with the legal system, participation in formal elections, and membership in voluntary and faith-based organizations
learning, symbols
Clifford Geertz defined culture as ideas based on cultural _________ and ________.
D. if certain cultural patterns offer short-term benefits, they are usually adaptive in the long fun as well
Which of the following statements about culture is FALSE?
A. despite increased reliance on cultural means of adaptation, humans still adapt biologically
B. cultural traditions are trasmitted throught learning
C. cultural patterns might offer short-term benefits to a particular group but nevertheless threaten that group’s long-term survival
D. if certain cultural patterns offer short-term benefits, they are usually adaptive in the long fun as well
B. emphasizes culture’s evolutionary basis, stressing the interaction between biology and culture
This chapter’s discussion of the similarities and differences between humans and apes
A. states that all hominids have evolved the same capacities for culture
B. emphasizes culture’s evolutionary basis, stressing the interaction between biology and culture
C. states that genetics has been more important than culture in determining our particular evolutionary path
D. illustrates how human females’ lack of a visible estrus cycle determined our unique capacity for culture
C. although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture
The “psychic unity” of humans, a doctrine that most anthropologists accept, means that
A. psychology is the exclusive domain of the academic discipline of psychology
B. genetically mixed descendence of people from around the world will not be capable of acquiring the common national culture of the country they now live in.
C. although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture
D. psychological attributes are determined by our genes
B. seasonal (rather than year-round sexuality)
Anthropologists have found that certain biological, psychological. social, and cultural features are universal. All of the following are examples of this EXCEPT:
A. a long period of infant dependency
B. seasonal (rather than year-round sexuality)
C. life in groups and in some kind of family
D. capacity to use symbols, languages and tools.
A. different groups in a society struggle over whose ideas, values, goals, and beliefs will prevail
Anthropologists have noted that culture is often contested. This means that
A. different groups in a society struggle over whose ideas, values, goals, and beliefs will prevail
B. certain symbols may have different meanings to specific individuals and groups, even though most common symbols are agreed upon by everyone in a culture
C. humans are passive beings who must follow their cultural traditions
D. “real ” culture (the actual behavior of individuals in a society) is of primary importance to anthropological study, while “ideal” culture has no significance
a. is primarily a methodological position rather than a moral one
In anthropology, cultural relativism
a. is primarily a methodological position rather than a moral one
B. is equally a moral and methodological position towards other cultures
C. is synonymous with moral relativism
D. is a political position that argues for the defense of human rights, regardless of culture
maladaptive
Cultural traits, patterns, and inventions also can be ______, threatening the group’s continued existence (survival and reproduction)
symbols
According to Leslie White, culture, and therefore humanity, came into existence when humans began to use ______.
hominid, hominin
The term _______ refers to any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla, while the term ______ refers only to any fossil or living human.
cultural rights
Unlike human rights, ______ are vested not in individuals but in groups, including indigenous peoples and religions and ethnic minorities.
False
Compared to questionnaires, interview schedules tend to be more indirect and personal.
True
An anthropologist should have many key cultural consultants for the culture he or she is studying.
False
Ethnology is the holistic study of a single community.
False
Good key cultural consultants generally end up recording most of the data needed to write an ethnography.
True
Interviews can help establish rapport with community members.
A. Recording cultural diversity that is threatened by Westernization
What is salvage ethnography?
A. Recording cultural diversity that is threatened by Westernization
B. Recovering an archaeological site that is about to be destroyed by a public building or road
C. Rewriting an ethnography that was written in the ethnographic present
D. Recording linguistic diversity that is about to become extinct.
E. Making sure that ethnography remains an important part of anthropology.
D. be constituted so that valid inferences about the larger population can be made.
In survey research, a sample should
A. include the entire population in question.
B. include anyone who will agree to talk with the researcher.
C. not be randomly selected.
D. be constituted so that valid inferences about the larger population can be made.
E. be invariant.
A. Ethnographer
What kind of researcher has traditionally studied small, non-Western populations?
A. Ethnographer
B. Sociologist
C. Economist
D. Palynologist
E. Limnologist
C. Longitudinal research
What term refers to the study of a community, region, society, or culture over time?
A. Team research
B. Etic research
C. Longitudinal research
D. Survey research
E. Genealogical method
B. The period before Westernization
What is the ethnographic present?
A. The dates that the anthropologist was living in the culture
B. The period before Westernization
C. The period that documents culture change
D. The dates that include culture contact
E. The date the ethnography was published
D. Telephone questionnaires
Which of the following is not a characteristic field technique used by ethnographers?
A. The genealogical method
B. Participant observation
C. Conversation
D. Telephone questionnaires
E. Interview schedules
C. The genealogical method
Which of the following techniques was developed specifically because kinship and marriage relationships are so important in nonindustrial societies?
A. The life history
B. Participant observation
C. The genealogical method
D. The interview schedule
E. Network analysis
C. Ethnography
Which of the following strategies is unique to anthropology?
A. Comparison
B. A biological perspective
C. Ethnography
D. An evolutionary perspective
E. Working with skilled respondents
A. The collection of a representative sample of a larger population
n survey research, what is sampling?
A. The collection of a representative sample of a larger population
B. The interviewing of a small number of key cultural consultants
C. Participant observation
D. The collection of life histories of every member in a community
E. The recording of the emic perspective
D. Variables
In survey research, what term is used to refer to the attributes that differ among members of a population?
A. Unknowns
B. Questionnaires
C. Interviews
D. Variables
E. Random samples
informants
Key cultural consultants, also called key ___________ , are people who by accident, experience, talent, or training can provide the ethnographer with the most complete or useful information about particular aspects of life.
ethnographic
Traditionally, anthropologists used __________ techniques to study small populations to create firsthand, personal studies of local cultural settings.
participant observation
__________ is the cornerstone of cultural anthropological studies and involves the researcher taking part in the activities being observed.
reflexive ethnography
In ________ , the ethnographer puts his or her personal feelings and reactions to the field situation into the text.
True
Traditionally, sociologists worked in large, industrial Western nations, while anthropologists focust on smaller, nonindustrial societies.
False
Classical archaeologists investigate archaeological sites that are threatened by development
False
Anthropologists need to get permission from the community they are studying only when they intend to take photographs or make recordings.
True
Primatologists study primates in both zoos and natural settings
True
Longitudinal ethnographic research is the long-term study of a particular culture or society frequently based on repeated visits.
True
Physical anthropology and archaeology both involve multidisciplinary approaches to research.
True
Experimental archaeologists try to replicate ancient techniques under controlled conditions
True
Historical archaologists use written records to supplement the archaeological record.
E. interview schedules allow informants to talk about whatever they feel is important
Which of the following is one of the advantages an interview schedule has over a questionnaire?
A. interview schedule rely on very short responses and therefore are more useful when there is less time to conduct research
B. interview schedules are better suited to complex, urban societies
C. questionnaires are emic, while interview schedules are etic.
D. questionnaires are completely unstructured, so informants might deviate from the subject of interest.
E. interview schedules allow informants to talk about whatever they feel is important
A. survey research generally focuses on a subset of a larger population
How does survey research differ from ethnography?
A. survey research generally focuses on a subset of a larger population
B. survey research is more personal
C. survey research has traditionally been used to study small-scale, nonindustrial societies
D. survey research is based on firsthand fieldwork.
E. survey research studies whole functioning communities
E. designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and to society in general.
The American Anthropological Association’s Code of Ethics is
A. simply disregarded by most researchers
B. designed to protect anthropologists who conduct fieldwork in remote places and are subject to potentially hazardous working conditions
C. overly general and thus of little use to most anthropologists
D. applicable only to research being conducted in the United States.
E. designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and to society in general.
D. participant observation
Taking part in the events one is witnessing and describing is known as
A. emic research
B. etic research
C. longitudinal research
D. participant observation
E. informed consent
E. key cultural consultant
What is a term for an expert on a particular aspect of local life?
A. etic informant
B. representative sample
C. biased informant
D. life historian
E. key cultural consultant
C. doing more work for colonial governments
Trends in doing ethnography include the following EXCEPT
A. a move away from holistic accounts toward investigation of specific problems
B. the inclusion of field gathered data form two or more stays in the field (longitudinal research)
C. doing more work for colonial governments
D. giving more attention to contacts from outside the communities being studied
B. the recommendation that anthropologists avoid taking stands on issues that arise in their dealings with another culture
Which of the following is not a part of the AAA code of ethics?
A. the recognition that anthropologists are obligated to their scholarly field, to the wider society and culture, and to the human species
B. the recommendation that anthropologists avoid taking stands on issues that arise in their dealings with another culture
C. the requirement that all parties involved in doing anthropological research be informed about the nature, procedures, purpose, and potential impacts of the research.
D. the recommendation that the people anthropologists work with in the field be respected, acknowledged, and compensated in appropriate ways
informed consent
_____ is agreement by an informant, consultant, or community to take part in anthropological research after having been told about its nature, procedures and possible impacts.
Human terrain system
The Pentagon’s ______, which embeds anthropologists and other social scientists in military teams in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been criticized by the AAA.
False
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that speakers of simple languages are unable to think in sophisticated ways
False
The term disglossia is used to refer to linguistic groups that use only two basic color terms.
True
Phonology is the study of speech sounds.
True
Syntax refers to the rules that dictate the order of words in a language.
False
The term protolanguage is used to refer to the limited communication systems of nonhuman primates
False
Sociolinguistics has demonstrated that men lack the linguistic capacity to distinguish between slight variations in color.
False
Focal vocabularies are only found in non-Western societies.
True
Language is transmitted through enculturation.
False
All human nonverbal communication is instinctive and thus not influenced by culture.
False
Historical linguists study linguistic performance by categorizing speakers as inadequate, competent, or highly proficient.
B. Phonemes
What term refers to the minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in a language?
A. Morphemes
B. Phonemes
C. Syntax
D. Grammar
E. Diglossia
E. women tend to use language to build social connections with others.
Deborah Tannen’s research on the speech habits of men and women has revealed that
A. there are no discernible differences between the way men and women use language.
B. men tend to make eye contact more frequently than women.
C. women tend to recite information in an attempt to solidify their position in a social hierarchy.
D. men rely more on nonverbal gestures than do women.
E. women tend to use language to build social connections with others.
B. Lexicon
What is the term for all of a language’s morphemes and their meanings?
A. Syntax
B. Lexicon
C. Ethnosemantics
D. Ethnoscience
E. Phonology
E. Apes can learn American Sign Language and have shown the capacity for cultural transmission, productivity, and displacement, although there is still a gap between human and other ape language capabilities.
Which of the following statements best describes the use of language by apes?
A. Only humans are capable of learning and using language.
B. Apes use American Sign Language in the wild.
C. Apes cannot be taught to use American Sign Language.
D. Only chimpanzees can learn American Sign Language.
E. Apes can learn American Sign Language and have shown the capacity for cultural transmission, productivity, and displacement, although there is still a gap between human and other ape language capabilities.
C. Daughter languages
What term refers to languages that have descended from the same ancestral language?
A. Descendant languages
B. Sibling languages
C. Daughter languages
D. Brother languages
E. Protolanguages
A. Syntax
What term refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences?
A. Syntax
B. Lexicon
C. Grammar
D. Phonology
E. Morphology
D. Noam Chomsky
Which linguist has argued that all human languages have a common structural basis and that all humans have similar linguistic abilities?
A. Edward Sapir
B. Benjamin Lee Whorf
C. William Labov
D. Noam Chomsky
E. Deborah Tannen
A. /r/ was pronounced most frequently by workers in the upper-middle-class store (Saks).
In his study of New York department store employees, Labov found that
A. /r/ was pronounced most frequently by workers in the upper-middle-class store (Saks).
B. /r/ was pronounced most frequently by workers in the middle-class store (Macy’s).
C. /r/ was pronounced most frequently by workers in the lower-middle-class store (S. Klein’s).
D. workers in all three stores pronounced /r/ with the same frequency.
E. none of the workers with whom he interacted pronounced /r/.
D. A dialect of American English
Most professional linguists regard BEV as what?
A. A protolanguage
B. A distinct language
C. A linguistic anomaly
D. A dialect of American English
E. An inferior version of English
B. Calls demonstrate linguistic productivity.
Which statement about nonhuman primate calls is not true?
A. They occur in response to environmental stimuli.
B. Calls demonstrate linguistic productivity.
C. They are automatic and cannot be combined.
D. Calls vary in intensity and duration.
E. Call systems produce a limited number of sounds.
B. different languages produce different ways of thinking
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states that
A. the Hopi do ont divide time into past, present, and future; the Hopi have no concept of time.
B. different languages produce different ways of thinking
C. changes in culture produce changes in language and thought
D. all languages share the same grammatical categories
D. Upwardly mobile BEV-speaking students typically consider Standard English to be society’s prestige dialect and learn it.
Which of the following statements about BEV is true?
A. BEV is a simple linguistic system with its own rules
B. All African Americans speak BEV
C. As a linguistic system, Standard English is superior to BEV.
D. Upwardly mobile BEV-speaking students typically consider Standard English to be society’s prestige dialect and learn it.
True
A mode of production is a way of organizing production, whereas the means of production include land, labor, and technology
False
Most modern foragers live in remote areas, completely cut off from other modern, agricultural, and industrial societies.
False- pastoral nomadism
With transhumance, the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year.
False
Although the productivity per area of agriculture is much greater, horticultural yields are more dependable in the long run.
False
With generalized reciprocity, the individuals participating in an exchange usually do not know each other.
B. pastoralism.
Transhumance is a form of
A. horticulture.
B. pastoralism.
C. foraging.
D. agriculture.
E. reciprocity.
B. an unconscious protest against stressful and exploitive working conditions.
According to Aihwa Ong, spirit possession of female factory workers in Malaysia is
A. an example of the interrelatedness of religion and economy.
B. an unconscious protest against stressful and exploitive working conditions.
C. the result of a gender-based division of labor, which is unique to Malaysian society.
D. a reflection of the workers’ gratitude for having been hired.
E. an example of negative reciprocity.
C. Fixed values for products
Which of the following is not associated with the market principle?
A. Profit motive
B. The law of supply and demand
C. Fixed values for products
D. Bargaining
E. Industrialism
E. Band
What kind of social unit is common among foragers?
A. Tribe
B. Chiefdom
C. Segmentary lineage
D. State
E. Band
E. land, labor, and technology.
Means of production include
A. foraging, horticulture, agriculture, and pastoralism.
B. the market principle, redistribution, and reciprocity.
C. generalized, balanced, and negative reciprocity.
D. kinship, descent, and marriage.
E. land, labor, and technology.
E. Slash-and-burn techniques
Which of the following is associated with horticultural systems of cultivation?
A. Intensive use of land and human labor
B. Irrigation and terracing
C. Use of draft animals
D. Location in arid areas
E. Slash-and-burn techniques
E. none of the factors of production.
Horticulture makes intensive use of
A. labor.
B. land.
C. machinery.
D. capital.
E. none of the factors of production.
D. redistribution.
Paying taxes is an example of
A. generalized reciprocity.
B. balanced reciprocity.
C. the market principle.
D. redistribution.
E. negative reciprocity.
C. Agriculture frequently involves the use of terraces, while horticulture does not.
How does horticulture differ from agriculture?
A. The former involves the use of domesticated animals, whereas the latter does not.
B. Because they do not irrigate their fields, agriculturalists are more dependent on seasonal rains.
C. Agriculture frequently involves the use of terraces, while horticulture does not.
D. The former is labor intensive, while the latter is land intensive.
E. Horticulture’s long-term yield is far greater and more dependable than that of agriculture.
A. greater ecological diversity.
Agricultural intensification is not associated with
A. greater ecological diversity.
B. deforestation.
C. increased regulation of interpersonal relations.
D. increased potential for conflict.
E. population growth.
kin-based
In non-industrial societies, a _________ mode of production prevails.
False
Population control in states refers to police and military forces.
True
States are complex systems of sociopolitical organization that aim to control and administer everything from conflict resolution to fiscal systems to population movements.
True
The nuclear family and the band are the two basic social groups typically found in forager societies.
False
Since bands lack formalized law, they have no means of settling disputes.
True
The elites of archaic states enjoyed restricted access to sumptuary goods.
False
Of the specialized subsystems characteristic of states, the religious subsystem is the most important.
True
An age set is an example of a pantribal sodality.
True
Chiefs occupied formal offices and administered or regulated a series of villages.
True
Status in chiefdoms and states is based primarily on differential access to resources.
A. A primarily foraging-based subsistence strategy
Which of the following is not typical of state societies?
A. A primarily foraging-based subsistence strategy
B. Class stratification
C. Boundary maintenance systems
D. Intensive agriculture
E. Fiscal systems
E. The Yanomami are isolated from missionaries and the Venezuelan government, and are self-sufficient.
Which of the following does not describe the situation of the Yanomami?
A. Missionaries lived with the Yanomami for 50 years, providing health care and transportation.
B. The Venezuelan president expelled the missionaries from the Venezuelan Amazon.
C. The Yanomami claim that the government is not providing the same level of health care assistance as the missionaries, leading to an increase in deaths.
D. Some Yanomami are being trained in health care.
E. The Yanomami are isolated from missionaries and the Venezuelan government, and are self-sufficient.
D. Economic, political, and religious activities are often interrelated.
Which of the following statements about nonstate societies is true?
A. Warfare is conducted by professional armies.
B. Political institutions are totally separate from economic institutions.
C. Social control is maintained mostly through physical coercion.
D. Economic, political, and religious activities are often interrelated.
E. All political power is based on religion.
E. descent groups.
Kin groups whose members are related to a common ancestor are known as
A. bands.
B. sodalities.
C. age sets.
D. secret societies.
E. descent groups.
D. The Qashqai authority structure was more complex and hierarchical than that of the Basseri.
Which of the following statements concerning the Basseri and the Qashqai is true?
A. Both were nomadic foraging groups in Iran.
B. A symbiotic relationship existed between the Basseri, who were nomadic pastoralists, and the Qashqai, who were horticulturalists.
C. The Basseri “big man” (tonowi) could enforce his decisions, whereas the Qashqai village head could only lead by example.
D. The Qashqai authority structure was more complex and hierarchical than that of the Basseri.
E. The Basseri and Qashqai were two of the age sets in Melanesian society.
A. Authority
What term do social scientists use to refer to the socially approved use of power?
A. Authority
B. Influence
C. Prestige
D. Stratification
E. Endogamy
C. A person of influence and prestige
What is a “big man”?
A. A person who holds a permanent political office
B. A hereditary ruler
C. A person of influence and prestige
D. A leader who avoids excessive displays of generosity
E. A leader who has tremendous power because he is regarded as divine
B. A big man has supporters in multiple villages.
What is the primary difference between a village head and a “big man”?
A. A big man can enforce his decisions.
B. A big man has supporters in multiple villages.
C. A village head is a band leader, whereas a big man is a tribal leader.
D. A big man’s high status is ascribed, whereas a village head’s high status is achieved.
E. Village head is a permanent political office, whereas big man is a temporary position.
D. Yanomami
Which of the following societies has village heads?
A. Qashqai
B. San
C. Kapauku
D. Yanomami
E. Basseri
B. Culturally valued personal attributes
In band societies, what typically determines the amount of respect or status that an individual enjoys?
A. Rank ascribed at birth
B. Culturally valued personal attributes
C. The individual’s possessions and their monetary value
D. The amount of labor that the individual can extract from his or her spouse and children
E. Genealogical relationships to apical ancestors
C. Prestige
According to Weber, what is the basis of social status?
A. Wealth
B. Age
C. Prestige
D. Intelligence
E. Power