ANT 100 – Intro to Anthropology

What is the name of the stone tool technology created by early hominins during the Lower Paleolithic that was the first bifacial and high standardized tool in early human history? (Hint: the Swiss Army knife of the Paleolithic)
Acheulean
If a core is being worked by hitting an implement of wood, antler, bone, or stone with a hammerstone, what technique is being used?
Indirect Percussion
Which of the following is not a step in the process of domestication?
All of the above.
Match the stone tool technology to the hominin species that create it.
Oldowan
D.
Homo habilis

Acheulean
A.
Homo erectus

Mousterian
C.
Homo neandertalensis

Harpoons
B.
Homo sapiens

What period time is characterized by the presence of domesticated plants and animals as well as the widespread use of pottery and ground stone tools?
Neolithic
During the Upper Paleolithic, spears were propelled with a spear-thrower rather than thrown with the arm. What is the name of this device?
atlatl
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The Paleo-Indian culture in North America, named for their spear points frequently found at mammoth kill sites, is referred to as the ______________ culture
Clovis
Caste systems are a closed system, in which membership is determined at birth, and marriage is restricted to members of one’s own caste.
True
In ancient Egypt, the earliest writing is known as __________, and were typically written or rolls of woven of papyrus reeds.
Hieroglyphics
What type of political unit has a centralized decision making process with power to govern by force (e.g., collect taxes, draft people for war and work, and make and enforce laws)?
State
__________ does not mean that all people within society are the same, but that all people of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power, and prestiage
Egalitarian
Market economies are typically associated with both band-level societies and chiefdoms.
False
Which one of these was not a location of the six earliest state-level societies?
Congo River Valley
Which answer below is not one of the consequence of increasing sociopolitical complexity?
Decrease in the type and size of material possessions
What development must be achieved in order for a society to produce a state level society?
Agriculture
Sumerian writing or __________ was formed by pressing a wedge-shaped stylus against a damp clay tablet.
Cuneiform
Unlike ancient Egyptian writing, which developed as a form of political propaganda, anceint chinese writing initially developed for use in __________.
ritual and divination
The __________ occurs among Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest Coast and involves grand feasts and gifts as a way for an individual or village to gain status.
Potlatch
__________ is the study of the human past focusing on the recovery of material remains, observing changes in those remains, and providing possible explanations for those changes.
Archaeology
The study of a society’s material culture prior to the advent of writing is known as:
Prehistory
A spear thrower or wooden shaft that was used to propel a spear or dart, which first appeared in the Upper Paleolithic is referred to as a(n)?
Atlatl
The study of the prehistoric use of plants is referred to as?
Archaeology
What is the name of the stone tool technology created by early hominins during the Lower Paleolithic that was the first bifacial and high standardized tool in early human history? (Hint: the Swiss Army knife of the Paleolithic)
Not “Oldowan”
Originally meaning “the new stone age,” the __________ is now primarily defined by the presence of domesticated plants and animals.
Neolithic
Which answer below is not one of the consequences of the rise of food producing economies?
Decreased elaboration of material possessions
Mound 72, at __________ in southern Illinois is a Native American burial mound that contains numerous burials, including sacrificial victims and elites with highly prestigious grave goods.
Cahokia
Sumerian writing or __________ was formed by pressing a wedge-shaped stylus against a damp clay tablet.
Cuneiform
Unlike ancient Egyptian writing, which developed as a form of political propaganda, ancient Chinese writing developed for use in__________.
Not “Art”
The boc mo is an example of a(n) __________ burial – a body interred in the ground then later removed and relocated to another location or cremated.
Secondary
The earliest form of __________ writing in ancient Egypt is found on the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the oldest patient file which describes the diagnosis and treatment of the ill.
Hieratic
___________ is used to determine the age of a specimen or deposit compared to another specimen or deposit. __________ is used to measure how old a specimen or deposit is in years.
Relative Dating; Absolute Dating
__________describes a body placed in the ground in the fetal position – resting on one side with the legs bent towards the chest.
Flexed
As the practice is found throughout history, archaeologists believe that to bury someone in the _______________ position is a nearly-universal cultural insult.
Prone
Although disputed, __________ are generally believed to be the first hominin species to bury their dead, as evident at Shanidar Cave, Israel where an adult male was found buried with high pollen concentrations, suggesting he was laid to rest on a bed of flowers.
Homo neanderthalensis
__________ are rigid microstructures in plant cells that can be found on teeth and tools which indicate what foods were being consumed.
phytoliths
Which theory of complexity argues that civilization progresses when inhabitants are restricted by environmental barriers and/or other societies?
Not “Natural Habitat Hypothesis”
Which tool making technique was once believed to be no older than 20,000 years until recent discoveries at Blombos cave, South Africa that date this technique at 75,000 years ago.
Not “Direct Percussion”
The systematic uncovering of archaeological deposits and the recovery of material remains from those deposits is called __________.
Excavation
Who is Europe’s oldest naturally preserved mummy? (Hint: Bronze age male found on the Austrian/Italian border).
Otzi
In Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, the __________site is a set of 3 large stone stabs that allow light to be projected onto spiral petroglyphs during specific times of the year, marking both solstices and equinoxes.
Sun Dagger
Archaeologists use the word “seriation” to describe:
Sequencing of artifact types to show variability over time
In what area of the world did the earliest signs of domestication and settled life appear?
Mesopotamia
There are two types of writing: semantic writing, such as pictograms, which imply ________ and phonetic writing, like alphabetic scripts, which imply ______.
Meaning; Sound
What is the worst mistake made by the human race according to Jared Diamond?
Agriculture
While excavating you immediately uncover a US quarter (near the grass), followed by some ceramics in the subsequent layer, a gunflint in the layer below the ceramics, and finally some projectile points at the base of the unit. Since the site has not been disturbed, the oldest artifact(s) should be the:
Projectile Points
To answer question #28, you employed a relative dating concept known as:
Stratigraphy
If a core is being worked by hitting an implement of wood, antler, bone, or stone with a hammerstone, what technique is being used?
Not “Pressure Flaking”
The Paleo-Indian culture in North America, named for their spear points frequently found at mammoth kill sites, is referred to as the ________ culture.
Clovis
The Narmer palate of ancient Egypt depicts what historic event?
Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Choose the answer the correctly describes the evolution of the pyramids in Egypt from earliest to more recent.
Not “Tomb – Mastaba – Bent Pyramid – Stepped Pyramid – True Pyramid”
A(n) __________ is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year when the Sun reaches its northernmost or southernmost extremes.
Soltice
In Mesopotamian writing, the clay envelopes that were used to transport clay tokens are referred to as:
Not Cuneiform
Artifact
Feature
Ecofact
Context
Site
b.
a portable object made or modified by humans

d.
a non-portable human-made object

e.
a natural item that is a byproduct of human activity

c.
the spatial relationship among material remains

a.
a concentration of material culture

The birth of Christ is a chronological reference point.
True
Inorganic remains tend to decompose faster than organic remains.
False
In a non-disease related catastrophic event, it is not important to allocate labor and resources for the sanitation and disposal/interment of the dead. In other words, leaving the dead unburied will not adversely affect the survivors.
True
The technique of seriation can only be applied to material remains of prehistoric cultures.
False
The calendar system we use today is called the Gregorian calendar.
True
The correct order of the Three Age system from earliest to most recent is Stone, Iron, Bronze.
False
The site of Stonehenge was inhabited, the monument was constructed, and the site abandoned, all of which occurred in less than 300 years.
False
Vertical excavations are the primary method for examining a site’s chronology.
True
Most measures of radioactive decay are methods of relative dating.
False
Most calendar systems do not need some form of intercalation in order to keep the calendar year synchronized with the changing of the seasons or astronomical events.
False
__________ focuses on how languages change over time.
Historical Linguistics
_________ is a set of propositions that are logically connected and provide an explanation for some phenomenon, whereas __________ are the observations of the world that support or oppose the explanation for a specific phenomenon.
Theory, evidence
A society’s postpartum sex taboo, the prohibition against husbands and wives having sexual intercourse for a period of time following the birth of a child, is heavily influenced by the availabilty of protein.
True
The concurrent use of more than one language in the course of conservation (ex., “Your cooking is excelente” [Spanish for excellent]) is an example of __________.
Code-Switching
Speaking is the only way of communicating.
False
Theories can be proven.
False
_________________ is a way that people undersrtand the world around them. ________________ is a system that helps people deal with their everyday problems.
Construction of meaning; Adaptive system
The __________ states that language affects how individuals in a society perceive and conceive reality.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
If an anthropologist wanted to conduct a non-historical study on a single society in Africa, what type of research would be the most appropriate?
Ethnography
To put it in its simplest terms, phonology is the study of __________, whereas morphology is the study of ___________.
sounds, meanings
Based on the photograph, what type of subsistence is being practiced?
Agriculture
What activity provides hunters and gatherers with the most calories?
Fishing
What are the two items used in the Kula Ring of the Trobriand Islanders?
Necklaces and Armbands
Which type of subsistence strategies are most susceptible to food shortages?
Both A and B
The first evidence of food production occurred in the Near East about __________ years ago.
10,000
The Yanomamö of the Amazon practice what form of subsistence?
Horticulture
Which of these subsistence practices are associated with most egalitarian societies?
Foraging
Egalitarian societies are the only societies that do not have divisions in labor based on age and sex.
False
________________ is when goods or services are given to another, without any apparent expectation of a return gift.
Generalized reciprocity
The Kula Ring is an example of generalized reciprocity.
False
Biological differences in the physical traits between males and females is referred to as __________, while the set of behaviors expected by society is referred to as __________roles.
sex, gender
Which of these theories is not an explanation for a universal taboo on family incest?
postpartum sex
According to the __________ theory, men may produce musical instruments from wood because they are the ones who collect the wood in the first place and probably understand its physical properties better than women.
Economy-of-effort
_____________________ are children of siblings of the opposite sex, such as a father’s sister’s children or a mother’s brother’s children.
cross cousins
If a cultural group has a preference for selecting marriage partners from within their own village, then they are __________ at the village level.
Endogamous
__________ is a gift of goods or money from the groom and his kin to the bride’s kin
Bride price
The Cheyenne, Native Americans of the Great Plains, recognize 3 distinct genders; male, female, and a third gender, referred to as a __________.
Two-spirit
The marriage of one woman to more than one man at a time is known as __________.
Polyandry
There is much variation cross-culturally regarding sexuality, specifically homosexuality, premartial sex, and extramartial affairs.
True
Humans are sexually dimorphic.
True
In the research conducted by Aornoff, ______________ masks were based on angular designs, whereas ____________ masks incorporated curved, rounded forms
threatening, nonthreatening
According to the textbook, research suggests that some emotional displays may be universal
True
According to the textbook, students were able to quickly recognize the ___________ figures, which suggests that humans may be hard-wired to rapidly assess and recognize a ________.
V-shaped, threat
According to Cheryl Claassen’s work on the Shell Mound Archaic culture of the Tennessee River Valley, the construction of the shell mounds:

Answer

stops around 3,000 years ago
According to Claassen, agricultural activities in traditional socieites are primarily conducted by women, while gathering of shellfish is typically conducted by men.
False