ANNE FRANK ESSAY

Diary of Anne Frank

In the midst of World War II there was a young girl with the name of Anne Frank which kept a diary of her strongest feelings. Anne Frank was born on June 12, 1929 in the German city of Frankfurt. She was born into a Jewish family that consisted of her mother Edith Frank, father Otto Frank, and her sister Margot Frank. During the 1930’s the German dictator, Adolf Hitler, was making it hard for many of the German Jews so they moved to Amsterdam for safety, but one day in July of 1942 Anne’s sister had gotten a draft notice. That’s when the Franks went in hiding at Otto’s old business building in Amsterdam. There the Frank’s hide with 4 other Jews whose names were Mr. Van Daan, Mrs. Van Daan, Peter Van Daan and Albert Dussel. During the 25 months that they were in hiding, Anne Frank’s kept a personal diary with her and wrote about her teenage life during World War II. The diary was written from June 14, 1942 to August 1, 1944. After the war Anne’s diary was publish 1950 and became a mass selling book. The book was translated into 31 different languages. Not only was her diary popular but it was a moving story of a young girls impression on war.
Summary
In the German city of Frankfurt a young girl named Anne Frank was born. She lived a good childhood in her early years but lives for Jews were getting worst every day in the 1930’s. The Franks were a Jewish family that was affected by Adolf Hitler’s anti-Jew laws. In the summer of 1933 Anne, her sister Margot and her mom Edith left Frankfurt to go to her grandmothers in Aachen. Otto Frank, Anne’s father, went directly to Holland. In the spring of 1934, the Franks reunited and settled in Amsterdam.
There in Amsterdam, Anne Frank went to a Montessori School. She discovered that a lot of boys liked her, but in 1940 he Germans invaded Holland. The German banned the people of Holland from listening to Allied broadcast. Also the Germans muzzled the press and suppressed political parties. They also closed universities and imprisoned the country’s political, military, and intellectual leaders. Thousands of people were rounded up and sent to Germany to be slaves. The Germans also began Jew round ups because of the harsh anti-Jew measures. Life didn’t change much at first under German occupation for Anne Frank. She had to transfer schools from Montessori School to Jewish Lyceum School. At the Jewish school she still had friends but life was still hard under German occupation.
Anne Frank’s diary began on her 13th birthday. Anne Frank’s wrote about her birthday and her friend Lies. Anne Frank met a guy named Harry Goldberg. The two of them only hung out a few days until something tragic happen to the Frank Family; Margot was summoned to report to concentration camp. That’s when the Franks decided to go into hiding. Otto Frank had set up plans ahead of time to live in a group of rooms at the top and back of the building that he once worked at before he was forced from Germans to leave his business. The hiding spot was prepared by his Old Dutch associates and employees that remained loyal friend to him.
The following morning the Franks left to go to their hiding place which they called the “Secret Annex.” They were joined by Otto’s business associate Mr. Van Daan and his wife and son Mrs. Van Daan and Peter Van Daan. Anne described the building by saying it had a large warehouse on the floor that was used for a store. They were not allowed there since there was a chance that they will be seen and caught. She also described the house as being fairly large for a hiding place. They also wrote down how there was a secret entrance to their hiding spot; it was a secret bookcase that was built to conceal the entrance. The 8 hiding Jews had to remain quiet during the day as business was regular in the lower part of the building but during the night, when the building was empty, the 8 Jews could stir around the Secret Annex. Also the way they kept time the “secret annex” was a church bell that rang every hour. The Franks had many helpers throughout their time in the “secret annex.” Those helpers were Mr. Koophuis and Mr. Kraler, Meip Van Santen and Elli Vossen. They kept the Franks and the Van Daan’s secrets and brought them food, gifts and any news they could bring.
Anne Frank also wrote about how she had a strong relation with her dad, Otto Franks. She always talked about how close she was to her. She said she could share anything with him and they also had many of the same interest. They both loved to read books and news and study history. As much as Anne adores her father however, she occasionally talks about her concern that her father doesn’t recognize her for the mature young woman she feels herself to be. On the other hand Anne didn’t have strong bonds with her mother. Anne feels that her mother is cold and uncaring, that they have very little in common, and that her mother does not know how to show love to her. Margot, through what Anne said, is smarter, quieter, prettier, and more grown-up than her.
Mrs. van Daan is one person that Anne can’t stand. Anne Frank recalls Mrs. Van Daan as mean and selfish, always intervening in fights, and rarely helpful. She is jealous of Anne’s relationship with her son, wanting Peter to be in love with her rather than in Anne. However, Mrs. Van Daan does have a few strong traits. She occasionally can be reasonable and back down from fights, is generally neat and tidy, and is often easier for Anne to approach than her own mother.
Mr. Dussel, an elderly dentist moves in, and Anne has to share her bedroom with him. Anne starts to see her youth as being spent hidden from the outside world. She’s crammed up in tiny rooms, tiptoeing around during the day and becoming scared from the sounds of bombs and gunfire at night. Luckily, the Franks have tons of reading material and a radio. Anne grows in her knowledge of politics and literature, and she puts tons of energy into studying and writing. At the same time, she grows further and further away from the other members of the Annex. Even though she is growing away from other members of the “secret annex” she begins hanging out in the attic with Peter Van Daan. Around this time she starts having dreams about a boy she was in love with. This boy was Peter Schiff; Anne fell in love with him whenever she was younger. She sometimes even gets Peter Van Daan and Peter Schiff confused in her head. She comes to see Peter Van Daan as much more than she first thought. She finds him sensitive and caring, and they talk about everything. Eventually their relationship changes, Anne and Peter’s relationship turns into a friendship and a source of comfort for them both.
Unfortunately, this does not last. Even as Anne becomes more and more sensitive to the suffering going on in the world, her own suffering becomes unbearable. Things seem to be getting better for the people of the ‘secret annex’ since they heard that the Americans are invading German territories. This invasion was talked about for a long time by the men of the ‘secret annex.’ Anne sees this as the beginning to the end of the war. Also the warehouse keeps on getting broke into by robbers on the streets. This is dangerous for the people of the ‘secret annex’ because there is a large chance that they might get spotted. At the same time Anne feels completely alone. She thinks everyone hates her. She feels like is being constantly criticized and she thinks that there is no escape. At one point, she thinks it might have been better if she and her family had all died instead of hiding in the Annex. As Anne becomes harder on those around her, she also becomes harder on herself, yelling at herself for being mean to the other members of the Annex.
There her diary ends. Two short months after Anne’s fifteenth birthday, and two days after her last diary entry, the Secret Annex was raided. No one knows for sure why and how the Germans ransacked the place. Most people think that a warehouse worker heard them and called the Gestapo. Anne and her family, along with the Van Daans, Mr. Kraler and Mr. Koophuis, were taken away and sent to concentration camps. However the secret annex’s helpers Bep and Miep were no capture. Mr. Van Daan died in a gas chamber in Auschwitz. Mrs. Van Daan was transferred through a bunch of concentration camps and never made it out alive, she died in Belsen, but no witness marked the date. Peter Van Daan died during the German evacuation of Auschwitz to Mauthausen. Mr. Dussel died in a concentration camp. Mrs. Frank starved to death in the barracks of Auschwitz. Anne and Margot died from typhus at Bergen-Belsen camp within a few days of each other, only about two months before the camp was liberated. But before Anne died she saw her friend Lies again. Fortunately Otto Frank was the only one to make it out alive.
World War II
World War II seemed to stop everything in the world between 1939 and 1945. The war still remains the most widespread military conflict the world has ever seen to this day. Although the fighting reached across many parts of the globe, most countries involved shared a united effort which was trying to end the aggression of the Axis Powers which were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Despite the fact that Germany and Japan were technically allies, however, they had different motives and objectives. The rise of Nazi Germany and its aggression can be traced directly back to World War I. Following World War I, Germany was economically destroyed. The Treaty of Versailles unfairly placed the full blame for the war on Germany and the treaty demanded a large amount of money in return. Although Germany never paid the large amount of money, the treaty humiliated the German people and destroyed the nation’s efforts to rebuild itself and move forward economically and technologically. Then, in the late 1920s and early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression took a further heavy toll on the country. As desperation in Germany grew, radical political parties gained in popularity. They ranged from Communists to Nationalists.
Among the more extreme activists was Adolf Hitler, who had founded the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, which was more commonly known as the Nazi Party, in 1920 and1921. By the time of the depression in Germany, Hitler’s party had more than 100,000 members and was growing rapidly, and it began participating in elections with increasing success. In 1933, Hitler pressured the German president, Paul von Hindenburg, into appointing him chancellor; a chancellor was the head of the head of government at the time. It was a position from which he was quickly able to build up his power. By 1935, Germany had ceased to recognize the Treaty of Versailles and all the restrictions that were written in it. In particular, Hitler announced his intention to fully rebuild Germany’s military forces. In 1938, Germany began taking over the territories of neighboring countries, including all of Austria and most of Czechoslovakia. When Germany attacked Poland in September 1939, Britain and France aligned against Germany, and World War II began.
Like Germany, Japan was severely affected by the Great Depression. Japan relied heavily upon imported resources and desperately needed more land for its expanding population. Japanese military leaders, who at the time had a strong influence over the civilian government, saw territorial expansion as the best solution. As a result, beginning in 1931, Japanese forces began occupying territories in the Chinese. By 1937, Japan and China were officially at war. In 1940, the Japanese government announced its intention to establish a new order in East Asia, under which the region would be freed of Western influence and guided by Japan. In 1940, Japan signed a formal alliance with Germany and Italy, setting the country on a clear course to enter World War II. In the meantime, the United States, disapproving of Japan’s actions, placed a heavy trade restriction on Japan, severely restricting its ability to import oil, scrap metal, and other resources vital to its war effort. Japan saw itself facing a crisis, and without prompt and decisive action, total collapse was seen to be coming. The action Japan chose was a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. This action brought the United States into World War II in both theaters, Europe and the Pacific.
Once committed to the war, Americans committed themselves to achieving total victory on two fronts. Americans were making extra efforts by working harder on the ‘home front’. With so many men away in the Forces, millions of women worked in factories, on buses and trains, and in hospitals and schools. America wanted a Victory over Italy and Nazi Germany in Europe and victory over Japan in the Pacific. Having followed a policy of isolationism rather than rearmament during most of the 1930s, the United States found itself, at first, pathetically unready to engage in combat with the huge military forces of Germany and Japan. It took the Americans an agonizingly long time to begin to push back against their enemies. The turning point in the Pacific didn’t come until June 1943, when American airplanes destroyed the Japanese navy at the Battle of Midway.
In Europe, it took even longer for the Americans to open up a proper second front against Nazi Germany; by the time American troops stormed the beaches of Normandy, France, on D-Day which was on 6 June 1944, the Soviet Red Army had already been engaged in a desperate battle against the Germans on the Eastern Front for three years. To an extent that most Americans today do not recognize, the Soviet Union did the lion’s share of the work and took the lion’s share of the casualties for defeating Adolf Hitler. Victory did eventually come in Europe on May 1945, but it came at a tremendous cost. Worldwide, an estimated 70 million people lost their lives, the majority of them innocent civilians; including 6 million European Jews innocently murdered by the Nazis in modern history’s worst genocide. Bombing of military infrastructure and factories helping the war effort were bombed from London to Berlin to Tokyo, leaving to cities in complete ruin. Terrible acts of cruel behavior and war crimes were committed by soldiers on all sides. Nightmarish new instruments like gas chambers, unmanned rockets, and atomic bombs were invented and deployed for use against human beings. World War II was, quite simply, the most deadly and destructive conflict in human history.
Jews during WWII
As early as 1933, the Nazis had been sending people to concentration camps. Initially, these camps were located in Germany and were used for “undesirable” people. To the Nazis, these undesirable people included Socialists, political prisoners, homosexuals, and Jews. During the war, these camps also held Soviet prisoners of war and slave laborers. Executions were commonplace in these camps, and most inmates of the camps were simply worked to death. It wasn’t until later, however, that the camps came to be associated with Jews. The death camps were intended only for the Jews from the beginning; these were the camps the Nazis created in order to exterminate them. As the Nazi control spread through Europe, the deportation of Jews to concentration camps and death camps grew. Between 1939 and 1941, Austria, Hungary, and even France deported Jews. Although Germany had been removing Jews from Germany for some time, it wasn’t until 1941 that the Nazis began a massive deportation of Jews.
The ghettos of Poland were another Nazi creation. To get Poland, Hitler needed to clear the Jews from the Polish countryside. To do this, the Nazis forced the Jewish population to sections of cities, which they were then forbidden to leave. Often, walls surrounded these areas, which were patrolled by heavily armed Nazi guards. By 1942, as the Nazis implemented the last phases of the Final Solution, Jews were being sent from ghettos, concentration camps, and transit camps which were essentially way stations to their deaths. Each ghetto had a Jewish council which was responsible for ensuring that people followed Nazi policies. The council, made up of rabbis and other leaders in the Jewish community, was also responsible for distributing food, policing the ghetto, and taking care of the health and welfare of the people. The living conditions in the ghettos were horrible. The Ghettos were always deprived of food; they received the leftovers from the general population. Also medical care and many of the basic necessities of life were not available for the Jews, so many Jews died of malnutrition, disease, and starvation. Several Jews were also executed for alleged crimes. Like the concentration camps, the ghettos were simply a temporary solution to the Jewish problem for the Nazis. Eventually, these ghettos would be emptied and the inhabitants murdered.
During the years that Hitler ruled Germany; over 100 concentration camps appeared all over Europe. Although not used strictly for extermination purposes, the living conditions at the concentration camps were brutal and the death rates high. The function of the prisoners in the concentration camps was to work, but their lives were worthless to the guards, the camp commanders, and the ever-present Nazi police. Anyone who couldn’t work was killed, and those who could work were usually worked to death. Working long hours at hard labor in all kinds of weather and under constant beatings by the guards, many prisoners died from exhaustion. With only a little food a day which was usually a piece of bread and weak soup, many died from malnutrition and starvation. Even those prisoners who managed to avoid starvation or death by exposure were still vulnerable to death at the hands of the guards. Medical care did not exist in the camps so the ill and the weak were abandoned to die. Others, many of them children, died at the hands of doctors who conducted brutal medical experiments on them. Because so many prisoners died the goal in many concentration camps was “extermination by work.” Most camps had furnaces so that the guards could dispose of the bodies.
Near the end of the war, these camps were used as holding areas for Jews from death camps that were moved westward to avoid detection. The death camps, like Auschwitz, Birkenau, Chelmno, Treblinka, and Theresienstadt were unique in that they were simply temporary holding areas for the mass murder of people. Jews were unloaded from train cars and in many cases herded directly to gas chambers or firing squads. Those who escaped immediate death were often used as slave laborers at the camp itself. They were placed in work details that supported the execution process, which was working at the furnaces, until them, too, were killed.
In Auschwitz, some able-bodied prisoners were kept alive as slave labor to assist in war production until they succumbed to overwork and starvation. The death camps used gas chambers as their means of murder, and these were chillingly efficient. Some, such as the twin chambers in Auschwitz, which was the largest death camp, could accommodate over 4,000 people at a single time. Victims destined for the gas chambers were forced to remove their clothing; then they were shoved into the death chamber itself. About 20 minutes after the gas was released in the room, everyone inside was dead. The bodies of the victims were stripped of any remaining valuables, such as gold from their teeth and rings, and then burned in ovens built especially for this purpose. When the ovens gave out, as they did in some death camps because of the sheer number of people killed, the Germans burned the bodies out in the open.
In the aftermath of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons camps administered by the Allied powers. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews immigrated to Israel, including 136,000 Jewish displaced persons from Europe. Other Jewish DPs emigrated to the United States and other nations. The last DP camp closed in 1957. The crimes committed during the Holocaust devastated most European Jewish communities and eliminated hundreds of Jewish communities in occupied Eastern Europe entirely. The holocaust caused casualties. According to British historian Martin Gilbert, the total number of victims, which were Jews, is just under six million, which is around 78 percent of the 7.3 million Jews in occupied Europe at the time.
Laws/Constitutional Changes
There really were no laws or constitutional changes because of the Jews in World War II, but there was some that were already around and ones made later on that The First Amendment of the United States Constitution protects the right to freedom of religion and freedom. This law, or amendment, lets any person in the United States practice any religion that they want. This law was adopted on December 15, 1791. Even though it was adopted long before the holocaust it still protected Jews during World War II and after it only if the Jewish person was in the United States at those times. Then another amendment that would prevent the holocaust form happening would be the 4th amendment. This amendment makes it illegal for any police force or the military force to search your property without a warrant or a reason. These laws are very effective in doing what they did. I think this because these laws were not broken in the United States. If you look at America now there is religious freedom, and the 4th amendment is still going.

Diary of Anne Frank

In the midst of World War II there was a young girl with the name of Anne Frank which kept a diary of her strongest feelings. Anne Frank was born on June 12, 1929 in the German city of Frankfurt. She was born into a Jewish family that consisted of her mother Edith Frank, father Otto Frank, and her sister Margot Frank. During the 1930’s the German dictator, Adolf Hitler, was making it hard for many of the German Jews so they moved to Amsterdam for safety, but one day in July of 1942 Anne’s sister had gotten a draft notice. That’s when the Franks went in hiding at Otto’s old business building in Amsterdam. There the Frank’s hide with 4 other Jews whose names were Mr. Van Daan, Mrs. Van Daan, Peter Van Daan and Albert Dussel. During the 25 months that they were in hiding, Anne Frank’s kept a personal diary with her and wrote about her teenage life during World War II. The diary was written from June 14, 1942 to August 1, 1944. After the war Anne’s diary was publish 1950 and became a mass selling book. The book was translated into 31 different languages. Not only was her diary popular but it was a moving story of a young girls impression on war.
Summary
In the German city of Frankfurt a young girl named Anne Frank was born. She lived a good childhood in her early years but lives for Jews were getting worst every day in the 1930’s. The Franks were a Jewish family that was affected by Adolf Hitler’s anti-Jew laws. In the summer of 1933 Anne, her sister Margot and her mom Edith left Frankfurt to go to her grandmothers in Aachen. Otto Frank, Anne’s father, went directly to Holland. In the spring of 1934, the Franks reunited and settled in Amsterdam.
There in Amsterdam, Anne Frank went to a Montessori School. She discovered that a lot of boys liked her, but in 1940 he Germans invaded Holland. The German banned the people of Holland from listening to Allied broadcast. Also the Germans muzzled the press and suppressed political parties. They also closed universities and imprisoned the country’s political, military, and intellectual leaders. Thousands of people were rounded up and sent to Germany to be slaves. The Germans also began Jew round ups because of the harsh anti-Jew measures. Life didn’t change much at first under German occupation for Anne Frank. She had to transfer schools from Montessori School to Jewish Lyceum School. At the Jewish school she still had friends but life was still hard under German occupation.
Anne Frank’s diary began on her 13th birthday. Anne Frank’s wrote about her birthday and her friend Lies. Anne Frank met a guy named Harry Goldberg. The two of them only hung out a few days until something tragic happen to the Frank Family; Margot was summoned to report to concentration camp. That’s when the Franks decided to go into hiding. Otto Frank had set up plans ahead of time to live in a group of rooms at the top and back of the building that he once worked at before he was forced from Germans to leave his business. The hiding spot was prepared by his Old Dutch associates and employees that remained loyal friend to him.
The following morning the Franks left to go to their hiding place which they called the “Secret Annex.” They were joined by Otto’s business associate Mr. Van Daan and his wife and son Mrs. Van Daan and Peter Van Daan. Anne described the building by saying it had a large warehouse on the floor that was used for a store. They were not allowed there since there was a chance that they will be seen and caught. She also described the house as being fairly large for a hiding place. They also wrote down how there was a secret entrance to their hiding spot; it was a secret bookcase that was built to conceal the entrance. The 8 hiding Jews had to remain quiet during the day as business was regular in the lower part of the building but during the night, when the building was empty, the 8 Jews could stir around the Secret Annex. Also the way they kept time the “secret annex” was a church bell that rang every hour. The Franks had many helpers throughout their time in the “secret annex.” Those helpers were Mr. Koophuis and Mr. Kraler, Meip Van Santen and Elli Vossen. They kept the Franks and the Van Daan’s secrets and brought them food, gifts and any news they could bring.
Anne Frank also wrote about how she had a strong relation with her dad, Otto Franks. She always talked about how close she was to her. She said she could share anything with him and they also had many of the same interest. They both loved to read books and news and study history. As much as Anne adores her father however, she occasionally talks about her concern that her father doesn’t recognize her for the mature young woman she feels herself to be. On the other hand Anne didn’t have strong bonds with her mother. Anne feels that her mother is cold and uncaring, that they have very little in common, and that her mother does not know how to show love to her. Margot, through what Anne said, is smarter, quieter, prettier, and more grown-up than her.
Mrs. van Daan is one person that Anne can’t stand. Anne Frank recalls Mrs. Van Daan as mean and selfish, always intervening in fights, and rarely helpful. She is jealous of Anne’s relationship with her son, wanting Peter to be in love with her rather than in Anne. However, Mrs. Van Daan does have a few strong traits. She occasionally can be reasonable and back down from fights, is generally neat and tidy, and is often easier for Anne to approach than her own mother.
Mr. Dussel, an elderly dentist moves in, and Anne has to share her bedroom with him. Anne starts to see her youth as being spent hidden from the outside world. She’s crammed up in tiny rooms, tiptoeing around during the day and becoming scared from the sounds of bombs and gunfire at night. Luckily, the Franks have tons of reading material and a radio. Anne grows in her knowledge of politics and literature, and she puts tons of energy into studying and writing. At the same time, she grows further and further away from the other members of the Annex. Even though she is growing away from other members of the “secret annex” she begins hanging out in the attic with Peter Van Daan. Around this time she starts having dreams about a boy she was in love with. This boy was Peter Schiff; Anne fell in love with him whenever she was younger. She sometimes even gets Peter Van Daan and Peter Schiff confused in her head. She comes to see Peter Van Daan as much more than she first thought. She finds him sensitive and caring, and they talk about everything. Eventually their relationship changes, Anne and Peter’s relationship turns into a friendship and a source of comfort for them both.
Unfortunately, this does not last. Even as Anne becomes more and more sensitive to the suffering going on in the world, her own suffering becomes unbearable. Things seem to be getting better for the people of the ‘secret annex’ since they heard that the Americans are invading German territories. This invasion was talked about for a long time by the men of the ‘secret annex.’ Anne sees this as the beginning to the end of the war. Also the warehouse keeps on getting broke into by robbers on the streets. This is dangerous for the people of the ‘secret annex’ because there is a large chance that they might get spotted. At the same time Anne feels completely alone. She thinks everyone hates her. She feels like is being constantly criticized and she thinks that there is no escape. At one point, she thinks it might have been better if she and her family had all died instead of hiding in the Annex. As Anne becomes harder on those around her, she also becomes harder on herself, yelling at herself for being mean to the other members of the Annex.
There her diary ends. Two short months after Anne’s fifteenth birthday, and two days after her last diary entry, the Secret Annex was raided. No one knows for sure why and how the Germans ransacked the place. Most people think that a warehouse worker heard them and called the Gestapo. Anne and her family, along with the Van Daans, Mr. Kraler and Mr. Koophuis, were taken away and sent to concentration camps. However the secret annex’s helpers Bep and Miep were no capture. Mr. Van Daan died in a gas chamber in Auschwitz. Mrs. Van Daan was transferred through a bunch of concentration camps and never made it out alive, she died in Belsen, but no witness marked the date. Peter Van Daan died during the German evacuation of Auschwitz to Mauthausen. Mr. Dussel died in a concentration camp. Mrs. Frank starved to death in the barracks of Auschwitz. Anne and Margot died from typhus at Bergen-Belsen camp within a few days of each other, only about two months before the camp was liberated. But before Anne died she saw her friend Lies again. Fortunately Otto Frank was the only one to make it out alive.
World War II
World War II seemed to stop everything in the world between 1939 and 1945. The war still remains the most widespread military conflict the world has ever seen to this day. Although the fighting reached across many parts of the globe, most countries involved shared a united effort which was trying to end the aggression of the Axis Powers which were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Despite the fact that Germany and Japan were technically allies, however, they had different motives and objectives. The rise of Nazi Germany and its aggression can be traced directly back to World War I. Following World War I, Germany was economically destroyed. The Treaty of Versailles unfairly placed the full blame for the war on Germany and the treaty demanded a large amount of money in return. Although Germany never paid the large amount of money, the treaty humiliated the German people and destroyed the nation’s efforts to rebuild itself and move forward economically and technologically. Then, in the late 1920s and early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression took a further heavy toll on the country. As desperation in Germany grew, radical political parties gained in popularity. They ranged from Communists to Nationalists.
Among the more extreme activists was Adolf Hitler, who had founded the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, which was more commonly known as the Nazi Party, in 1920 and1921. By the time of the depression in Germany, Hitler’s party had more than 100,000 members and was growing rapidly, and it began participating in elections with increasing success. In 1933, Hitler pressured the German president, Paul von Hindenburg, into appointing him chancellor; a chancellor was the head of the head of government at the time. It was a position from which he was quickly able to build up his power. By 1935, Germany had ceased to recognize the Treaty of Versailles and all the restrictions that were written in it. In particular, Hitler announced his intention to fully rebuild Germany’s military forces. In 1938, Germany began taking over the territories of neighboring countries, including all of Austria and most of Czechoslovakia. When Germany attacked Poland in September 1939, Britain and France aligned against Germany, and World War II began.
Like Germany, Japan was severely affected by the Great Depression. Japan relied heavily upon imported resources and desperately needed more land for its expanding population. Japanese military leaders, who at the time had a strong influence over the civilian government, saw territorial expansion as the best solution. As a result, beginning in 1931, Japanese forces began occupying territories in the Chinese. By 1937, Japan and China were officially at war. In 1940, the Japanese government announced its intention to establish a new order in East Asia, under which the region would be freed of Western influence and guided by Japan. In 1940, Japan signed a formal alliance with Germany and Italy, setting the country on a clear course to enter World War II. In the meantime, the United States, disapproving of Japan’s actions, placed a heavy trade restriction on Japan, severely restricting its ability to import oil, scrap metal, and other resources vital to its war effort. Japan saw itself facing a crisis, and without prompt and decisive action, total collapse was seen to be coming. The action Japan chose was a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. This action brought the United States into World War II in both theaters, Europe and the Pacific.
Once committed to the war, Americans committed themselves to achieving total victory on two fronts. Americans were making extra efforts by working harder on the ‘home front’. With so many men away in the Forces, millions of women worked in factories, on buses and trains, and in hospitals and schools. America wanted a Victory over Italy and Nazi Germany in Europe and victory over Japan in the Pacific. Having followed a policy of isolationism rather than rearmament during most of the 1930s, the United States found itself, at first, pathetically unready to engage in combat with the huge military forces of Germany and Japan. It took the Americans an agonizingly long time to begin to push back against their enemies. The turning point in the Pacific didn’t come until June 1943, when American airplanes destroyed the Japanese navy at the Battle of Midway.
In Europe, it took even longer for the Americans to open up a proper second front against Nazi Germany; by the time American troops stormed the beaches of Normandy, France, on D-Day which was on 6 June 1944, the Soviet Red Army had already been engaged in a desperate battle against the Germans on the Eastern Front for three years. To an extent that most Americans today do not recognize, the Soviet Union did the lion’s share of the work and took the lion’s share of the casualties for defeating Adolf Hitler. Victory did eventually come in Europe on May 1945, but it came at a tremendous cost. Worldwide, an estimated 70 million people lost their lives, the majority of them innocent civilians; including 6 million European Jews innocently murdered by the Nazis in modern history’s worst genocide. Bombing of military infrastructure and factories helping the war effort were bombed from London to Berlin to Tokyo, leaving to cities in complete ruin. Terrible acts of cruel behavior and war crimes were committed by soldiers on all sides. Nightmarish new instruments like gas chambers, unmanned rockets, and atomic bombs were invented and deployed for use against human beings. World War II was, quite simply, the most deadly and destructive conflict in human history.
Jews during WWII
As early as 1933, the Nazis had been sending people to concentration camps. Initially, these camps were located in Germany and were used for “undesirable” people. To the Nazis, these undesirable people included Socialists, political prisoners, homosexuals, and Jews. During the war, these camps also held Soviet prisoners of war and slave laborers. Executions were commonplace in these camps, and most inmates of the camps were simply worked to death. It wasn’t until later, however, that the camps came to be associated with Jews. The death camps were intended only for the Jews from the beginning; these were the camps the Nazis created in order to exterminate them. As the Nazi control spread through Europe, the deportation of Jews to concentration camps and death camps grew. Between 1939 and 1941, Austria, Hungary, and even France deported Jews. Although Germany had been removing Jews from Germany for some time, it wasn’t until 1941 that the Nazis began a massive deportation of Jews.
The ghettos of Poland were another Nazi creation. To get Poland, Hitler needed to clear the Jews from the Polish countryside. To do this, the Nazis forced the Jewish population to sections of cities, which they were then forbidden to leave. Often, walls surrounded these areas, which were patrolled by heavily armed Nazi guards. By 1942, as the Nazis implemented the last phases of the Final Solution, Jews were being sent from ghettos, concentration camps, and transit camps which were essentially way stations to their deaths. Each ghetto had a Jewish council which was responsible for ensuring that people followed Nazi policies. The council, made up of rabbis and other leaders in the Jewish community, was also responsible for distributing food, policing the ghetto, and taking care of the health and welfare of the people. The living conditions in the ghettos were horrible. The Ghettos were always deprived of food; they received the leftovers from the general population. Also medical care and many of the basic necessities of life were not available for the Jews, so many Jews died of malnutrition, disease, and starvation. Several Jews were also executed for alleged crimes. Like the concentration camps, the ghettos were simply a temporary solution to the Jewish problem for the Nazis. Eventually, these ghettos would be emptied and the inhabitants murdered.
During the years that Hitler ruled Germany; over 100 concentration camps appeared all over Europe. Although not used strictly for extermination purposes, the living conditions at the concentration camps were brutal and the death rates high. The function of the prisoners in the concentration camps was to work, but their lives were worthless to the guards, the camp commanders, and the ever-present Nazi police. Anyone who couldn’t work was killed, and those who could work were usually worked to death. Working long hours at hard labor in all kinds of weather and under constant beatings by the guards, many prisoners died from exhaustion. With only a little food a day which was usually a piece of bread and weak soup, many died from malnutrition and starvation. Even those prisoners who managed to avoid starvation or death by exposure were still vulnerable to death at the hands of the guards. Medical care did not exist in the camps so the ill and the weak were abandoned to die. Others, many of them children, died at the hands of doctors who conducted brutal medical experiments on them. Because so many prisoners died the goal in many concentration camps was “extermination by work.” Most camps had furnaces so that the guards could dispose of the bodies.
Near the end of the war, these camps were used as holding areas for Jews from death camps that were moved westward to avoid detection. The death camps, like Auschwitz, Birkenau, Chelmno, Treblinka, and Theresienstadt were unique in that they were simply temporary holding areas for the mass murder of people. Jews were unloaded from train cars and in many cases herded directly to gas chambers or firing squads. Those who escaped immediate death were often used as slave laborers at the camp itself. They were placed in work details that supported the execution process, which was working at the furnaces, until them, too, were killed.
In Auschwitz, some able-bodied prisoners were kept alive as slave labor to assist in war production until they succumbed to overwork and starvation. The death camps used gas chambers as their means of murder, and these were chillingly efficient. Some, such as the twin chambers in Auschwitz, which was the largest death camp, could accommodate over 4,000 people at a single time. Victims destined for the gas chambers were forced to remove their clothing; then they were shoved into the death chamber itself. About 20 minutes after the gas was released in the room, everyone inside was dead. The bodies of the victims were stripped of any remaining valuables, such as gold from their teeth and rings, and then burned in ovens built especially for this purpose. When the ovens gave out, as they did in some death camps because of the sheer number of people killed, the Germans burned the bodies out in the open.
In the aftermath of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons camps administered by the Allied powers. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews immigrated to Israel, including 136,000 Jewish displaced persons from Europe. Other Jewish DPs emigrated to the United States and other nations. The last DP camp closed in 1957. The crimes committed during the Holocaust devastated most European Jewish communities and eliminated hundreds of Jewish communities in occupied Eastern Europe entirely. The holocaust caused casualties. According to British historian Martin Gilbert, the total number of victims, which were Jews, is just under six million, which is around 78 percent of the 7.3 million Jews in occupied Europe at the time.
Laws/Constitutional Changes
There really were no laws or constitutional changes because of the Jews in World War II, but there was some that were already around and ones made later on that The First Amendment of the United States Constitution protects the right to freedom of religion and freedom. This law, or amendment, lets any person in the United States practice any religion that they want. This law was adopted on December 15, 1791. Even though it was adopted long before the holocaust it still protected Jews during World War II and after it only if the Jewish person was in the United States at those times. Then another amendment that would prevent the holocaust form happening would be the 4th amendment. This amendment makes it illegal for any police force or the military force to search your property without a warrant or a reason. These laws are very effective in doing what they did. I think this because these laws were not broken in the United States. If you look at America now there is religious freedom, and the 4th amendment is still going.

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