Anatomy Terms

Developmental Anatomy
studying structural changes from conception to adulthood
Embryology
the study of changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development
Cytology
the study of cellular structure
Histology
studies the anatomical structure of tissues
Gross Anatomy
the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope; can be approached from either a systemic or a regional perspective.
Systemic Anatomy
studying one body system at a time
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Regional Anatomy
studying all structures contained in a specific region
Surface Anatomy
the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures
Anatomical Imaging
creating pictures of internal body structures
Physiology
the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
Atoms
the basic components of the chemical level
Molecules
atoms are joined together to form…?
Cell Level
basic unit of organisms
Organelles
The cell level is composed of small structures called…?
Tissue Level
composed of a group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them.
Four basic types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Organ Level
composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common function(s).
Organ System Level
composed of a group of organs that have a common function
Organism Level
in humans, a complex of organ systems are all mutually dependent on one another.
Metabolism
consists of all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism
Responsiveness
snese changes in its external or internal enviroment and adjust to the changes
Growth
due to cells increasing in size or number
development
the changes an organism undergoes through time, beginning with fertilization and ending with death
Differentiation
when a cell changes from general to specific
Morphogenesis
body changes that occur at puberty
Reproduction
involves formation of new cells or new organisms
Homeostasis
the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body
Variables
Body conditions that change over time
Set Point
The normal value for a body condition
Normal Range
body conditionsare not constant but vary within a … ?
Negative Feedback
any deviation from the set pint is made smaller or is resisted.
Effector
deviation from the set point; can change the value of a variable
Control Center
establishes the set point; detects deviation
Receptor
Monitors the value of a variable; analyzes deviation
Positive Feedback
a deviation from set point causes the system to make the deviation greater
anatomic position
a person is standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
supine
laying down on the back with face upward
prone
laying down on the stomach with face downward
superior
up
inferior
down
anterior
front
posterior
back
cephalic
synonymous with superior
caudal
synonymous with inferior
ventral surface
belly
dorsal surface
back
proximal
the end of a structure neaarer to the poin of origin
distal
the end of a structure farther from the point of origin
medial
a structure closer to the midline of the body
lateral
a structure farther from the midline of the body
superficial
structures near the body surface
deep
structures that are in the interior of the body
arm
the body from the shoulder to the elbow
forarm
the body from the elbow to the wrist
thigh
the body from the hip to the knee
leg
the body from the knee to the ankle
sagittal
the vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions
median
the vertical plane that divides the body int equal right and left halves
transverse/horizontal
the plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
frontal/coronal
the vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
thoracic cavity
surrounded by the rib cage, and separated from the abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm.
mediastinum
median portion (thoracic cavity)
lungs
found on either side of the median portion
abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.
pelvic cavity
contains the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs.
abdominopelvic cavity
the abdominal and pelvic cavities
serous membranes
found covering the organs of the trunk cavities and linint the trunk cavities
visceral serous membrane
covers the organ
perietal serous membrane
lines the organ
serous fluid
reduces friction
pericardial cavity
surrounds the heart
pleural cavity
surrounds each lung
peritoneal cavity
found within the abdominopelvic cavity
mesenteries
anchor the organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach the orgnas; composed of two layers of peritoneum fused together
retroperitoneal
organs that are directly attached to the body wall and covered only with a perietal peritoneum