Anatomy ch.1

etymology
(etymo: true meaning) the study of word origins, and it can help you remember difficult terms. Knowing the etymology of a structure’s name may reveal something about the structure’s shape, location, or function
etiology
(etio: cause) sounds like etymology but is the study of the causes of diseases
Biology
(bio: life; logos: words) the study of living things
Anatomy
(ana: apart; tome: to cut) the study of form and structure, and it describes how different structures in the body relate to one another. Anatomy also refers to the actual structure of a body part. ex. describe the anatomy of the heart
etymology of anatomy
reminds us that much of our knowledge of the human body arose from dissection
dissection
cutting apart of dead bodies
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cadaver
(cadaver: to fall) dead body
vinisection
(vivi: living) the cutting up of living things
ex. during medieval times much knowledge of anatomy was gained through dissecting condemned prisoners while they were still alive
physiology
(physio: nature of) the study of how structures function, but it also refers to the actual function of a body part
Two divisions of Biology
anatomy vs. physiology
Two divisions of anatomy
Gross vs. microscopic
Gross anatomy or Macroscopic anatomy
(gross: obvious)(macro: large; scope: to view) the study of structures that are large enough to see with the naked eye
Three type of gross anatomy
regional, systemic, and surface anatomy
Regional anatomy
focuses on descrying all structures within a certain region of the body before moving on to another region. ex. a regional approach might expect you to learn all the muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, and other structure in the arm before moving on to learn the various structures in the leg. Most medical school use this approach
Systemic anatomy
deals with one system in the body at a time before moving on to study another system.
System
includes specialized structures called organs that work together to perform a particular function. Ex. the digestive system, which includes organs such as the stomach, intestines, and liver. The digestive system processes food so the body can obtain nutrients for maintaining good health
Surface anatomy
relates the position of internal structures to anatomical features that are visible on the body’s external surface Ex. phlebotomist. This is used by physicians an nurses when placing a stethoscope on the chest to hear the heart of lungs, or on the arm to measure blood pressure
Phlebotomist
(phleb: vein; tony: to cut) uses surface anatomy to locate and puncture blood vessels with a needle to obtain a blood sample
Microscopic anatomy
(micro: small) is the study of structures that are so small that we cannot see then with the naked eye. Therefore, we must magnify them with the aid of a microscope (micro: small; scop: to view)
Two major subdivisions of microscopic anatomy
Cytology vs. histology
Cytology
(cyto: cell) the study of cells, which are the smallest “living” components of the body
Histology
the study of tissues, which are groups of cells that work together to perform a particular function
Developmental anatomy
focuses on structural changes that occur in the body form conception to adulthood. Three subdivisions: embryology, fetology, and postnatal development
Embryology
the study of the embryo, or the first two months of development in the womb
fetology
the study of the fetus, or the stages of development from the embryo to birth
Postnatal development
the study of the stages between birth and adulthood
cell physiology
the study of how individual cells carry out their activities. This is the study of physiology at the cellular level
Renal physiology
the study of how the kidneys filter the blood sand produce urine; this is an example of physiology at the “organ level”
Neurophysilogy
the study of how different parts of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves) work; this is an example of physiology at the “system” level
pathophysiology
(patho: suffering) the study of how disease disrupts body parts
pathology
deals with all aspects of disease, including its cause and the anatomical and physiological changes that occur int he affected structures. Pathophysiology is a subdivision of pathology
Chemical level of organization
the chemical level of organization deals with matter
Matter
anything in the universe that occupies space; therefore the body is made of matter
elements
the building blocks of matter, they represent the “elementary” (lowest or simplest) form of matter. Ex. Carbon (c), hydrogen (h), and oxygen (o)
atom
the smallest stable form of an element
molecules
atoms bind with other atoms to form these
chemicals
atoms and molecules, they represent the lowest level of organization in the body.
Cellulat level of organization
Deals with CELLS
cell
the basic unit of life; that is, it is the smallest thing in the body that can be “living.” The word “cell” literally means “small room,” and was applied because the first cells viewed under a microscope looked like a tiny rooms occupied by monks in a monastery.
organelles
molecules come together in order to form these, which are specialized structures that perform specific functions inside cells. Ex. of cells include liver cells, skin cells, and pancreas cells. An average adult body may contain 100 trillion cells and there are about 200 different kinds of cells in the body.
Tissue level of organization
a group of cells working together to perform a similar function. A tissue would be like a word in this paragraph, since most words contain two or more letters (“cells”) functioning together to form a meaningful term. The body contains four times of tissues
4 general types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Epithelial tissue
a specific type of epithelial tissue that functions as a membrane to cover a surface. ex. the visible part of your skin