Analyzing and comparing similarities and differences of different articles
The intent of this study is to see and analyse similarities and differences between the four scientific articles with mention to S rensen s article This is non an Article. For this study we have chosen the subject in the country of computing machine scientific discipline.
Article, analysis, Information System development ( ISD ) , research coverage, package development pattern, Emotional Learning ( EL ) , Cognitive Tutor System ( CTS ) , Face, Facial Recognition, Object Detection, Face Recognition, Face Processing, Face Recognition Algorithms, Face Detection, package testing, package development procedure
This study contains the consequence of analysing and comparing similarities and differences of four chosen articles in footings of abstracts, debut, method, consequence, treatment and decision harmonizing to the S rensen s article [ 1 ] .
Based on S rensen s article analysis of above elements in articles has to be able to reply following inquiries:
* What is the job sphere?
* What is the job?
* What is the research attack?
* What have others done?
* What are consequences?
The four scientific articles that we have opted are:
Article1: The NIPO GRID A Construct for systems development patterns in organisation [ 2 ] .
Article2: Execution of Emotional Learning for Cognitive Tutoring Agents [ 3 ] .
Article3: Best Practices for the Organizational Implementation of Software Testing [ 4 ] .
Article4: Face acknowledgment for smart environment [ 5 ] .
In the undermentioned subdivisions differences and similarities of the above scientific articles are summarized harmonizing to the indispensable inquiries.
1.1 Abstractions, Contexts
In general, abstracts summarize the article contents of intent, method, consequences and decision [ 1 ] .
In the first article [ 2 ] , the research is written in the context of package development patterns and is shaped on the footing of the inquiry how and why existent patterns are shaped in professional system and package development organisations. The abstract provides concise, clear and interesting overview of what the reader will derive by reading the article. Plus, Along with following abstract constituents [ 6 ] , authors avoided utilizing mentions, slangs and acronyms in the abstract.
In the 2nd article [ 2 ] the short abstract contains a mention at the terminal of abstract and an acronym along with complete description has been mentioned. The Context is in larning mechanism and proposed mechanism for bettering Cognitive Tutoring System ( CTS ) utilizing Emotional Learning ( EL ) . The abstract determined the end of the article, which is about increasing agent s liberty in a mutable environment.
The 3rd article s [ 4 ] abstract, summarized the consequence of a undertaking with regional companies in package proving. The article describes four chief recommendations sing the organisational execution and strategic accommodation of proving. It introduces a model to sort recommendations for proving.
In the 4th article [ 5 ] , the writers discuss about face acknowledgment engineering in smart environment as aid, for assisting worlds to be successful in absorbing broad consumer blessing
On the whole, abstract in the first article [ 2 ] provides concise, clear and interesting overview of what the reader will derive by reading the article while in the 2nd article [ 3 ] authors used a mention and an acronym at the terminal of the abstract, besides the point the job is non straight mentioned. In the 3rd article [ 4 ] abstract introduces the research filed and besides identifies the chief job with the filed. It besides avoids utilizing mention and acronym. In the 4th article [ 5 ] , abstract was non mentioned as a separate caption, nevertheless the first paragraph has the same features of abstract and gives the reader a complete and speedy designation of the basic content of the article.
1.2 Problem Domains and Motivations
Showing the job sphere helps concentrating the attending of the reader and frames the research job [ 1 ] .
The first article [ 2 ] nowadayss intermediate consequences from a survey of issues, which influence defining of information systems development ( ISD ) patterns in systems and package development organisations. It describes a concept for analyzing the behaviour of organisations in utilizing Software Development Method patterns in the procedure of merchandise development. While the paper is portion of an on-going undertaking of a company it surveies the mentioned behaviour from two dimensions, the attitude and executing as regulations. The study itself uses footings “ intended patterns ” vs. “ enacted patterns ” .
The 2nd article [ 3 ] is a research-base paper ; it searches within larning mechanisms country with concentrating on emotional acquisition and defines another related attack that improves the bing CTS. The chief intent of this scientific article is to fit the CTS by an emotional acquisition mechanism to work in mutable environment like human being.
The job sphere of the 3rd article [ 4 ] is how to better package quality.it analysis the package proving as a portion of the package development procedure of the companies to pull out their jobs in package development and to utilize their best patterns in package testing.
The 4th article [ 5 ] argues about what Technology is the best for people designation and discuss about face acknowledgment engineering, how it works, the jobs, current engineerings and future development.
1.3 Research Questions
One of the chief factors should be considered in measuring papers, is how the research inquiries have been shaped and in the undermentioned how suited the methodological analysis is selected and whether the selected research method has led to happening the reply to the research inquiries or non.
In the first article [ 2 ] there are two inquiries raised and all answered based on the observations from the existent companies:
* How and why existent ISD patterns are shaped in professional systems and package development organisations?
* Why definitions and existent passage of peculiar types of development patterns vary among development organisations?
In the 2nd article [ 3 ] the job that the writers are turn toing is that in the bing CTS, sum of clip for responding to a stimulation was much big and it causes emotions is disregarded and won Ts travel through the other scholar types. Hence the agent won t be able to be compatible with the environment. That means in current CTS the emotional propensity is non implemented.
The cardinal scientific inquiries that the writer is turn toing are:
* How to implement an emotional acquisition mechanism in CTS in a better manner?
* Is at that place any manner to increase the liberty of a cognitive coach agent in order to do it similar to human being?
In the 3rd article [ 4 ] the research inquiry addressed by writers is:
* How to accomplish better package quality through proving?
The reply is illustrated by suggesting 4 chief actions to better proving procedure:
* A simple first thought
* Requirements technology
* Implementation of a trial centre
* Test controlling and public presentation measuring
In the 4th article [ 5 ] the chief inquiry is:
* What engineering is the best for people s individualities?
It s mentioned on the article that the common engineerings that are used are vulnerable to forgery and larceny and oversights in user s memory therefore face acknowledgment as one of the biometric engineerings that have a natural topographic point in smart environment identify people by their physiological features, and in recent old ages the attending of the scientific community has been focused on face acknowledgment.
1.4 Research Approaches and Methods
In this portion, we will discourse about the methods and research attacks used in each of four articles to reply their research inquiries. Since the first article [ 2 ] is considered as an inductive research and uses a grounded theory attack [ 7 ] , the paper does non include any hypothesis ; alternatively it starts based on the conceptual theory and attempts to reply why the definitions of the development patterns and ordaining them vary among organisations ; and continues on the footing of observations and instance surveies. Input informations really is collected from the observations from eight companies. The research methodological analysis used to happen the replies of the research inquiry is grounded theory, which best suits because the writers have theoretically answered the inquiries foremost and so tried to verify it. For this instance the suited methodological analysis is grounded theory.
In the 2nd article [ 3 ] the end is to better the bing system, apprehension of the emotional acquisition and its effects on different parts of CTS. Therefore the research methodological analysis is Qualitative. The method were used in this article is Experiment because it aims to develop the bing system by utilizing hypotheses which is the two-route emotional acquisition theoretical account to better the CTS. Since the article is an probe through the other literatures the research approaches is Empirical.
In the 3rd article [ 4 ] the research attack is Empirical and the research method is Action research because it has focused on work outing jobs and seeks to take technology-oriented every bit good as organizational-focused. Qualitative research methods were used. Qualitative research method focal point on increasing apprehension of a substantial country ; it involves methods such as instance surveies. In this research interviews can be seen as a instance survey.
In the 4th article [ 5 ] the research attack is Empirical because research is conducted to reply specific inquiry. The research methodological analysis of this article is Qualitative, it concerned with increasing the apprehension of how face acknowledgment engineering works. The research method is Action research. The article provides general inquiries and so the writers theoretically answer those inquiries by garnering all the informations and widen experience ( add strength ) to what is already known through the old researches. Actually the writers tried to better the manner they address issues and work out jobs.
The comparings of research attacks, methods and methodological analysiss of the four articles summarized in table 1 in followers:
Table 1: comparings of research attacks, methods and methodological analysiss of the four articles
Article ( s )
From really early on ISD research has focused on how development should be done ( e.g. Dijkstra 1965, Parnas 1972 ) . This resulted in the building of legion formal systems development methods ( SDMs ) ( Jayaratna 1994, Avison & A ; Fitzgerald 2002 ) . Attachment to methods was regarded by default as utile and methods therefore were to be purely pre-defined and applied as intended by the method developers ( Humphrey & A ; Snyder & A ; Willis 1991, Jarke & A ; Pohl & A ; Rolland & A ; Schmitt 1994 ) . Quite the contrary, a figure of ISD research workers have discussed that SDMs see a great extent of matter-of-fact version during their acceptance and usage, if used at all ( Stolterman 1992, Fitzgerald 1998, Kautz 2004, Vogelsang & A ; Kensing 2006, P iv rinta & A ; Sein & A ; Peltola 2008 ) . One watercourse of research even suggested that amethodical ISD exemplifies an alternate position on development pattern in contemporary ISD organisations. That is, methods would hold no prescribed function at all, while ISD pattern emerges through contextual interaction and improvisation ( Truex & A ; Baskerville & A ; Travis 2000 ) [ 2 ] .
A few Empirical surveies have focused on the impression of single systems developers and how they recognize the relevancy of methods and use them in their work. These include plants on the relationship between developer experience and manners of SDM usage, or determiners of developer purposes to utilize methods ( Hardgrave & A ; Davis & A ; Riemenschneider 2003 ) . Education of brooding systems developers with respect to SDMs has besides received attending ( Mathiassen & A ; Purao 2002 ) . A few surveies have discussed ISD undertaking exigencies in relation to local method acceptance, where the unit of analysis has been a undertaking ( e.g. Kautz 2004, Madsen & A ; Kautz & A ; Vidgen 2006 ) .
A good watercourse of research has discussed methods in the context of systems development companies and organisations beyond persons and peculiar undertakings. For illustration, Fitzgerald et Al. ( 2003, 2006 ) focused on internal package development in big IT industry organisations. Mathiassen & A ; Vogelsang ( 2005 ) and P iv rinta et Al. ( 2008 ) have followed longitudinally how peculiar development methods have been adopted and adapted in professional development organisations. Beyond the treatment about methods, the brooding systems development ( Mathiassen 1998 ) , a.k.a. the professional work pattern ( Iivari & A ; Lyytinen 1998 ) , attack has focused on bettering existent development patterns in development organisations. It has focused particularly on action research and local betterments based on contextual fortunes ( Mathiassen 1998 ) . In the 1980s ( Mathiassen 1998 ) , it was one of the first research plans which challenged the belief that development methods as such would better the effectivity of ISD ( Iivari & A ; Lyytinen 1998 ) .
We shared this focal point by inquiring how and why existent patterns are shaped in professional systems and package development organisations. In the early phase, we met the challenge to gestate the forms of defined and enacted ISD patterns in our instance organisations. Few consolidative models for this purpose exist. For illustration, Fitzgerald, Russo and Stolterman ( 2002 ) presented the method-in- action model, which explain the influence of a figure of factors on modern-day ISD patterns. It has been used in a figure of plants, e.g. by Madsen et Al. ( 2006 ) to depict how a local method emerged in an single systems development undertaking. Unlike such plants as Kautz ( 2004 ) and Madsen et Al. ( 2006 ) which focused merely on single systems development undertakings, we have an drawn-out position that includes the degree of systems development organisations, which, of class, may take portion in legion undertakings. Software procedure betterment models such as CMM ( Humphrey 1989 ) construct on more elaborate theoretical accounts of the development procedure at the degree of the organisation. However, their intended usage is to measure organisational capablenesss by benchmarking the existent ISD pattern to a predefined set of cardinal patterns, which leaves the pattern outside the cardinal patterns unexplored.
In the 2nd article [ 3 ] the writers explain about emotional acquisition theoretical accounts and its effects on different acquisition. There are other CTS theoretical accounts implemented by others such as Gratch and Marsella ( 2004 ) , Franklin every bit good as Vela? squez ( Vela? squez, 1996 ) , proposed their emotional Architectures. But these theoretical accounts have some mistakes. In the old theoretical accounts emotions rise and autumn rapidly and they do non back up propagating information and tracking the state of affairs in existent clip like the system exits in human being.
The 3rd Article [ 4 ] explains that there is no set of best trial patterns, which is implemented by any company. Some of the recommendations can be found in academic literature. Other patterns found in this article are non illustrated for the field of package development.
In the 4th article [ 5 ] , the writers mention that topic of face acknowledgment is every bit old as computing machine vision because of the subject s practical importance and theoretical involvement from cognitive scientists. Despite the fact that other identi? cation methods ( such as? ngerprints or iris scans ) can be more accurate, face acknowledgment has ever been a major research focal point because it is noninvasive and seems natural and intuitive to utilize.
In first article [ 2 ] the study has a treatment portion and the decision portion. The former contains the observations, which are made from the information with the aid of NIPO grid. It describes how the range of existent use of ISD may differ in different degrees of one organisation and across organisations. In this subdivision it is besides claimed that NIPO model has some advantages over CMM and other SPI methods. In latter ( decision ) they have mentioned that the concept that they extracted is something that integrates old SPI approaches into a common model. Although it is mentioned in abstract that the concept would move as dependent variable for organizing the theory it seems that it is non clearly explains how this dependent variable is connected to other variables, while it besides seems that the whole text negotiations about this issue it seems that it would be better to hold a elucidation of that in decision or treatment parts.
In the 2nd article, the writers conclude that by implementing EL the agent will larn and respond fast for different sorts of stimulations, which can be used for other acquisition, and assist agent to handle better in a state of affairss whit the being of different and mutable stimulation.
For the 3rd article decision is that this article presented consequences from a undertaking with regional companies. They built a model to sort recommendations on how to accomplish better quality through proving. They proposed 4 chief actions to better the testing procedure.
In the 4th article [ 5 ] face acknowledgment engineering could play a major portion in assisting worlds as helpful helpers. But to accomplish this end next-generation face acknowledgment system should suit of course within the forms of normal human interactions. so future smart environment should utilize the same theoretical accounts as worlds and have the same restrictions.
In general, we think that the writers of the article [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] and have walked about wholly in the model of a research study. The construction of the studies follows recommendations. Especial thing about the first article [ 1 ] is that it points to the defects of the research in treatment session and further it refers to them as future plants in decision subdivision. Besides article [ 4 ] [ 5 ] had some avenues for future research while in the 2nd article there is no hit to that consequence.
We would wish to thank Bo Helgeson, giving us thought sing how to compose article and other resource information. We are besides grateful to Ted Gunnarson and Eva Norling for learning us how to place the key words, and how to seek scientific text.