An International Marketing Management Commerce Essay

International Marketing Management assignment gave me the chance to larn and research on this interesting subject. I have some cognition already about that how companies enter into new markets and how they capture and attract new markets but this chance helped me to cognize more about how companies go globally with the aid of available different market entry schemes and expand their concerns.


Discuss the normally held belief that there is no individual market entry scheme which is appropriate in all fortunes.

Different market entry schemes available throughout the universe depend which state you are. There are different methods and processs geographically, the nature of the concern is besides the chief point and particularly the worth and compatibility between two or more involved parties. The celebrated good known market entry scheme regulations are same globally.

Companies ever go for different market schemes to come in to new markets it ‘s non possible to follow the same market entry scheme for all concerns and for all organisations. When any company plans to come in in other abroad market there are assortment of options available for companies but it involves really high costs, hazard and takes long clip to detect and take concluding measure to acquire in. The simplest and the traditional entry scheme is exporting utilizing both ways direct or indirect methods such as agent or an intermediary individual.

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Further below I have mentioned and explained the market entry schemes which are normally followed by organisations to come in to abroad and international markets. There are following schemes largely used by big, SMEs and fabrication companies which are:



Foreign Direct Investment

Joint Venture & A ; Alliances


Mergers & A ; Acquisition

Green Field Strategy

Green Field Strategy

A green field scheme is to come in into a new market without the aid of another concern who is already at that place. An acquisition is the antonym of a green field entry.


Exporting is described as the selling and the gross revenues of local manufactured goods in abroad which is traditional and good cognize established method to capture abroad markets. The advantage is that in exporting it is non required that the specific merchandise must be produced in the mark state, during exporting no foreign investing is required but the disbursals and costs involves for exporting and holding a good concern is that exporter demands to pass on selling.


The proprietor of any trade name or the company who holds the rights and they give the permission to utilize rights against money in order to selling those different merchandises to the universe by different parties. These sorts of merchandises are largely intangible and non possible to copy by others because of hallmarks, patents and merchandise techniques. The licensee is the individual who pays to acquire rights of utilizing license rights.

Licensing is good for licenser and licensee both earns good net incomes but there is hazard for licenser if the licensee does n’t maintain the criterions and good quality controls because this will damage the image of trade name.

Joint Venture

Joint venture is a celebrated term and we have many illustrations in our practical life. It helps companies to turn like one plus one is equal to three. When same nature of concern articulations and work together it assist a batch and opportunities of positive results addition. The aims involved in joint venture are:

Market Entry

Risk/Reward Sharing

Technology Sharing

Joint Product Development

Skills & A ; cognition sharing

Conforming authorities ordinances

Few issues are thinkable before go for joint ventures like ownership, contract length, control, pricing, engineering transportation and resources.

Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI )

Foreign Direct Investment is investing which you can do straight in any state but different

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things includes before you go for FDI like regulations & A ; ordinances, permissions, transportation of capital, forces and engineering. FDI can go on with the aid of constitution of the new endeavor or may be through the acquisition of an bing entity. Direct ownership helps to hold a good control in the operations, competitory environment and to better cognize the consumers.

A good illustration of FDI is Euro Disney when Walt Disney had a challenge to construct Disney park in Europe they chose the foreign direct investing.

Mergers & A ; Acquisition

Merger word merely explains the assemblage of something. Mergers is concern word is when different companies manus shingle and promise to work together called amalgamations. One plus one is equal to three, this sentence is rather celebrated in amalgamations state of affairs. It works to make stockholder value over and above that Sun of the two companies. After unifying the worth of both companies is more valuable than two separate entities. There is somewhat difference between amalgamations and acquisition. When a company takes over other company and go a new proprietor it is called as acquisition and when two companies ‘ merges and work together is called amalgamations.

A good illustration of meeting is YouTube amalgamations with


Franchising is a method of utilizing successful available concern theoretical accounts. Franchisor gives permission to Franchisee to utilize the rights of that concern theoretical account. With the aid of that theoretical account franchisee sells and markets the merchandises and services. It ‘s more like to hold distribution of specific hallmark and the franchisee pays in return what services and merchandises they use in their concern.

Very good illustrations of franchise in today universe are McDonalds, Burger King, KFC, Subway and New York Pizza.

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Above mentioned different market entry schemes help different concerns to turn but it depends on the nature and size of the concern besides. This is really of import how large or little is the company and how much it deserving. Different types of houses are:

Different types of houses constructions fundamentally used which are called, Small & A ; Medium Enterprises, Manufacturing, Services Based, and Multinational corporations or Global houses.

Small and Medium Enterprises

Small and medium endeavors ( SMEs or Small & A ; Medium Buisness ) are the companies who have limited turnover and below certain bounds. This term is widely used in EU and in international organisations such as UN and WTO. This term is predominately used in USA and Canada.

Traditionally in EU it was different and they had their ain definitions bit non they have standardized the construct. e.g.. Companies with less than 10 employees called micro, companies holding employees less than 50 called little and 250 employees as medium.

Manufacturing Firm

Manufacturing house can be from any industry which produces merchandises from natural stuffs utilizing labour land, machines and capital. In other manner fabricating house is a company who assembles goods into finished signifier for terminal users to carry through their demands. Fabrication houses can be automotive, vesture, electronics, furniture, machinery, steel, crude oil merchandises and tools etc.

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Service Based Firm

Any services based house is a concern that provides installations and work attempts for the others and charges them for these services and most of the times the services based houses provides their services harmonizing to contract footings.

Netherlands is the really good illustration of supplying services, they supplying their accomplishments and techniques worldwide.

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Multinational Corporations

Multinational Corporation is a house that has its installations, operations and assets in at least one state other than its place state. This type of house has offices and mills in different parts of the universe. One caput office in center of all and from their control and instruct planetary direction.

Above I have explained and mentioned besides when its utile to utilize which market entry scheme and for what type of an organisation. But there is something else besides really considerable issue like before come ining to any market demand to mensurate degree of hazards, political hazard, fiscal, civilization factors and geographic distance.

Plague is used to mensurate different hazards and larn how its possible to get by that hazards. But I have used a revised version called PESTLE analysis which is more suited in this instance:

PESTLE Analysis

PESTLE stands for “ Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal and Environmental ” factors. Its utile tool to understand the state of affairs of any market and larn good before you step in to that market it helps to hold a clear position for your concern.

The possible inquiries for any house are:

What are the cardinal political factors likely to impact the industry?

What are the of import economic factors?

What cultural facets are most of import?

What technological inventions are likely to happen?

What current and at hand statute law may impact the industry?

What are the environmental considerations?




Current revenue enhancement policy

Future revenue enhancement policy

The current and future political support

Grants, support and enterprises

Trade organic structures

Consequence of wars or declining dealingss with peculiar states


Overall economic state of affairs

Strength of consumer disbursement

Current and future degrees of authorities disbursement

Ease of entree to loans

Current and future degree of involvement rates, rising prices and unemployment

Specific revenue enhancement policies and tendencies

Exchange rates



Lifestyle forms and alterations

Attitudes towards issues such as instruction, corporate duty and the environment

Social mobility

Media positions and perceptual experiences

Cultural and spiritual differences


Relevant current and future engineering inventions

The degree of research support

The ways in which consumers make purchases

Intellectual belongings rights and right of first publication violations

Global communicating technological progresss


Legislation in countries such as employment, competition and wellness & A ; safety

Future statute law alterations

Changes in European jurisprudence

Trading policies

Regulative organic structures


The degree of pollution created by the merchandise or service

Recycling considerations

Attitudes to the environment from the authorities, media and consumers

Current and future environmental legislative alterations

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Franchising is the common method of come ining services markets abroad. What is the particular attractive force of International franchising to both spouses?

What is franchising?

Franchising is a signifier of entrepreneurship. Harmonizing to Shane and Hoy ( 1996, p 325 ) there have been surveies about entrepreneurship, but the country of franchising has stayed rather undiscovered. There are many things that make franchising particular compared to other signifiers of entrepreneurship.

Franchising can be described as a strategic cooperation between two parts – the franchiser and the franchisee. They are runing under the same company name every bit good as utilizing an indistinguishable concern thought and a concern construct. The franchiser is the chief proprietor of the concern construct and the company name and licences the right of utilizing these further to the franchisee against certain fees and royalties. The franchiser normally has a contract with several franchisees at the same clip. ( Shane and Hoy, 1996, p 325 & A ; 326 ) . Franchising is a popular concern format in the retail concern ( Kaufmann and Dant, 1999, p 11 ) . In 2003, 43 per centum of all franchising activities in Finland took topographic point in retail concern ( see figure 1 on the following page ) . This is 76 per centum of the registered franchising ironss wholly. ( The Finish Franchising Association, 7.7.2006 ) Franchising can be really attractive to franchisees since many franchising companies offer and even necessitate much cooperation along the manner.

In comparing to a pure entrepreneurship, with franchising relationship the new franchisee is provided with a complete and tried concern thought, established hallmark and aid with startup. In add-on, the franchisee gets supplier price reductions every bit good as support from experienced subdivision and market experts through a web of other franchisees and company employees. ( Franchisenet, 7.7.2006 ) This said, the franchisee gets multiple competitory advantages compared to pure enterprisers on the concern ( Kaufmann and Dant, 1999, P 1112 ) . For the licensee, the negative side of franchising is that the franchisee is bind to obey the general understanding, which is normally really rigorous. Therefore the franchisee has an highly limited freedom to run. ( Franchisenet, 7.7.2006 )

For the franchisee the relation can be said to be something between a regular payjob and pure entrepreneurship and is frequently a measure in passage from the former to the latter. Franchising is a manner to pattern entrepreneurship. In a franchising relationship the franchisee is the proprietor of his ain concern but is still connected to a bigger organisation and being supervised. It has to be noted, though, that the franchisee is the one bearing the fiscal hazards of the concern. However, since franchising companies normally select their franchisees carefully the hazard for neglecting in this concern is less important than in the pure entrepreneurship. ( Kaufmann and Dant, 1999 )

More information about franchising and franchising chances can be found in following web pages:, and

Professionals of Franchising, how it helps franchisee to derive capital and how it allows houses to spread out fundamentally utilizing the possible franchisees ain capital.

Opportunities of Success

The opportunities of success are high when you are holding franchise sort of concern because you do concern of that merchandises and services which are worldwide celebrated, proven and recognized. Its easy to see how successful franchising and this sort of concern are ever expand and turn really fast, franchising usher you through the whole procedure of concern and usher you with their experiences and makes you successful besides by independent concern. In short in franchising the opportunities of success are ever high.

Avoid Start up Mistakes

Franchising helps you and do really easy to star up your franchise, this is truly helpful and salvage you from initial which largely happen when you start new concern. But while franchising the experts already experienced that sort of hurdlings so they know really good how to salvage your ego from loses and hazard while get downing new concern at new location.

Brand Awareness

This is the large great impact for you when you buy any constituted local, national, international or planetary trade name, you do n’t necessitate to make selling battles because people are already cognizant of that brands gustatory sensation and cognize good the value. Franchisee enjoys the name acknowledgment and the big familiar company associated with you.

Product and Service Acceptance

Franchise contains standard merchandises and provides the same criterion merchandises to their all franchisees ; due to the extremely established standard the merchandises are extremely acceptable. This is a large benefit of client consciousness which usually takes ling clip to construct this sort of trust for your clients.

Mugwump but non entirely

To be franchise proprietor is a great thing because you do n’t necessitate to worry that much, you work hard but on the other manus the franchisor squad helps you a batch to construct your concern strong. You get fiscal security for your household, earn more money and all is yours after paying other costs. This franchising web reduces your hazard and allows you to bask the success of that clip what you have word hard.

Training and Support

Franchisor provides besides different preparation Sessionss and different sort of support at each measure where you face any job. These preparation and support helps to be successful in your concern and salvage you in future signifier dearly-won errors and cut down hazards for you at all degrees.

Peer to peer networking

Peer to peer networking give you entree to the web of concern proprietors who are in the same concern and have experienced and sing the state of affairs which you might confront besides. So this networking helps each others how to acquire rid from different difficult times and jobs. Its great advantage and invaluable chance for proprietors.

Buying Power

It involves the economic systems of graduated table the franchisor maintain criterion and purchase merchandises from good known and trusted provider where they can answer they will hold the same gustatory sensation and size of merchandises ever. The franchisor ever have good and high degree relationships with providers and providers besides cares a batch because of holding large purchasers for their merchandises. In the same manner the franchisor provides the good value of goods to their franchises and clients.

Ongoing Development

Development in any concern is really of import otherwise companies do n’t last for long clip. Better criterions, working conditions ; add new engineerings and accomplishments are really of import. Another advantage for the franchisee is that franchisor provides the costs for these sort of developments and seek their best with the aid of their development squads to procure the hereafter of the concern. It a large support for single and these supports are really supportive and sufficient to merchandise development.

Fiscal Support

If fiscal support is needed and you are in concern with a recognized and good cognize franchisor it will assist you to acquire finance really easy. Because the loaners believe that you are linked with a good web concern and they can trust and experience less hazard to impart money if the concern is a portion of the well structured concern theoretical account and system.

Company Wide Connections

If you clients demands occupation and you are non able to supply or assist so there are still possibilities to utilize your franchises web and that will assist you to happen the needed demands. They try their best to assist you and happen similar concern for you.

Individual Roles with Common Goals

Every concern major jail is net income if there is non net income than no concern besides. Franchisees aim is to run a profitable concern and grow with seeable alterations and back up the franchisor concern systems and to give more value to trade name. Oppositely franchisor has to give a healthy leading and clear ends to assist franchisees to turn and protect the trade name. This common apprehension and aid physiques trade name stronger.

Deriving a Competitive Edge

Business gets competitory border with the aid of sharing resources, accomplishments and cognition.

Selling your Business

First there are really few opportunities that a franchisee would wish to sell because they want to lose a fixed sort net incomes and a good concern. But sometimes it happens proprietors came in fiscal job and decided to sell. Whenever you decide to sell a franchise it is attractive and likely to sell really fast at higher monetary value.

Working together is Smart and Fun

Working together in squads and with common apprehension is great and large merriment besides. Franchise provides people chance and opportunities to run their egos independently. Gives more bravery and experience free to work and utilize their divine ideas. This is because of the big organisation regulations criterions and good relation of employees.

Some disadvantages of franchising and hazard involved for franchisee.

To follow a system

All Franchises have their ain concern theoretical accounts and they operate and require their franchisees besides to follow the the same concern theoretical account in all state of affairs and there is no flexibleness in that instance. If person found pretermiting the regulation and ordinances of that theoretical account they will penalized. The processs, regulations and ordinances vary between franchise concerns.


The franchise is bound to pay for the initial colony and franchise fees, preparation, selling and other costs which incurred during puting up new franchise.

Trading Area

Before you get settled franchises the franchisee provide a feasibleness study and inquire for the permission to hold concern at coveted country or location. If they accept so you can continue farther otherwise you need to subject a new location program.


Many limitations involved besides which bound the franchisee to take different actions. Franchisee non allowed to purchase merchandises or services from any station, there is listed and recognized provider which you can utilize to purchase needed merchandises. You can non sell straight your concern you need a permission of franchisor and so you can take farther stairss to sell your concern.


You need to command on regular bases and the squad of from franchisor is sent on a regular basis besides for controls. If they found any irresponsibility and lack you can be in large job and it non acceptable at any cost because this sort of sloppiness amendss the trade name image and concern.

Franchising is spread outing rapidly in developing states besides and it ‘s good to both parties. It provided occupations and the trade names proprietors gaining money and turning their name worldwide. There are some hazards involved besides for investors and the trade name proprietors which I described above. Franchises get engineering, accomplishments and concern transportation in their states and it helps to better state economic system. The local concern attempt to copy that concern theoretical account but they are non allowed to make 100 per centum but still they do it increase competition but still the universe recognised trade names have more penchant among clients that why franchisee take hazard of investing.

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