American National Government – Sands (Berry College)

New Jersey Plan
Created by William Paterson, Proposed by Luther Martin ; suggests the government remain unicameral and all powers rest in Congress. This puts great power in the hands of a single government body ☛ supreme rule; minimal liberty. 2 votes per state in the house, not based off population
Virginia Plan
James Madison’s idea, pitched by Ed Randolf; suggests the government become an institutionalized system of checks and balances—President veto and reelections. This calls for separating powers into 3 branches that form their own checks and balances. Council of revisions, votes in the house based of population, bicameral house
Hamilton’s Plan
Suggests government adopt same structure as Great Britain because their citizens have the most rights and are treated very well (Americans revolted because they wanted to become citizens—they wanted the same rights); proposed right after New Jersey Plan☛ ___ knew none would support this plan ☛ making Virginia Plan look better.
Abolitionists
People in support of ending slavery; they believe in the supremacy of the Declaration over the current Constitution. They believe the Declaration is God’s law and has power over all.
Slavery
____ trade relied heavily on importation due to introduction of the cotton industry. By 1835, there were 4.5 million slaves. This allowed the South to tie in with the North economically by giving them 20% of the cotton share crop.
Calhoun
He believed no state of nature exists (Hobbes). Therefore, no natural rights; people are basically social constructs that will always adhere to their own opinions, morals, etc. and try to impose their “realities” onto others. He believed the North was doing this to the South. Based a lot of ideas on Doctrine of Moral Relatively

Doctrine of Moral relativism – no universal moral, all based of society

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Ratification
according to Articles of Confederation, 13/13 states are needed to pass an amendment, 9/13 for a super majority, and 4 states could block any form of legislation.
Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturing
Hamilton believed that a diverse society requires a diverse economy with big businesses, free market, and large labor class. By fulfilling people’s desire to continuously make money ☛ allows rich to invest back into the system ☛ creates more jobs and wages. Essentially the first proposition of the trickle down system.
Jefferson’s Manufacturing
Way of life should be focused on farming—population will become self-sustaining/independent.
This posed a danger of becoming a majority faction due to a common identity (farming).
Federalist 84
Written by Alexander Hamilton; expresses that a Bill of Rights is unnecessary for three reasons: it is redundant, the government has not violated any rights, and it is up to each state to enforce such restrictions. Essentials like police powers, health, security, morality, etc., depend on each state.
Federalist 51
Written by James Madison; argues that government needs to have a specific set of checks and balances (President’s Veto, reelections) to prevent corruption.
This calls for complete separation of powers ☛ three branches (that we now have).
Trustee Model of Representation
“Trustee” works on behalf of constituents; votes/acts based on their best interest. This serves as a form of checks and balances, preventing majority factions forming ☛ prevents common concert (population is dispersed) and common desire (large population, many interests)
Delegate Model of Representation
Delegate acts strictly as an echo chamber for the constituents. This model of representation provides no internal structure to check and balance the concentration of power.
Plubius
The name under which John Jay and James Madison wrote the Federalist Papers. This allowed them to fully voice their opinions without fear of society, changing their minds or the influence their names might have.
Sparta
The “pure democracy”; A republic created by Lycurgus. All land was distributed equally, everyone was self-sustaining, luxury items were taxed, and there was a sacrifice for the common good. Its small, homogenous population and small land area allowed this society to blossom and create a virtuous society not possible today.
Factions
Groups of similar people with similar political purposes adhere to the rights of others. Majority factions are the greatest threat to democracies/republics—must be either eliminated (eliminate liberties) or controlled through common concert and common desire *Look at lecture notes
Expressed Consent Theory
Jefferson says: in the “Exchange of Binding Generations,” people must expressly consent to the constitution through ratification of a new constitution every 19 years. This process would be difficult and confusing; impractical
Tacit Consent Theory
Madison argues that people already consent (to government) by remaining in the US. There is no need to change the Constitution; it is a “sacred” document in a sense.
Federalist Papers
Authors are John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. Some of the most important American political documents ever written—has great influenced American government today.
Federalist 10
James Madison argues that majority factions pose the greatest threat for the democracy ☛ Must be controlled by preventing common desire and common concert.
Gettysburg Address
In this speech, Abe re-articulates the Declaration and crystalizes the meaning of the Civil War ☛ Abolish slavery; essential to liberty. Refutes Calhoun’s arguments; declares natural condition is liberty.
Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address
End of Civil War; Abe somberly expresses distaste for the war. Slavery did cause the war, but he blames both North and South. “War was inevitable”; “divine punishment” for sins of America. War behooves us to look at Natural Law.
Classical liberalism
❅ Duties for individuals (What you owe the government) ❅ Negative Rights (protection from government) e.g. Bill of Rights ❅ Government is the enemy ❅ Government should be an umpire giving equal opportunity
Modern Liberalism
❅ Entitlements for individuals (What the government owes you) ❅ Positive Rights (individual rights; government assistance) e.g. 2nd Bill of Rights ❅ Market, Big Business, Society is the enemy ❅ Government should be scorekeeper giving equal outcome
What were the divides in the Convention?
Slavery.
Big states vs. Small States
nationalist vs. federalist
What are the ends of society?
Order, Protection, Justice, Equality
Economic Bill of Rights
Right to clothing, food, shelter, recreation, good education, and to achieve good health.
What was the political philosophy Pre-FDR?
Classical Liberalism
What was political Post-FDR?
Modern Liberalism
What were the Articles of Confederation?
First attempt of government in America. Retained a structure of independent states. Continental Congress wielded power. There was no executive branch.
Affirmative Action
Policy favoring disadvantaged groups.
Deliberation
Willingness to use reasoned arguments. Confronting better opinions and adopting it.
What was the G.K. Chesterton’s philosophy?
America had a soul of church. Anyone is welcome, but you have to believe, what we believe.
3/5 Compromise
Negroes are only three fifths of a person. This gave the North more representation in the House of Representatives—incentive for South to abolish slavery.
Importation Clause
Government not involved in slave trade. This allowed demand to increase and supply to decrease ☛ slavery becomes too expensive—incentive for abolition
Fugitive Slave Clause
Law dictates that escaped slaves should be returned to owners. However, no incentive is provided for free states to return slaves to their owners in slave states.
Reasoning behind Bill of Rights
James Madison was inspired by George Mason’s 1776 Declaration of Rights. Wanted to introduce 16 amendments that would have been the Bill of Rights.
Doctrine of Moral Relativism
Morality is relative to time, circumstance, place, etc. There are no universal norms or ethics. One society cannot impose its views on other societies. Spoken in regard to the different societies in the North and the South during the slavery era.
Which notable leader wanted social equality?
Martin Luther King Jr.
Which notable leader wanted political equality?
Abraham Lincoln
Which notable leader wanted economic equality?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
What were the results of the Battle of Gettysburg.
South won the first two days of the Battle. North won third and final date with event known as Pickett’s Charge. Involved over 300k soldiers.
Edward Everitt
Featured speaker at Gettysburg. Spoke for two hours and said over 13k words. At the time, regarded as the most famous orator in the world. Speech not as significant as Lincoln’s two minute speech.
What were the political parties of the representatives in the first elected house?
10 of the 59 were Anti Federalists. 2 of the 22 senators were Anti Federalists. Federalists greatly outnumbered the Anti-Federalists and held the voice in govern
Tolerance Society vs. Acceptance Society
Tolerance: Put up with blacks, desegregation/recognition of civil rights, but did not accept it. Minimum requirement for MLK.
Acceptance: What MLK aspired for. Blacks & Whites as brothers/sisters. Biblical allusion. Embracing civil rights.
Provisions left out of original Constitution
Provisions for public education, arts and sciences, economics, civic virtue, suffrage and voting rights, judicial review.
Centinal
A republic can only exist amongst a small population, needs virtuous citizens, property should be equally divided. (Sparta is the perfect republic model)
Nationalist vs. Federalist
Nationalism is the Federal government knows best and should supercede the states laws and regulations. Federalism is the Federal government has their set of responsibilities and rights, but the States should have their own sovereignty to define their own laws for those things not addressed by the Constitution specifically.
The Connecticut Plan (great compromise)
Bicameral legislation (house/senate), electoral college, run offs held in house of reps. Was proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth
Moral Relativism
Moral relativists argue that there is no known universal rule that defines right and wrong. Instead, morality is determined by the standards of a person’s own authorities. These authorities might be a government, a religion or even a family member.