American History Chapter 8

How did british viewers view jeffersonian society?
with contempt
settlers at the time were in search of
opportunity
a lot had changed since the revolution
false
african americans repped how much of the population
one fifth
blacks had limited opportunities in the cities and in the west
true
what fanned disagreement about the spread of slavery to western territories
war of 1812 and purchase of louisiana
what did the jeffersonians insist on
strict interpretation of constitution, peaceful foreign relations, and reducing feds role in lives of citizens
what did jefferson do before he retired
interpreted constitution in way that premitted gov to purchase louisiana
population of the us grew slowly
false, 7,240,000 americans, a jump of 2 million in 10 years
what percent of people were black slaves
20
the pop increase was a result of
natural reproduction
during jeffs presidency, few immigrants moved to new world
true
largest group of people were
people under 16
it was a time of optimism for white americans
true
why did entrepenuers and engineers advance in society
because society rated personal merit higher than familial background
what did the formation of regional identifications reflect
improving transportation links that allowed people to travel more easily
local writers were for rejection of democratic values
false
what was the difference in which people described themselves in the potomac river
as southerners, as opposed to citizens in the chesapeak and carolinas
the shifting focus of attention resulted from
shared economic interests and outside attacks on slavery
where did the most striking changes occur
the west
how did the west change from before american revolution
before revo, only indian traders ventured across applations, after, more people went
why did people go to the west
because they were in search of farms and rich soil
how did people get to the west
by the northern route
important commercial ports in the west
pittsburg and cincinatti
where were territorial governments formed
louisiana, michigan, illinois, and missouri
where did southerners go to in the west
kentucky and tennessee
what did westerners depend on heavily
water transportation
why were riverboats useful
becuase of the high cost of hauling goods overland, they repped only economic means of carrying products to markets
what river was a crucial commercial link
mississippi
why did westerners not feel secure
because spain controlled new orleans
families that moved west attemped to stay away from eastern costums
false
distinctive folkways in the west were a result of
mixing of peoples of different background
name two western heroes
mike fink and daniel boone
who was a famed trapper and indian fighter
daniel boone
who was a keelboatman
mike fink
americans who crossed the mountains were not excited to go to the west
false
why did many native americans live in the ohio valley at the beg of the nineteenth century
because the land belonged to them
what was the a challenge for the indians
they lacked unity
why did the indians lack unity
dependent on trade and revaged by disease
what pissed off shawnee leaders and tecumseh
indians were selling parts of the land
who was shawnee leaders prophet
tenskwatawa
who was shawnee leaders prophet brother
tecumseh
what did tecumseh want to do
revitalize native cultures
how did tecumseh and brother revitalize native cultures
by brieflypursuaded people to avoid contact with whites, resist alcohol, and hold on to their land
how did white intruders view tecumseh
as a threat to progress
creed nations warriors were crushed by jackson militia at what battle
horseshoe bend
jefferson wanted to destroy indians
false
how did jefferson create his vast reservation
by sending agents to civilize indians and transform them into yeomen farmers
enlightened thinkers wanted to preserve indian culture
false
vice presidential candidate richard johnson’s main qualification was
that he killed tecumseh
before 1820 prosperity of us depended on what
agriculture and trade
what percentage of pop was involved in agriculture in 1810
84
jeffersonian cities served primarily as
depots for international trade
what percent of pop lived in urban centers
7
what cities had some of the highest population densities in countries history
new york, philiadelphia, and baltimore
why were rents high
demand for housing exceeded supply
how did american cities influence americas hinterland
very little influence
why did urban merchants seldem purchase goods from distance more than 150 miles
because of high cost of land transportation
there was a huge seperation between rural and urban americans during jeffersons presidency
true
sam slater was a designer of what
textile machinery
sam slater established what where
cotton spinning mills in new england
during slaters period factories produced far more clothing than households
false
fulton sailed up what river
hudson
why was American steamship a great innovation
it opened up markets for domestic manufacturing especially in the west
why did ordinary workers feel threatened by machines
because they took pride in producing an object that expressed their own personalities and found industrial workplace alienating and because it might throw craftspeople out of work or transform entrepenuers into laborers
goals of jefferson when he ran for presidency
reduce size and cost of fed gov, repeal fed legislation such as alien acts, and maintain peace
jefferson needed the full cooperation of congress repubs
true
jefferson had close ties with leaders of congress
true
what did jefferson never have to do during his two terms
veto an act of congress
how did jefferson select members of his cabinet
by selecting people who supported his programs
who became secretary of state
james madison
why did gallitin become treasurer
because he understood complexities of fed budget
top priority of fed government
cutting national debt
how did jefferson and gallitin view the deficit
as an association with alex hamiltons finantial programs, measures harmful to republicanism
how did jefferson diminish activities of fed gov
by urging congress to repeal direct taxes
how did jefferson help pay the debt
by cutting the national budget, closing american diplomatic missions, and slashing military spending, retired warships
how did jefferson respond to new englanders complaints that budget cuts left country defenseless
stating that reducing size of military, he promoted peace
how did the revolution influence jeffersons thinking
thought more about military affairs
how did jefferson ensure that soldiers would recieve professional leadership
created army corps of engineers and westpoint
at the end of jeffs first term, half the federal office were appointees of washington and adams
true
why did fisher ames and john jay withdraw from national affairs
they refused to adopt popular forms of campaigning that repubs
now that the fed party is dying, how did feds attempt to reform the party
by tightening party organization, holding conventions, and campaigning energetically
the fed party got revived and prospered
false
why was getting louisiana going to be harder than jefferson expected
because he learned that spain had transferred title to france and napoleans army would occupy new orleans and close mississippi river to american trade
the president preferred war to negotiations
false
who did jefferson ask to go to paris and explore possibility of purchasing new orleans
james monroe and robert livingston
what happened when livingston and monroe arrived in france
napolean had list interest in the american empire because the army he sent to haiti suffered from tropical disease in which 30000 vets died
talleyrand offered to sell entire louisiana for
15 million
the louisiana purchase doubled size of usa
true
how did americans respond to louisiana purchase
enthuiastically
why did jefferson want to amend the constitution
because it did now authorize acquiring vast territories and thousands of foreign citizens
jefferson ask lewis and clark to explore the west
to see weather the missouri river has water communications for the purpose of commerce and a way to collect data of plants and animals
lewis went to school to learn about scientific observation
false, jefferson taught him
where did the expidition of of lewis and clark start
st louis
why was the expidition of lewis and clark significant to jefferson
because it fullfilled his scientific expectations and reaffarmed his faith in the future of the usa
on what note did jefferson end his first presidency
on a popular note
what had jefferson done at the end of his first term
maintained peace, reduce taxes, and expanded united states
the presidents attempts to reform federal courts did what
revealed power sectional loyalties
why was the judiciary act of 1801 passed
because the feds were realizing that they would soon loose control over the executive branch
what did the judiciary act of 1801 do
created circuit courts and 16 new judgeships
why was jefferson angry with adams
because he filled the judgeships through his midnight appointments with “stalwarts” and appointed John Marshall as the new chief jusitce because he could hold his own against the president
why did jeffersons allies want to repeal the judiciary act
because they were staffed by feds and expensive
what was the feds defense againstjeffersons allies want to repeal the judiciary act
they said that the consittution was for removing fed judges only when they were found guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors and by repealing the act, the legislative branch would be dismissing judges without a trial
the judiciary act was repealed
true
why did william marbury complain about the new administration
because it would not give him comission for office of peace for district of colombia
why were the republicans furious when marshall agreed to hear the case of william marbury
they thought that he wanted to provoke confrontation with the executive branch
what happened in the marbury vs madison decision
marshall berated secretary of state for withholding marbuty comission and concluded that the supreme court did not posess juristiction over such matters
what was significant about the marbuty vs madison case in terms of the supreme court
it was the first time the supreme court asserted its right to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts
what did impeachment do
enabled the removal of officeholders`
maubury vs madison served as a predisessant for
the judicial review
chages against chase were
purely political
chases trial is considered
one of the most dramatic events in legal history
the senate acquited chase
true