American History 1 Final Exam Study Guide 2016

Johnathan Edwards
*sermons and writings embraced the idea of free will
*firm confidence in God’s righteousness
*during the Great Awakening, he had a widespread religious revival
*known for his sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” which implored parishioners to embrace the teachings of Jesus Christ before they were banished to hell as nonbelievers
John Locke
*political theory of government means to protect “life, liberty and estate”
*essays on religious tolerance provided an early model of separation of church and state
Nathaniel Bacon
*leader of Bacon’s Rebellion (wide range of public policy issues in Virginia with emphasis on the state budget, taxes, infrastructure, land use, transportation, energy, the environment and community health)
Alexander Hamilton (and his Economic Plan)
*proposed that the government take the entire debt of the federal government and the states
*retire old depreciated obligations by borrowing new money at a lower interest rate
John Marshall (significance of his rulings)
*Marbury v. Madison was one of the most important decisions in U.S. judicial history, it legitimized the ability of the Supreme Court to judge the constitutionality of acts of the president or Congress (a form of check and balance)
Horace Mann
*”Father of Public Education.” He pushed for free compulsory education and education that strayed from just “dead languages” to more “hands-on” education
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Charles Finney
*presbyterian minister appealed to his audience’s sense of emotion rather than their reason
*his “fire and brimstone” sermons became commonplace in upstate new york, where listeners were instilled with the fear of satan and an eternity in hell
*he insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and a steadfast faith in God
*this region of new york became known as the “burned-over district,” because this minister preached of the dangers of eternal damnation
Henry David Thoreau
*american transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery
*he wrote down his beliefs in Walden
*started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him mexican war (breaking the unjust law peacefully)
Frederick Douglass
*(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer
*he published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star
Stephen Austin
*among one of the first Americans to take up Mexico’s offer on settling Texas
*had to convert to Roman Catholicism and obtain Mexican citizenship
*some of the settlers disliked these demands and formed an uprising, forming the Republic of Fredonia
*Austin helped crush this uprising and retain good relations with the Mexicans
Joseph Smith
*founded mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel.
*in 1843, Smith’s announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the mormons and led to an uprising against mormons in 1844; translated the book of mormon and died a martyr (killed because of their beliefs)
Dorothea Dix
*a reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820’s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada
*she served as the superintendent of nurses for the union army during the civil war
Nat Turner (and the effects of his rebellion)
*(1800-1831) was a black American slave who led the only effective, sustained slave rebellion (August 1831) in U.S. history
*spreading terror throughout the white South, his action set off a new wave of oppressive legislation prohibiting the education, movement, and assembly of slaves and stiffened pro-slavery, anti-abolitionist convictions that persisted in that region until the American Civil War
Henry Clay “Great Compromiser”
*northern American politician
*developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises
William Lloyd Garrison
*1805-1879 prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer
*editor of radical abolitionist newspaper “The Liberator”, and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society
John Brown
*well-known abolitionist
*used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he was tried, convicted of treason and hung… he became a martyr
Stephen Douglas
*(1813-1861) U.S. politician, leader of the Democratic Party, and orator who espoused the cause of popular sovereignty in relation to the issue of slavery in the territories before the American Civil War (1861-1865)
*he was re-elected senator from Illinois in 1858 after a series of eloquent debates with the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, who defeated him in the presidential race two years later
Robert E. Lee
*General of the Confederate troops
*he was prosperous in many battles; was defeated at Antietam in 1862 when he retreated across the Potomac
*halt of Lee’s troops justified Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation
*defeated at Gettysburg by General Meade’s Union troops; surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865
Hiram Revels
1870 Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded
Jefferson Davis
*(1808-1889) Mexican War hero, U.S. senator from Mississippi, U.S. secretary of war and president of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
*prior to the start of the war, Davis had argued against secession, but when Mississippi seceded he resigned from the U.S. Senate
*faced difficulties throughout the war as he struggled to manage the Southern war effort, maintain control the Confederate economy and keep a new nation united
*May 1865, several weeks after the Confederate surrender, Davis was captured, imprisoned and charged with treason, but never tried
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
*organized Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott and fought for equality for women’s rights to sue and own property
John C. Calhoun
*Vice President to Andrew Jackson who began to champion a controversial constitutional theory: nullification
*argued that since the federal government was a creation of the states, that the states were the final arbiters of the constitutionality of federal laws
*if a state concluded that Congress had passed an unconstitutional law, then it could hold a special convention and declare the federal law null and void within the state
*this was the Nullification Doctrine, and it contained the idea of using it to nullify the 1828 tariff, and it attracted support in South Carolina
*did nothing to help his standing within the new administration, he had a powerful rivalry with Martin Van Buren
George Washington
*(1732-99) commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (1775-83) and served two terms as the first U.S. president (1789-97)
*worked as a surveyor then fought in the French and Indian War (1754-63)
*during the American Revolution, he led the colonial forces to victory over the British and became a national hero
*in 1787, he was elected president of the convention that wrote the U.S. Constitution
*in 1789, Washington became America’s first president,, he handed down a legacy of strength, integrity and national purpose
*died at Mount Vernon at age 67
John Adams
*(1735-1826) leader of the American Revolution, and served as the second U.S. president (1797-1801)
*began his career as a lawyer; intelligent, patriotic, opinionated and blunt, Adams became a critic of Great Britain’s authority in colonial America and viewed the British imposition of high taxes and tariffs as a tool of oppression
*during the 1770s, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress
*in the 1780s, Adams served as a diplomat in Europe and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris (1783), which officially ended the American Revolutionary War (1775-83)
*(1789-97) America’s first vice president; then served a term as the nation’s second president. He was defeated for another term by Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Thomas Jefferson
*draftsman of the Declaration of Independence and the third U.S. president (1801-09)
*responsible for the Louisiana Purchase
James Madison “Father of Constitution”
*fourth U.S. president, James Madison believed in a robust yet balanced federal government
Andrew Jackson
*seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans
*as president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers
*presidency was known as the “era of the common man”
William Henry Harrison
*whig who was elected for president after Van Buren’s first term with log cabin campaign. died weeks after election
James K. Polk
*11th President of the United States from Tennessee; committed to westward expansion; led the country during the Mexican War; U.S. annexed Texas and took over Oregon during his administration
Abraham Lincoln
*16th President of the United States, saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; assassinated by Booth
Andrew Johnson “Weak President”
*17th President of the United States, A Southerner from Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president
*opposed Radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto
*the first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote
Ulysses. S Grant
*American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-77)
*leading Union general in the American Civil War
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. She came from a famous religious family and is best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. It depicts the harsh life for African Americans under slavery
Susan B. Anthony
*key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for women’s rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the national woman suffrage association
Richard Allen
*Richard Allen was a minister, educator, writer, and one of America’s most active and influential black leader
*in 1794 he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent black denomination in the United States