Freedman’s Bureau p. 710
A federal agency set up in 1865 The bureau’s focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
John Wilkes Booth p. 713
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Andrew Johnson p. 713
17th President of the United States was elected Vice President and succeeded Lincoln when Lincoln was assassinated; (1808-1875) , A Southerner form Tennessee, was V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
black codes p. 716
southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves. These laws were passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers.
Thaddeus Stevens p. 717
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican, A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Fourteenth Amendment p. 719
An amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1868 extends the guarantees of the Bill of Rights to the states as well as to the federal government. It gave full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians. “No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
Fifteenth Amendment p. 723
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
carpetbaggers p. 728
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;, A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
scalawags p. 728
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners, name given to Southerners, often Unionists, accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence, southern whites who supported republican policy throughout reconstruction
greenbacks p. 732
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural), Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Credit Mobilier scandal p. 734
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company’s stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
Horace Greeley p. 737
United States journalist and editor of the New York Tribune with political ambitions (1811-1872). A founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America’s most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms., presidential nominee for the Liberal Republicans and the Democrats for the 1872 election; lost to Grant and died a few weeks after his defeat.
Compromise of 1877 p. 740
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river, Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made