Advanced Nutrition Final

Overweight women (>120% IBW) have fertility issues because the ratio of ________ to estrogen is altered. (341)
Two indicators of maternal nutrition status have been especially correlated with infant birth weight: ________ ________ and ___________. (349)
Infant mortality
In normal weight women living in healthy environments, weight gain of ____-_____ lb during gestation is associated with optimum outcome. (351)
Obese pregnant women (BMI >30) have an increased risk of delivering an infant with _________ _________ ________ (___), _________-_________ ________ (___), increased risk of having a ________ _______, and _______ compared to normal weight women, They also have an increased risk with delivering an infant very preterm or with ________ ______, _____, or ___________. (352)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
Cesarean section
Cardiac defect, NTD, or macrosomia
Postgastric bypass surgery: One study suggests that the fetus will develop adequately if the pregnancy occurs no sooner than ___ year after surgery with adequate nutrient supplementation. (352)
1 year
Postgastric bypass surgery: Her breast milk, like that of any other postpartum woman, will reflect her nutritional status; however, it may be more compromised because food volume is __________. (352)
Teens have a higher incidence of delivering a ____ ______ _____ infant. (353)
low birth weight
The incidence of multiple births in the United States is rising in part because of the increased use of ________ drugs and ____. (353)
Supplementation of a mother’s diet during pregnancy may take the form of additional energy, ______, vitamins, or ______ that exceed her routine daily intake. (354)
To qualify for WIC services, participants must live in an area served by WIC, be financially eligible and pregnant, or 6 months ___________, _______________ women until 1 year postpartum, or be an infant or child under 5 years old. (354-355).
Breastfeeding women
Blood volume expands ~ __% by the end of pregnancy. This results in _________ levels of hemoglobin, serum albumin, other serum proteins, and water-soluble vitamins. Serum concentrations of ____ ________ ________ ____ ______ _____ ______ _____ ___ ____________, cholesterol, and free fatty acids increase. (342)
Decreased levels
Fat soluble vitamins and other lipid fractions such as triglycerides
Mild lower extremity edema is a normal condition of pregnancy resulting from the pressure of the expanding uterus on the _____ _____, obstructing the _____ __ _____ _____ __ ____ _____. (364)
Vena cava
Return of blood flow to the heart
The glomerular filtration rate increases by ___% during pregnancy, although the volume of urine excreted each day is not increased. This results in lower serum ___________ and blood urea nitrogen. (349)
The 2002 DRIs for energy for the pregnant female are the same as for the non-pregnant female in the first trimester but then increase an additional ____ to _____ kcal/day during the second trimester and another _____ kcal/day in the third trimester. (356)
340 to 360
The current RDA of 0.8 g/kg/day of protein for pregnant women is the same as that for nonpregnant women in the first half of pregnancy and increases for the second half to ___ g/day. (356)
The DRI for fiber during pregnancy is ___g/day.
The RDA for folic acid in pregnancy is ____ mcg, a 200 mcg increase over that for nonpregnant females. Folic acid reduces the chance of ________ ________ (cleft lip and NTDs) in the newborn baby. (357)
400 mcg
Congenital malformations
Folic acid is most crucial during the first ___ days of pregnancy since the neural tube is closed by this time, before most women realize they are pregnant. (357)
the first 28 days of pregnancy
Iron needs increase by 700-800 mg during pregnancy. Eating iron-containing foods with _________ _____ containing foods can enhance _________. (359)
Ascorbic acid
Restriction of dietary sodium or the use of diuretics in pregnant women with ______ is ____ recommended. (360)
Although moderation in the use of salt and other sodium-rich foods is appropriate for everyone, ___________ _________ is usually unwarranted in pregnancy, and consumption of sodium should remain above 2-3 g/day. (360)
Agressive restriction
Drinking __ to ___ glasses of quality fluid daily, mainly water, is encouraged. (361)
8 to 10
Abundant evidence from both animal studies and human experience associates maternal alcohol consumption with ____________ and a specific pattern of abnormalities in the neonate known as _____ ______ _______ (___). Features of this syndrome increase prenatal and postnatal growth failure, ______________ ______, microcephaly, eye changes, ________ abnormalities, and skeletal joint abnormalities. (361)
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Developmental delay
Use of alcohol during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of _____________ __________, abruption placentae, and ______ ________ _______ delivery. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists, as well as the March of Dimes and other professional organizations, recommend ___ _______ in pregnancy. (361)
Spontaneous abortion
Low Birth Weight
No alcohol
The effect of caffeine on pregnancy has been researched. A few studies have associated caffeine intake with increased risk of first-trimester __________ or _________ pregnancy outcome. (341)
Pica of pregnancy most often involves ___________ (consumption of dirt or clay) or ___________ (consumption of starch such as laundry starch). (363)
Small, frequent, dry meals of easily digested _________ foods may be tolerated by some women, whereas protein foods may reduce nausea for others. (364)
___________ supplementation may relieve leg cramps in pregnancy; however, it may ______ ____ ________ for every pregnant woman. (364)
Not be effective
_________-_________ __________ (___) includes gestational hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia. (365)
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
Gestational hypertension is a maternal blood pressure equal to or greater than ____/____ with no proteinuria that develops after mid pregnancy. (365)
Preeclampsia is defined by a systolic blood pressure of _____ or more or a diastolic blood pressure of ____ or more and urinary protein of 300 mg or more in a 24-hour urine sample. (365)
The Institute of Medicine recommends that women of normal weight prior to pregnancy gain ___ to ___ lbs, overweight women gain ___ to ___ lbs, and underweight women gain ___ to ___ lbs. (351)
25 to 35 lbs
15 to 25 lbs
28 to 40 lbs
__________ from the anterior pituitary stimulates alveolar cell milk production. (366)
_________ from the posterior pituitary stimulates the myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands to contract, causing movement of milk through the ducts and lactiferous sinuses, a process referred to as ___-_____. (366)
Lactation is nutritionally ___________, especially for the mother who nurses her infant exclusively for a number of months. Increased intake of _____ nutrients is advised. (366)
Most nutrients
The DRI for energy during lactation is ____ kcal greater during the first 6 months of lactation and ____ kcal greater during the second 6 months of lactation over that of a nonpregnant woman. (367)
It is generally advisable for lactating women to maintain an energy intake of at least ______ kcal/day. (367)
The baby should be put to breast after birth and remain in direct _____-___-_____ contact until the first feed is accomplished. (368)
Colostrum is higher in _______ and lower in _____ and carbohydrate than mature milk. Colostrum provides ~ __ kcal/oz and is a rich source of _______. (368)
Breast-feeding is a _______ ____ for both mother and infant. Patience, _________, and perseverance are necessary as mother and baby learn about each other. (368)
Learned skill
Because breast milk is a learned skill, babies should be put to breast soon and remain in direct skin to skin contact until the first feed is successful. Breast-feeding requires practice, ________, and _______________. (368)
Patience, and preserverance
Signs of breast-feeding readiness include ______, ______, and sucking movements.
fussy, crying
It is best to avoid supplemental bottles until the milk supply is established, usually around 3 to 4 weeks after birth. Exclusive breast-feeding is recommended for the first ____ months. (368)
6 months
If the baby continues to gain weight and length steadily, has at least ______ to ______ wet diapers daily, and has frequent ______ the milk supply is probably adequate. (369)
six to eight
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first ____ months but may continue for the first year as long as it is mutually desirable by mother and child. (368)
Breast augmentation: Periareolar and transareolar incisions can cause lactation __________. These mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed while also monitoring the infant’s ______ _____. (370)
weight gain
_________ causes of FTT while breastfeeding include poor let-down: _____, ______, certain _____, __________, _______; and poor production: __________, excessive antihistamine use, insufficient development of alveolar tissue, excessive caffeine use, ________, poor ______, retained placental fragment, and ________. (369)
Stress, anxiety, certain drugs, hypertension, smoking
Illness, poor diet
________ causes of ______ while breastfeeding include high energy requirement: _____ defect, _________ _______ _____, ______ _____ _________ _____;low net intake: vomiting and diarrhea, malabsorption, or infection; and poor production: poor suck, contented/sleepy nature, infrequent feeding, and certain craniofacial abnormalities. (369)
CNS defect, congenital heart defect, small for gestational age
Women with less than ___% body fat often do not menstruate, and those will less than __% often do not ovulate.
_______ is the thin, yellow, milky fluid rich in antibodies that may be released for several weeks before term and for a few days after delivery.
Most infants who are genetically determined to be larger reach their _______ _________, a curve of weight and length of height gain throughout the period of growth, between 3 and 6 months of age. (375)
Growth channel
Many infants born at or below the tenth percentile for length may not reach their genetically appropriate growth channel until 1 year of age; this is called ______-__ _______. (375)
Catch-up growth
Larger infants at birth who are genetically determined to be smaller grow at their fetal rate for several months and often do not reach their growth channel until 13 months of age; this is called ____-______ growth. (375)
Infants lose about ___% of their body weight during the first few days of life, but their birth weight is usually gained by the ____ to ____ day. (375)
7th to 10th day
Infants usually double their birth weight by ___ to ___ months of age and triple it by the age of ____ _____. (375)
4 to 6 months
one year
The leading causes of infant mortality are __________, ___________, and low birth weight (972-973)
The stomach capacity of infants increases from a range of ____ to ____ ml at birth to _____ ml by 1 year, enabling infants to consume more food at a given time and at less frequent intervals as they grow older. (376)
10 to 20 ml
200 ml
Full-term infants who are breast-fed to satiety and infants who are fed a standard 20-kcal/oz formula generally adjust their intake to meet their _______ needs when caregivers are sensitive to the infant’s hunger and satiety cues. (376)
Infants may not receive adequate _______ if their formula is excessively diluted for a long period of time. (376)
Protein requirements during the rapid growth of infancy are _______ per kg of weight than those for adults or older children. (376)
The amount of protein in human milk is adequate for the first ____ months of the infant’s life even though the amount of protein in human milk is considerably less than in infant formula. (376)
In the last 6 months of the first year, diets of infants should be supplemented with additional sources of high-quality protein such as ________, strained meats, or cereal mixed with formula or _____ _____. (376)
human milk
The current recommendation for infants younger than 1 year of age is to consume a minimum of ____ g of fat per day. (377)
Human milk contains a generous amount of the essential fatty acids ________ acid and _____-________ acid, as well as the longer-chain derivatives arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (377)
Botulism is infancy is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores, which germinate and produce toxin in the _______ lumen. (377)
_______ and corn syrup should not be fed to infants younger than 1 year of age because they have not yet developed the immunity required to resist botulism spore development. (377)
The recommended total water intake for infants, based on the DRIs, is ___ L/day for infants up to 6 months and ___ L/day for infants 7 to 12 months of age. (377)
Because the renal concentrating capacity of young infants may be less than that of older children and adults, they may be vulnerable to developing a _____ ________. This can be caused by boiling _______ or ______, vomiting, and diarrhea. P377
water imbalance
formula or milk
Breast-fed infants retain ~ ____ of their calcium intake. P378
Full-term infants are considered to have adequate stores of _____ for growth up to a doubling of their birth weight. (378)
At ___ to ____months of age, infants who are fed only human milk are at risk for developing a negative iron balance and may deplete their reserves by ___ to ____ months. (378)
4 to 6 months
6 to 9 months
Iron in human milk is highly bioavailable; however, breast-fed and formula-fed infants should receive an additional source of iron by ___ to ____ months of age. (378)
4 to 6 months
Cow’s milk is a poor source of _____ and should not be given before 12 months of age. (378)
Newborn infants are immediately dependent on a dietary source of _____ which is better absorbed from human milk than from infant formula. (378)
Human milk has a very low ________ content. (378)
Currently fluoride supplementation is not recommended for infants younger than ___ months of age. (378)
6 months
After tooth eruption it is recommended that fluoridated water be offered several times per day to breast-fed infants, those who receive _____ _____, and those fed formulas made with water that contains less than ___ mg of fluoride/L. (378)
cow’s milk
Human milk derived from an adequately fed, lactating mother supplies all the vitamins the term infant needs except for _______ ___. (378)
vitamin D
For the prevention of ______ and vitamin D deficiency, the AAP recommends a vitamin D supplement of 200 IU per day for all breast-fed infants and for formula-fed infants who consume less than _____ ml/day of vitamin D-fortified formula. (378)
Milk from lactating mothers who follow a strict vegan diet may be ______ ____ deficient. (378)
Vitamin B12
Vitamin ___ deficiency may result in bleeding or hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (379)
Many states require that infants receive an injection of ______ __ as a prophylactic measure while they are in the nursery. (379)
Vitamin K
Commercially prepared infant formulas are fortified with all necessary vitamins; therefore formula-fed infants rarely need __________. (379)
Breast-fed infants need an additional ________ ____ supplementation by 2 months of age and _____ by 4-6 months of age. (379)
Vitamin D
_______ _____ is unquestionably the food for choice for the infant. (379)
Human Milk
The ADA and the AAP support exclusive breast-feeding for the first ___ months of life and breast-feeding supplemented by weaning foods at least until ____ months of age. (379)
The much higher protein and ash content of cow’s milk results in a higher _____ _____ _____ or amount of nitrogenous waste and minerals that must be excreted by the kidney. (380)
renal solute load
Human milk and ________ contain antibodies and anti-infective factors that are not present in infant formulas; breastfeeding must be maintained until the infant is at least 3 months of age to obtain the benefit of protecting the infant’s immature gut from infection. (380)
Infants who have special requirements receive ________ ________ products. (381)
specially designed
The manufacture of infant formulas is regulated by the ____ through the Infant Formula Act. By law, infant formulas are required to have a _______ ______ that is consistent with these guidelines. (381)
Nutrient label
Soy products designed to meet all nutrient needs are recommended for (1) children in _________ families; (2) children with __________ or primary lactose deficiency / secondary lactose intolerance, and (3) infants who may be allergic to cow’s milk protein. (381)
Infants who are fed whole cow’s milk have been found to have lower intakes of _____, linoleic acid, and vitamin E and excessive intake of ________, potassium, and protein. Cow’s milk may cause a small amount of gastrointestinal _____ ____. (382)
Blood loss
Low fat (1-2%) and nonfat milk are also inappropriate for infants during the first ___ months of life due to the excessive amount of _______ and decreased amount of ________ ______ _____. (382)
Essential fatty acids
Infant formulas should be prepared in a ____ environment. All equipment, including ______, nipples, mixers, and the top of the can of formula should be washed thoroughly. (382)
Ready-to-serve dry infant cereals are fortified with electrolytically reduced _____ for improved absorption. (382)
Home-prepared foods are generally more concentrated in nutrients than commercially prepared foods because less _____ is used. Salt and _____ should not be added to foods prepared for infants. (382)
A mother should be encouraged to nurse her infant __________ after birth. (383)
__________________________ heating is not recommended because of the risk of burns from formula that is too hot or unevenly heated.
Regardless of whether infants are breast-fed or formula fed, they should be ____ and _______ during feedings. (383)
Held and cuddled
One to three month old satiety behaviors include: (383)
Drawing the head away from the nipple, falling asleep, smiling, when nipple is reinserted – closes lips tightly, bites nipple, purses lips or smiles and lets go
Four to six month old satiety behaviors include: (383)
Releasing nipple and withdrawing head, fussing or crying, obstructs mouth with hands, pays more attention to surroundings bites nipple
______, not adults, should establish the feeding schedules. (383)
Initially infants should be fed every ___ to ___ hours; by 4 weeks of age every ___ hours. (383)
2 to 3 hours
Between 4 and 6 months of age, when the mature sucking movement is refined and __________ movements (up and down chopping motions) begin, the introduction of strained foods is appropriate. (383)
It is important that ______ ingredient foods be introduced one at time. (383)
one single
Foods with skins or rinds and foods that stick to the roof of the mouth (hot dogs, _______, bread with ________ ______) may cause choking and should not be offered to young infants. (384)
Peanut butter
Many infants begin the process of weaning with the introduction of the _____ at ~6-9 months of age and complete the process when they are able to ingest an adequate amount of milk from a cup at ___ to ____ months of age. (384)
18 to 24 months
Early childhood caries are common among infants and children who are allowed to bathe their teeth in _____ (________ or _______) throughout the day and night. (386)
sugar (sucrose or lactose)
To promote dental health, infants should be fed and burped and then put to bed _______ _____, juice, or food. Juice should be limited to ___ to ___ oz/day for infants and young children and offered to children only from a cup. (386)
without milk
4 to 6 oz
Between 9 and 18 months of age most _______ their breast-milk or formula intake. They can become ______ about what and how much they eat. (386)
At the beginning of a meal, children are hungry and should be allowed to _____ __________; when they become tired, they can be helped quietly. (386)
feed themselves
In general, children prefer _____, ____________ foods. (386)
simple, uncomplicated
Older infants generally reject unfamiliar foods the _____ time they are offered. (387)
At 1 year infants eat ___ to ___ the amount an adult normally consumes. (387)
⅓ to ½
A _________ (not heaping) of each food for each year of age is a good guide for serving size. (387)
Children should not be _______ ___ _____; instead, the cause for the unwillingness to eat should be determined. (387)
forced to eat
If a child refuses to eat, the family meal should be completed without ________, and the plate should be removed. (387)
Young children should eat their meals at the _______ ______; it gives them an opportunity to learn table _________ while enjoying meals with a family group. Sharing the family fare strengthens ____ and makes mealtimes pleasant. (387)
family table
Body fat composition gradually _________ during the early childhood years, reaching a minimum between 4 and 6 years of age. Children then experience the __________ _________, or increase in body weight in preparation for the pubertal growth spurt. (389)
Adiposity rebound
A child who is recovering from an illness or undernutrition and whose growth has slowed or ceased experiences a _______-than-expected rate of recovery; this is called ______-___ growth. (390)
catch-up growth
A complete assessment of nutritional status includes the collection of ____________ data. This includes length of standing height, _______, and weight for length or BMI, all of which are plotted as percentiles on the CDC growth charts. (390)
Children generally maintain their heights and weights in the same ______ _______ during the preschool and childhood years, although the channels are not well established until after 2 years of age. (390)
growth channels
Regular monitoring of growth enables problematic trends to be identified ______ and intervention or education initiated so that long-term growth is not compromised. (390)
On an individual basis, it can be useful to determine energy requirements using energy per _________________________ or per centimeter of height.
Protein deficiency is uncommon in American children, partly because of the _______ emphasis on _______ foods. (391)
Children between 1 and 3 years of age are at high risk for _____ deficiency anemia.
Since milk and other dairy products are primary sources of calcium, children who consume limited amounts of these foods are at risk for poor _____ _____________. (391)
bone mineralization
Zinc is essential for growth; a deficiency results in _______ failure, poor appetite, decreased taste acuity, and poor _______ _______. Zinc is found in _____ and ________. (393)
wound healing
meat and seafood
Vitamin D is needed for _______ absorption and deposition of ________ in _______, as well as the prevention of cancer, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and infectious disease. (393)
calcium in bones
The AAP does not support giving healthy children routine supplements of any vitamins or minerals other than ________. (394)
Children who may benefit from supplementation include those from __________ families or who experience parental neglect or abuse; those with anorexia or who consume ____ diets; those with chronic _______ or who participate in dietary regimens to manage _______. (394)
In sensorimotor development (birth to 2 years) food is used primarily to _______ _______, explore the environment, and practice fine motor skills. (395)
satisfy hunger
In preoperational development (2-7 years) eating becomes less the center of attention and is secondary to ______, language, and cognitive growth. (395)
In concrete operations (7-11 years) the child realizes that nutritious food has a positive effect on ______ and ______ but has a limited understanding of how or why. (395)
growth and health
In formal operations (11 years and beyond) the concept of nutrients from food functioning at ___________ and __________ levels can be understood. (395)
physiologic and biochemical
Children drink less _____, but more of it is low-fat and nonfat. (394)
More energy comes from ______, and more food is consumed in environments other than the home. (394)
For toddlers and preschool children the _______ is the primary influence in the development of food habits. (394)
Parents and other adults provide safe, nutritious, ____________-__________ food as regular meals and snacks; the children decide ____ _____, if any, they eat. (394)
how much
School-age children and adolescents who eat more dinners with their families consume more ______ and ___________, less _____, and _______ ______ foods than those who rarely eat dinner with their families. (394)
fruits and vegetables, less soda, and fewer fried foods
A positive environment is one in which sufficient _____ is set aside to eat, occasional _____ are tolerated, and conversation that includes all family members is encouraged. (395)
Because almost ____ of women with school-age children are employed outside the home, children eat one or more meals at child-care homes, day-care centers, or schools. (395)
By the time average American children have graduated from high school, they have watched _________ hours of television and spent ________ hours in the classroom. (397)
Preschool children are generally ________ to distinguish commercial messages from regular programs. (397)
Television can be detrimental to growth and development because it encourages ________ and passive use of leisure time. (397)
Peer influences increases with age and affects food _________ and ________. Positive behaviors such as a willingness to try ____ foods can be reinforced. (397)
attitudes and choices
Children who are ill usually have a __________ appetite and _______ food intake. (398)
decreased appetite
As the growth rate ______ after the first year of life, appetite __________, which often concerns parents. (398)
They can develop ______ ____, or periods when foods that were previously liked are refused, or they can request a particular food at every meal. (398)
food jags
A general rule of thumb is to offer __ ___________ of each food for every year of age and to serve more food according to the child’s appetite. (398)
1 tablespoon
Young children do not eat well if they are ______, thus this should be considered when meal and play times are scheduled. A quiet activity or _____ immediately before eating is conducive to a relaxed, enjoyable meal. (398)
In addition to altering the diet’s nutrient content, excessive intake of ______ _______ can result in carbohydrate metabolism and chronic, nonspecific diarrhea. (398)
fruit juices
Excessive fruit juice consumption (12-30 oz/day) has been identified as a contributing factor in some cases of ___________ _____ ______ ___ _____ _______ in toddlers. (398)
decreased food intake or poor growth
The AAP recommends that fruit juice be limited to __ to __ oz per day for infants older than 6 months of age and toddlers and to __ to ____ oz per day for older children and adolescents.
4 to 6 oz
8 to 12 oz
Studies of lunches packed at home indicate that they usually provide fewer _________ but less ____ than school lunch meals. (400)
Today many school-age children are responsible for preparing their own ________. (401)
As children grow, they acquire __________ and assimilate concepts by leaps and bounds. The early years are ideal for providing __________ information and promoting positive attitudes about all foods. (401)
Obesity is defined as a BMI > 95th percentile and overweight is defined as a BMI between ____ and _____ percentiles. 402
85th and 94th
The BMI charts show the adiposity rebound, which normally occurs in children between __ and __ years of age. Children whose normal growth adiposity rebound occurs before ___ years of age are more likely to weigh more as adults than those whose adiposity rebound occurs after 7 years of age. (402)
4 and 6
5 ½
Research has shown that children who eat a supper meal with the family, _________ ___ ________ ______ ______ ____ _______ ______ ______ are less likely to be obese. (402)
obtaining an adequate nights sleep and limited screen time
Weight loss, lack of weight gain, or ________ ___ ______ (___) can be caused by an acute or chronic illness, a restricted diet, a poor appetite, feeding problems, a poor appetite because of constipation or medication, neglect, or a simple lack of ______. (403)
Failure to thrive (FTT)
Infants with ______ deficiency, with or without anemia, tend to score lower on standardized tests of mental development and pay less attention to relevant information needed for problem solving. (402)
Children who consume a large quantity of milk and exclude other foods may develop ________. Many young preschool children do not like _____, so more of their iron is consumed in the nonheme form from fortified cereals, which is absorbed less efficiently. (404)
Food allergies usually develop during infancy and childhood and are more likely when a child has a _______ _______ of allergies. (404)
family history
ADHD is a clinical diagnosis based on specific criteria—excessive motor activity, _____________, short attention span, low tolerance for ___________ and an onset before 7 years of age. (404)
ASD affects 1 in _____ children and affect the children’s nutrient intake and eating behaviors. (404)
The NCEP recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease in children older than 2 years of age are no more than ____% of calories from fat and no more than ____-____ mg of cholesterol per day. (404)
Children 1-3 years old are recommended to consume ___% to ___% of energy from carbohydrates, ___% to ___% from fat and ___-___% from protein. 391
45% to 65%
30% to 40%
5% to 10%
Children 4-18 years old are recommended to consume ___% to ___% of energy from carbohydrates, ___% to ___% from fat and ___% to ___% from protein.
45% to 65%
25% to 35%
10% to 30%
Osteoporosis prevention begins early by maximizing calcium retention and ______ density during childhood and adolescence, when bones are growing rapidly and are most sensitive to environmental influences such as diet and physical activity. (405)
The DRI for fiber for children is ___ g/1000 kcal. (405)
It is recommended that children be active for at least a total of ____ minutes per day, with activity including moderate to vigorous activities. (405)
The Kid’s My Activity Pyramid promotes substituting _________ activities for more physical active choices. It was created by ______. (406)
________ is the period of rapid growth and development during which a child physically develops into an adult and becomes capable of sexual reproduction. (410)
Sexual maturity rating, AKA as ________ _____, is used to clinically assess the degree of sexual maturation during puberty. (412)
Tanner stage
In general, females enter puberty ________ than males. (412)
__________, which is the onset of menses or menstruation, is often considered the hallmark of puberty among females, yet it occurs relatively late in puberty. Menarche occurs at _____-_____ years in the average female (range of 9-17 years). (413)
12.1 to 12.6
On average, adolescents gain about ___% of their adult height during puberty. (413)
Linear growth occurs throughout the 4-7 years of pubertal development in most teens; however the largest percentage of height is gained during an 18-24 month period commonly referred to as the _______ ______. The fastest rate of growth during the growth spurt is labeled the ______ ______ ____ _______. (413)
growth spurt
peak height gain velocity
Most girls gain no more than __ to __ _______ after menarche, although girls who have early menarche tend to grow more often its onset than do those having later menarche. (413)
2 to 3 inches
Teens gain ___ to ___% of adult body weight during adolescence. (413)
40 to 50%
Males gain twice as much lean tissue as females, resulting in differentiation in _______ _____ ____ and lean body mass. (413)
percent body fat
Early adolescence(13-15): Preoccupation with body size, shape, and ____ ______ (the mental self-concept and perception of personal body size) as a result of the _____ _____ and ___________ that has occurred. (411)
body image; rapid growth and development
Early adolescence(13-15): Continuation of trust and respect for _______ as authority figures (411)
Early adolescence(13-15): Strong influence of ______, especially around areas of body image and appearance, with ______ ________ peaking at approximately 14 years of age. (411)
peer pressure
Early adolescence(13-15): Desire for ________ but still wanting parental approval for ______ ________ and still seeking parental ________ when experiencing stress. (411)
major decisions
Early adolescence(13-15): Expanded _________ ability (411)
Early adolescence (13-15): Increased ________ _______ resulting in more independent purchasing power, including for _______ and _______. (411)
spending money
snacks and meals
Middle adolescence (15-17): Persistence of _____ _____ influence (412)
peer group
Middle adolescence (15-17): Trust in adult authority and wisdom _________. (412)
Middle adolescence (15-17): Social, emotional, and ________ independence becomes more pronounced. (412)
Middle adolescence (15-17): Significant _________ development. (412)
Late adolescence (18-21): Fully developed ________ reasoning (412)
Late adolescence (18-21): ________ _______ orientation (412)
Developed future
Late adolescence (18-21): Social, emotional, ________, and physical independence from family (412)
Late adolescence (18-21): Development of a core set of values and beliefs that guides _______, ethical, and health-related decisions (412)
Estimated energy requirements are calculated using an adolescent’s gender, age, _______, _______, and physical activity level, with an additional 25 kcal/day added for energy deposition or growth. (414)
height, weight
Actual protein needs are best determined based on a per ________ of body weight method during puberty to account for differences in rates of growth and development among teens. (415)
Carbohydrate requirements of adolescents are estimated to be _____ g/day. (415)
A fiber intake of ___g/1000 calories provides optimal protection against CVD and cancer.
Fat intake should not exceed ___ to ___% of total calories with no more than ___% of calories coming from saturated fatty acids. (416)
30% to 45%
According to the What We Eat in America survey, in all age and gender categories, the intakes of vitamin ___, _______, and _____ are too low for adolescents. 416
vitamin E, calcium, and fiber
Because of accelerated muscular, skeletal, and endocrine development, ________ needs are greater during puberty and adolescence than during childhood or adult years. (416)
The AI for calcium is _____ mg for all adolescents. (417)
Iron requirements are increased during adolescence for the deposition of lean body mass, increase in ____ ______ ____ volume, and to support iron lost during ________ among females. (417)
red blood cell
Adolescents may be at risk for vit D deficiency if they live in ________ _______, have ______________ _________, are lactose intolerant, have a milk allergy, have ________ pigmented skin, or who have ________ ____ _________. (418)
northern climates, have developmental disability
Have darkly pigmented skin
Limited sun exposure
The need for folate increases during later adolescence to support accretion of lean body mass and to provide AI among females of reproductive age as a preventive measure against _______ _____ ______. (417)
neural tube defects
Food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables and ______ fruit, as well as fortified grain products.
The position statement of the ADA on vitamin and mineral supplementation states that consuming a wide variety of foods is ________ to nutrient supplementation as a method for obtaining adequate vitamins and minerals. (418)
Food habits that are seen more frequently among teens than other age-groups include irregular consumption of meals, excessive _________, eating away from ______, dieting, and meal skipping. (418)
_____ of 12 year olds eat supper with their families every day and only ___% of 17 year olds eat dinner each day with their families. (420)
Limit snacking on high sodium foods, increase whole grain snacks and __________________________, are all good examples of goals to set when counseling teenagers. (419)
Health professionals should refrain from asking teenagers not to eat fast foods and should instead counsel them on how to make wise and ________ choices when eating these foods. (419)
______ ________ concerns are common during adolescence. (420)
Body image
Forty-two percent of US teens reported eating fewer _______ or less ____ in the previous month to either lose weight or to prevent weight gain. (420)
Sixty-seven percent of females had __________ in the previous month to lose weight or prevent weight gain compared to 55 % of males, making it the most popular healthy weight control method among adolescents. (421)
Weight, height, and BMI should be plotted using the CDC NCHS BMI tables to determine appropriateness of ________ for ________. (421)
weight for height
Although BMI is not a direct measure of body fatness and thus cannot be used to clinically assess obesity, it is highly __________ with body fatness and is the recommended screening method for weight status among youth. (421)
*note* updated information from textbook. In adolescents, a BMI below the 5th percentile is underweight, a BMI between the 5th and 85th percentile is normal, a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, but below the 95th percentile, indicates that an adolescent is overweight, whereas a BMI at or above the 95th percentile indicates the presence of obesity. (outdated information on page 421)
Knowledge, _________, and behavior must be addressed when guiding adolescents toward acquiring healthful food habits. (421)
Vegetarian diets that include _____ or _____ products are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and can meet the DRIs for all nutrients. (422)
eggs or dairy
Numerous adolescents who have disordered eating do not meet strict diagnostic criteria for either anorexia or bulimia. Some examples might be binge-purge behavior, __________ _________, ________ and _________ abuse, and binge eating. (424)
compensory exercise, laxative and diuretic abuse
Characteristics of anorexia nervosa include: ___________ _____ _______ _________, ______________ with thinness, and ___________ dietary behaviors. (424)
dangerously low body weight, preoccupation with thinness, and restrictive dietary behaviors
Characteristics of bulimia nervosa include: a body weight that is close to ________, episodes of _________ eating (________), and efforts to eliminate _________ or food from the _______ (________). (424)
a body weight that is close to normal, episodes of uncontrollable eating (bingeing), and efforts to eliminate calories or food from the body (purging)
The incidence of obesity in teenagers is increasing with about _____% of US children and teens being overweight. (424)
CVD risk factors also tend to cluster, resulting in ____________________ syndrome.
Teenagers 17 years of age and younger are determined to have ______________ if their average blood pressure readings fall between the 90th and 94th percentiles. (427)
Hypertension is diagnosed when the average of ______ blood pressure measurements exceed the 95th percentile for age, gender, and height. (427)
The _________ __________ to ____ ____________ (_____) eating pattern has been shown to be effective in reducing blood pressure in many individuals. (427)
Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)
National recommendations for physical activity suggest that all youth should participate in ___ minutes activity on most if not all days of the week and should engage in strenuous activity at least ___ days each week. (427)
60 minutes
3 days
Teenage ________ have unique nutrient needs. Adequate _____ intake to prevent dehydration is especially critical for young athletes. (427)
____________ _____ refers to the number of years between the onset of menses and current age. (428)
Gynecologic age
Pregnant adolescents with a ___________ _____ of less than 4 and those who are undernourished at the time of conception have the greatest nutritional needs. (427)
Gynecologic age
A decreased ______ ____ as determined by the obstetrician during pregnancy is called intrauterine growth restriction. (973)
weight gain
The development and use of ____________________, a mixture of lipoproteins secreted by alveolar cells into the alveoli and respiratory air passages that contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissue, has increased the survival of pre-term infants, as has the use of antepartum _______________________.
At birth an infant who weighs less than 5 ½ lb is classified as having a ____ _____ ______. (973)
low birth weight
An infant weighing less than 3 1/3 lb has a _____ _____ _____ _______. (973)
very low birth weight
An infant weighing less than 2 ¼ lbs has an _________ ____ ______ _______. (973)
extremely low birth weight
The _____ infant is born between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation. (973)
A premature infant is born before ___ weeks of gestation, whereas a post-term infant is born after ____ weeks of gestation. (973)
An infant who is ______ ___________ _____ (___) has a birth weight that is lower than the 10th percentile of the standard weight for that gestational age. (973)
small gestational age (SGA)
The leading cause of death in infants are birth defects, ____________, and______ (973)
Premature infants are at high risk for poor nutrition status because of poor nutrient stores, physiologic immaturity, _______, and the nutrient demands required for growth. (973)
With basal metabolic needs of ~___ kcal/kg/day, it is obvious that the premature infant will rapidly run out of fat and carbohydrate fuel unless adequate nutrition support is established. (974)
A major route of water loss in preterm infants is _________ through the skin and respiratory tract. This is related to their larger body surface area in relation to body weight, increased ___________ of the skin epidermis to water, and greater skin blood flow relative to metabolic rate. (975)
Insensible water loss is increased by _________ ________ and phototherapy lights and decreased by heat shields, thermal blankets and ___________ incubators. (975)
radiant warmers
Usually fluid is administered at a rate of ___ to ____ ml/kg/day the first day of life to meet insensible losses and urine output. (975)
80 to 105 ml
Fluid needs are then evaluated by assessing fluid intake and comparing it with the clinical parameters of _______ _______ volume, ______ ________ ______, and serum __________, ________, and _____ ________ levels. (975)
urine output volume, urine specific gravity, and serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels
The energy needs of preterm infants fed __________ are less than those of enterally fed infants because absorption loss does not occur when nutritional intake bypasses the intestinal tract. (975)
Enterally fed preterm infants usually require ____ to ____ kcal/kg/day to grow, whereas parenterally fed premature neonates can grow well if they receive ___ to ____ kcal/kg/day.
105 to 130
90 to 100
Prevention of hyperglycemia is important because it can lead to ________ and _________ (977)
diuresis and dehydration
Protein guidelines range from ____ to ____ g/kg/day. In practice preterm infants are usually given ____ to ___ g/kg/day of protein for the first few days of life, and then protein is provided as tolerated. (977)
2.7 to 3.5
1.5 to 3
Intravenous fat emulsions are used for two reasons: (1) to meet _________ ______ _____ (___) requirement, and (2) to provide a concentrated source of ______. (977)
Essential fatty acids (EFA)
Premature infants who receive PN with low calcium and phosphorus concentrations are at risk for developing __________ of prematurity. (978)
Preterm infants have higher calcium and phosphorus needs than _____ infants. However, it is difficult to add enough calcium and phosphorus to parenteral solutions to meet these higher requirements without causing ___________ of the minerals. (978)
Parenteral ____ is not routinely provided because treated infants often receive blood transfusions soon after birth. (979)
Shortly after birth all newborn infants receive an intramuscular injection of ___ to __ mg of _______ __ to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (979)
0.5 to 1mg of Vitamin K
Respiratory distress syndrome is a disease that occurs in premature infant shortly after birth because these infants are deficient in the lung substance __________. (979)
When making the transition from parenteral to enteral feeding, it is important to maintain parenteral feeding until enteral feeding is ____ __________ to maintain adequate net intake of fluid and nutrients. (980)
well established
It is estimated that an intake of ____ kcal/kg/day is required to meet maintenance energy needs, compared with _____ to _____ kcal/kg/day for growth. (980)
105 to 130kcal
Recommended protein intake is ___ to ___ g/kg/day and _____ protein is the recommended type. (981)
3.5 to 4g
Fat should constitute ____ to ____% of total calories and ________ ____ should comprise 3% of the total calories. (981)
40% to 50%
Linoleic acid
The recommended range for carbohydrate intake is ___ to ___% of total calories with the major component being _______ from milk.
40% to 50%
Premature infants require the same vitamins and minerals as term infants, but poor body ______, physiologic immaturity, illness, and rapid growth increase their needs. Formulas and ________ ______ ________ that are developed especially for preterm infants contain higher vitamin and mineral concentrations to meet the needs of the infant, obviating the need for additional supplementation in most cases. (982)
human milk fortifiers
With poor mineral stores and low dietary intake, preterm infants can develop __________ of prematurity, a disease characterized by demineralization of growing bones and documented by radiologic evidence of “washed out” or thin bones. (983)
The recommended range of intake for preterm infants for vitamin D is ____ to ____ IU/day. (983)
150 to 400 IU/day
Preterm infants require more _______ ___ than term infants because of their limited tissue stores, decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and rapid growth. (983)
vitamin E
A premature infant with vitamin E deficiency may experience _________ ________. (983)
hemolytic anemia
Preterm infants are at risk for _____ deficiency anemia because of the reduced stores associated with early birth. (983)
Premature infants seem to have higher ______ _____ needs than infants born at term. (983)
folic acid
Preterm infants, especially those with VLBW, are susceptible to __________ during the neonatal period. These infants may have excessive urinary sodium losses because of _____ __________ and an inability to conserve adequate sodium. Furthermore, their sodium needs are high because of their ______ ______ ____. (983)
renal immaturity
rapid growth rate
With the oral ______ _______ method, a soft feeding tube is inserted through the infant’s mouth and into the stomach. (984)
Gastric gavage
Nipple-feeding may be attempted with infants whose gestational age is greater than ___ weeks and whose ability to feed from a nipple is indicated by evidence of an established sucking reflex and sucking motion. Before this time they are unable to coordinate _______, _________, and _________. (984)
sucking, swallowing, and breathing
_________ baby care, allowing the mother to maintain skin to skin contact while holding her infant, facilitates her lactation. (984)
Gastric residuals, measured by aspiration of the stomach contents, should be determined routinely ______ each bolus gavage feeding and intermittently in all continuous drip feedings. (985)
Another approach to increasing the energy content of a formula involves the use of caloric supplements such as corn oil, ____ ____, and glucose polymers such as Polycose. These supplements increase the caloric density of the formula without markedly altering solute load or osmolality. (987)
MCT oil
An infant’s birth weight should be regained by the _____ or _____ week of life. The smallest and sickest infants take the ________ time to regain their birth weights. (988)
2nd or 3rd
40 weeks – gestational age = __ of _______ ________. Chronologic age – correction factor = _________ ____ for ___________. (989)
# of weeks premature
Adjusted age for prematurity
In order to be discharged home, preterm infants must be able to (1) _______ ____ _____ ____ ______ ____ ___ ___ ____ ________ ____ ___ ______ ___ ______ (2) _____ ________ ____ ___ _______-________ _____ ______ (usually every 3 to 4 hours during the day for bottle-fed infants or every 2 to 3 hours for breast-fed infants) and (3) _____ _____ _____ __________ ______ _______ ______ ____ __ __ __________. (989-991)
Tolerate their feedings and usually obtain all of their feedings from the breast or bottle
Grow adequately on a modified-demand feeding schedule (usually ever 3 to 4 hours during the day for bottle-fed infants or every 2 to 3 hours for breast-fed infants)
Maintain their body temperature without the help of an incubator
Physical factors such as a variable ______ rate, a rapid _________ rate, and tremulousness are examples of physiologic events that interfere with feeding; infants weighing less than 5 ½ lbs have poor _____ tone. (992)
The feeding environment should be as ______ as possible to avoid overstimulation. When overstimulated, they may show only ________ signs of distress. (992)
Standard formula contains ___ kcals/oz and breast milk contains ____ kcals/oz. 987
________ _________ refers to access to safe, acceptable, and adequate food sources. (433)
Food security
Biologically active, naturally occurring substances in plants that act as natural defense systems and show potential for reducing the risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease are known as ____________. (431)
_____________ is a process that involves being aware of better health and actively working toward that goal.
Diet and lifestyle are linked to prevention and control of heart disease, ___________, diabetes, and some cancers. (434)
The __________ _________ is a cluster of metabolic disorders most likely to be recognized in midlife and includes high fasting blood ________ levels, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity.
metabolic syndrome
Poor nutrition habits and lack of exercise can contribute to many health risks including: CAD, _______, HTN, _____ ___ _______, __________, anxiety, and ____________. (434)
type 2 diabetes
If an individual is overweight or obese, they are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, DM, ______________, and _____________.
Phytochemicals in ______ may boost detoxification in the body.
HTN, Hyperlipidemia, and ___________ ______ ________ seen together with or without obesity is identified by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome are often also later diagnosed with Type II diabetes.
increased blood glucose
Increased blood pressure leads to ____.
The decrease in circulating estrogen limits the body’s ability to ________ ______, the natural process of bone turnover.
Remodel bones
Lower levels of circulating estrogen affects blood lipid levels by increasing ___________ and _____, and decreasing ____. (435)
Lower levels of circulating estrogen also affects brain function, particularly ________.
Women suffering from premenstrual syndrome should be encouraged to consume foods like whole grains, fruits, vegetables, _____ ______, and ____ ____ _____/____. (435)
lean protein and low fat dairy/soy
According to nutrition experts, the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to _______ _____ __ _____ ______ ___ ________ ____ ______. (436)
choose from a wide variety of nutrient rich foods
Flavonoids, ____________, and ___________, are all different examples of phytochemicals.
anthocyanins and carotenoids
Phytoestrogens (isoflavones) may contribute to healthy bones and brain function. The health benefits may include reducing the risk for heart disease, certain types of ______, and reducing __________ symptoms during menopause; found in soybeans and soybean products.
vasomotor symptoms
Probiotics are the beneficial bacteria that improve _____________ heath and may improve ________ __________; found in yogurt, buttermilk, and kefir.
gastrointestinal health
calcium absorption
The DGA, 2010 encourages _______ _______ foods instead of calorie dense foods. (p436)
nutrient dense
The DGA, 2010 stresses the need to increase the intake of whole grains, fruits, __________ and ______ and _____ as well as the concept of nutrient density. (p437)
vegetables and seeds and nuts
___________ _____ are fruits and vegetables, flax seeds, fish oils, whole grains, certain spices, yogurt, nuts, soy, and legumes that are associated with having benefits beyond their usual nutrient value.
functional foods
_____________ or phytonutrients are biologically active and naturally occurring chemical compounds in plant foods; act as a natural defense for their host.
____ can be used to displace animal protein and help lower intake of saturated fat.
Isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables; organosulfuric compounds in garlic, onions, and other members of the allium family; and the components present in prebiotics and the bacteria of probiotics are foods that can affect ______________ in both prevention and healing. (438)
The DGA noted that women age ___ and older and men age ___ and older at risk for heart disease were in the groups most likely to benefit from light-to-moderate alcohol intake. (437)
Moderation of alcohol is defined as ___ drink a day for women and up to ___ drinks a day for males.
1 drink
2 drinks
A drink is defined as ___ oz of regular beer, ___ oz of wine, or ___ oz of 80-proof distilled liquor.
____________ are found around the digestive tract and prevent absorption of bacteria and viruses. (438)
A healthy body mass index for adults is between 19 and 24. Overweight BMI is defined as between ___ and ___. Obese BMI is 30 to 35. (1067)
25 and 29
The study of the chronic diseases frequently associated with aging, including diagnosis and treatment is known as __________.
Women live _______ than men. They make up more than half of the young old and _________ of the oldest old.
Over ___% of older men are married.
Women are ___ times as likely as men to be widowed.
Centenarians often have a history of consuming very little animal protein, ___ to ___ servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. They are also regularly active, rarely ______ and consume little to no alcohol. (443)
4 to 6
The fastest growing segment of the population is those older than ___.
The one percent rule refers to the loss of function of most _______ systems at the rate of about 1% per year starting at age 30.
What would be some nutritional recommendations for an underweight nursing home resident who is at risk for malnutrition. Increased _______/_______ intake, add _______/______, increase _______ and _______ dense foods.
nutrient and calorie
As individuals age, the immune response ________________?
Body composition changes of _________ fat mass and visceral fat and __________ lean muscle mass are seen in aging.
__________ is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and function.
___________ accelerates with a decrease in physical activity, but weight-bearing exercise can slow its pace.
Dysguesia is the loss of _____.
________ is the insufficient production of stomach acid. The decline in acid can be due to age as well as atrophic _____________________.
Foods high in ______ will assist the elderly in improving appetite and helping with wound healing. (450)
Sufficient stomach acid and _______ _______ are required for absorption of vitamin B12.
intrinsic factor
Primary causes of constipation include insufficient ______, lack of physical activity, and low intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, what is the best treatment?
Constipation is also caused by delayed transit time in the gut and __________.
_____ occurs when the macula degrades resulting in central vision loss. A diet rich in _____ and _________ may help delay or prevent the development of this eye disease.
fruits and vegetables
Damage to the optic nerve resulting from high pressure in the eye is known as ________. Good blood sugar control will help prevent this eye disease. (448)
Clouding of the lens of the eye is known as _______. A high sodium diet may _______ the risk of cataract development. A diet high in antioxidants may decrease cataract development.
Good _______ ________ control helps protects retina and lowers the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when blood vessels of the retina _____ & produce ___________.
blood glucose
Malnutrition (protein) and undernutrition (energy) set the stage for the development of _________ ______ and delayed wound healing.
Pressure ulcers
Vitamins B12 and D may play a role in ________ ______.
hearing loss
Stage I pressure ulcer has intact skin; stage 2 is a partial thickness loss of _____; stage 3 is full thickness tissue loss; and stage 4 is full thickness loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle.
A MVI with 15mg of zinc would be recommended for which stage(s) of pressure ulcers?
3 and 4
Activities of daily living include: feeding, bed/chair transfer, indoor/outdoor mobility, ________, bathing, ________, and continence.
Instrumental activities of daily living include: telephone use, traveling, ________, preparing meals, doing light housework, taking __________ and money management.
Among those hospitalized, ___-___% are malnourished or at risk for malnutrition; ___-___% of nursing home residents have malnutrition; and ___-___% of home care patients are malnourished
40 to 85%
20 to 60%
Strategies to decrease PEM include liberalizing food choices and possibly adding gravies or creams to ________ _________ and _________ foods for easier chewing. (451)
Basal metabolic rates _________ linearly with age. (454)
Low _____ intake is associated with impaired immune function, anorexia, loss of sense of taste, delayed wound healing, and pressure ulcer development.(455)
Fluid intake of at least ______ ml/day ensures proper hydration.
New evidence supports protein recommendations for most older adults that do NOT have impaired renal function or long-standing DM are between ___ up to ___ gm/kg. (452-453)
1 up to 1.2g
Medicare Part D subsidized _________ _____ _______ for the disabled and those over age 65.
prescription drug benefits
Beginning in 2010, Medicare covers nutrition services by an RD considered __________ and __________ for the prevention of an _________ or ________. (453)
reasonable and necessary
an illness or disability
_________ ________ took effect for new Medicare beneficiaries in 2005 and covers physical exams, height, weight, and blood pressure monitoring, and EKGs; education, counseling, and referrals.
Preventive services
To receive home-delivered meals, an individual must be assessed to be ____________ or otherwise isolated; this service is administered by the _____ _________ ________.
OAA nutrition program
In 1987, Congress approved the initial nursing home reform legislation as a part of the Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA) to improve _______ of _____ for nursing home residents by strengthening standards that must be met for Medicaid reimbursement. (457)
quality of care
Older adults need to limit their sodium intake to ______ mg per day. (455)
Older adults need at least _____ ml of fluid daily.
What US government agency provides home delivered meals? ____ (_______ on _______)
OAA (meals on wheels)
The protein recommendations for healthy older adults is ___ – _____ and for older adults that have diabetes or impaired renal function are ____/kg
Which anthropometric measurements may not be as accurate to use with the elderly? _____/______, ____ (452)
height/weight, BMI