Which of the following statements more accurately depicts health status of older Americans today?
Those over age 75 have noticeable physical declines compared with middle-age.
___ percent of Americans 65 and over live successfully or nearly successfully in the community
The majority of non institutionalized elders in the U.S. have
relatively minor chronic conditions
ADLs includes what tasks?
washing, feeding, and dressing
The major killing disease in the U.S. and other industrialized countries is?
Coronary artery disease
Artheroschlerosis occurs when
fat and cholesterol crystals accumulate on the walls of the arteries.
Which of the following contributes to atherosclerosis?
high cholesterol and blood pressure
A diet high in refined sugars and saturated fats
obesity and stress
An infarct is
dead heart tissues due to deficient blood supply
Gender comparisons regarding heart attacks show
women are more likely to die from a heart attack
Thrombosis is closely associated with
What factor causes an increased risk of developing osteoporosis?
large body frame
What is considered as the risk factor for developing coronary heart disease?
Excess body fat
The most common cause of accudental death among the elderly is
Treatments for osteoarthritis include
anti inflammatory drugs and steroids
reduction of strain
The type of arthritis that most often poses problems for those 65 and older is
Osteoarthritis that occurs late in life is most likely to be
in the large or overused joints
Bone loss from inadequate diet, reduced calcium absorption efficiency, and inadequate physical activity can result in a condition called
All of the following are believed to be causes of osteoporosis EXCEPT
Among older adults falls are the most common cause of accidental death. Other major causes include
Suffocation from objects ingested and burns
Obesity increases problems off
Senescence refers to
onset of the degenerative process associated with age
The life expectancy for a child born today is about
A major study of those over 100 years of age found that they died of organic failure due to all of the following EXCEPT
Damage theories are based on the idea that
Aging is the result of accumulated errors
Our “biological clock” beings at
_____ theories of aging propose that as people age they develop a greater capacity to produce antibodies that destroy even normal cells
____ theory of agin proposes that irreplaceable body parts simply wear out
Cellular wear and tear
Free radicals are
highly reactive molecules that mangle vital enzymes and membranes
Studies of caloric restriction and longevity in animals show that
With caloric restrictions animals live longer and have a lower incidence of heart disease and cancer
A nutritional study of elderly sportsmen demonstrated a correlation between maximum oxygen uptake as a measure of physical fitness and
A high fiber diet protects an individual against what ailment(s)
Constipation and intestinal disease
gallstone and cancer
All of the following factors contribute to nutritional difficulties for the very old EXCEPT
high levels of cholesterol
Because of reduced kidney function, elders should eat less______ to avoid kidney strain
Exercise for people in late life is
contributes to health even if not begun until later life
According to your text, what kind of exercise is specifically stated to benefit the elderly?
Strength training and flexibility excercises
A longitudinal study of health and lifestyles of Harvard men found
humility caused them to be healthy and lived longer
A longitudinal study of master athletes predicts that athletic performance will not decline significantly until age
Which of the following personality traits is LEAST likely to be life shortening?
A shortened life is statistically correlated with all the following EXCEPT
divorce in women
A study of centenarian cited in your text described them as
having a high intake of saturated fats
Absolute human life span is the maximum chronological age that a human can live
Presbyopia is a heart condition
With aging, the body’s immune system increases in its capacity to protect a person from disease
Acute diseases decline with age
Most of the major health problems of old age result from the aging process, rather than the presence of diseases
A high waist-to-hip ratio of excess body fat was more strongly related to coronary heart disease among men than uniform excess weight over the body
Coronary disease results in deficient blood supply to the heart
Some general causes of cancer include an excess amount of fluid ingested
A recent study of elders with cancer showed cancer substantially reduced their physical function
Rheumatoid arthritis and gout are rare and more painful than just the general arthritis
New bone formation is stimulated by medication and diet
Cell damage is mainly due to changes in one dominate tissue
Scientists believe that low caloric intake helps protect the immune system
Women are more likely to live in poverty and have fewer chronic illness that men
Physicians believe strength-training is inappropriate for elderly over 75 years old
What factors cause depression in older adults?
fear of death and constant pain
lost of self esteem and confidence
a self appraisal or self monitoring of memory
The five senses generally
lose their sharpness with age
takes in information so rapidly that most of it gets lost
Selective attention involves
focusing attention on certain stimuli and inhibiting responses to irrelevant information
When comparing older and younger adults in task performances, studies have found
older individuals are more distracted and unable to disregard clutter of irrelevant information
_____ is the process of evaluating the sensory information carried to the brain
Differences in perception among age groups
are frequently reported
may be due to differences in social isolation
may be caused by biological changes
Which of the following illustrate motor performance?
pressing a button to turn on a television
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be affected by psychomotor speed?
Recalling a happy event
differs depending on the task and not the age
Cognitive pragmatics refers to
knowledge and life experience
Which of the following activities is most likely to increase reaction time?
Which of the following is NOT a dimension of intelligence conceptualized by Guilford?
Sensory memory, psychomotor speed, and reaction time
Measures of intelligence have ben criticized as being ageist because they
are inadequate to measure applied knowledge
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence test
compensates for increasing age
Fluid intelligence measures
innate ability to process information
Crystalized intelligence is
the measure of knowledge acquired through experience and education
Longitudinal studies of IQ have found that_____ remain stable with time.
Research suggests decline in intelligence begins to take on significance in the
Evidence suggests the most age sensitive mental ability is
Which of the following is more likely to be a problem with a cross sectional, than a longitudinal study?
younger generations do not do as well on standardized tests.
The theory of terminal decline or terminal drop proposes
a precipitous decrease in cognitive functioning occurs one or two years before death.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to hinder the learning old older adults?
Once information is transferred to _______, people of all ages are able to recall it.
Working memory refers to
processing of sensory stimuli to give meaning and transfer to long term storage.
Which of the following is most likely to illustrate tertiary memory?
your sisters’s birth
_____ shows little change with age
Being unable to remember a phone number given to you orally long enough to dial the number illustrates a failure of
TOT, “Tip of the tongue” syndrome refers to
on the verge of recalling a name, date, or event and unable to do it
In which kind of memory test are older people likely to do as well as if not better than younger people?
tests of recognition
Studies of long term memory have found age differences in
perceptual speed of memory retrieval
Symptoms of senility are LEAST likely to be due to
the biological aging process
are of psychological, not physical, origin
When a person who fears being robbed or mugged will not leave home, gets dozens of locks, and constantly checks them, he or she is most likely to suffer from
Generalized anxiety disorder
Constantly washing one’s hands is a symptom of
Recent studies reveal that
one or two percent of older adults are clinically (severely) depressed
If a person is lethargic, has low self-esteem, and finds life confusing they may have which type of disorder?
The ______ personality tends to be a solitary person who lacks the capacity for warm, close social relationships
are mood disorders
Speaking a language that seems to be self expression of disturbance in behavior is most likely to be a symptom of
All of the following characterize dementia EXCEPT
it is a normal part of the aging process
A lack of awareness of oneself or one’s surroundings is called
Multi-infarct dementia (MID)
rises from problems with blood flow to the brain
Dementia from _____ may result from lack of vitamin B12
Examination of psychiatric services for the elderly in U.S. and Canada reveal all of the following EXCEPT
psychiatric services for elders are more accessible in the United States because of universal health insurance.
Older adults are likely to have incorporated ageist beliefs about memory
Memory starts our as a thought of recall
Sensory threshold is the minimum intensity of a stimuli required for a person to perceive it
The classic aging pattern is high verbal scores and declining performance scores of older adults
If someone can not remember something, it means learning has not adequately occured
T.O.T states for Top of the Tongue syndrome
If used, memory will be maintained or even improve as an individual grows older.
Senility is an inevitable consequence of growing old
Most people over 65 who suffer from depression are not receiving and formal psychiatric treatment
Hypochondria is an indicator of emotional problems
The most common form of chronic organic brain disease is Parkinson’s disease
The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease is increasing
Alcoholism can lead to dementia
Huntington’s disease symptoms are very similar to Alzheimer disease symptoms
Parkinson’s disease is more common among women than men
Which of the following illustrates a change in the American family today?
The post parental stage of life lasts longer
Bonds between___ tend to be second only to mother-child ties in intensity and complexity
The authors of your text predict that
the family support system will become smaller
A review of previous research on siblings contact reveals
siblings generally maintain contact with each other
Research reports the bond of siblings to be_____ than in the past
Having more sisters in a family
increases the level of care to the parents
Kin relationships in white-collar families differ from those of blue-collar families in which of the following ways?
White collar families are more likely to geographically scattered
Urban elders, in contrast to rural elders
interact more with their children
The _____ generation family is becoming common in the current population
Reasons grandparents become parents to grandchildren, according to the text include all of the following EXCEPT
Grandparents who have taken responsibility for raising their grandchildren are likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT
stress from having little contact with the child’s parent
Research suggests that, compared to grandparents in other societies, American grandparents
play a background, supportive role, especially in times of crisis
Studies of grandparents whose children have divorced show
about half were friendly with their child’s former spouce
in a study by Dorothy Apple it was learned that the relationship between grandparents and grandchildren tended to be ______ and ______ in household where grandparents retained little control
Legal visitation rights between grandparents and grandchildren
are generally permitted if provisions for visiting the grandparents were made prior to the divorce
Studies of friendship among the elderly have found
most elderly friends keep in touch weekly
Studies of equity and morale have found
the equitably benefited women had the highest morale
In elderly women’s friendship networks
the essential elements of friendship– understanding, affection, trust, and acceptance– endure over time
According to your text, a confidant is described as
someone to confide in and share personal problems
According to your text, a companion is defined as
someone who regularly shares in activities with you
The elderly are most likely to join a
lodge or fraternal organization
Studies of voluntary particular that controlled for social class found
being a “joiner” is related to middle or upper class lifestyle, and aging does not necessarily change this lifestyle
Most senior centers operate under
churches and unions
Which statement is correct about senior centers
There will soon be one in every community
A convoy is
a network of supportive family and friends
Studies of convoys found
some people drop out and others join the convoy after it has begun
Women are most likely to be keepers of the networks of older people for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
Elders tend to be both geographically closer to the women in their networks
The femaleness principle refers to the
more central roles of women in the network of unmarried people
Religiosity refers to
interaction with organized religion
Spiritual well being refers to
having a psychological sense of purpose and meaning
A study of elderly people coping with cancer found hope and more positive mood states were associated with
high intrinsic religiosity
Which ethnic group was found to traditionally use the church as a powerful source of social support?
People age 65 or older are
most likely of any age group to belong to church-affiliated organizations
What are some of the factors that discourage remarriage in old age?
pressure from children
respect for the deceased spouse
fear of ridicule
Later life tends to become isolated and stagnant for most elders
Marriages are likely to last 40 to 70 years
A persons confidant in life is typically a close friend, not a family member
A persons relationship with siblings is likely to be the longest relationship in an individuals life
The baby boomers will be the first cohort in history that has less offspring than siblings
In terms of level of obligation within the family, siblings ties are more binding than that of marriage of parent to child
Females maintain closer relationships with family members than do males
The typical time for coming a grandparent is old age
Women are more likely than men to look forward to the role of grandparent
For some grandparents, stepgrandchildren are treated as biological grandchildren
Older Americans are still likely to live in the communities in which they raised their children
A companion is someone to confide in and share personal problems with
Social networks relate to how many online networks one is associated with
Elders benefit from services of religion groups that minister to the needs of the sick, frail, disables, and homebound
Religion is the fundamental motive for living of the intrinsically religious