CAUSE - EFFECT PARAGRAPH VERBS *LEAD TO Lack of vitamin B leads to Beriberi. Carelessness leads to forest fire. *CAUSE Traffic congestion causes stress Family problems cause alcoholism Factories cause air pollution *IS CAUSED BY Stress is caused by traffic congestion. Alcoholism is caused by family problems. Air pollution is caused by factories. *GIVE RISE TO Headphones give rise to deafness. Lack of communication gives rise to divorce. *BRING ABOUT Global warming brings about climate change. Lack of affection brings about injecting heroine among teenagers. *IS DUE TO
Drought is due to lack of rain. Obesity is due to consuming fast food. *RESULT FROM/STEM FROM/ ARISE FROM Air pollution results from hydrocarbon emission into the air. Sleeplessness stems from stress and addiction to the internet. Erosion arises from heavy rain. *RESULT IN Lack of love results in juvenile crime. Unemployement results in suicides. *CAUSE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING The internet has caused people to access information easily. *LEAD SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING His actions led him to lose his job. *ENABLE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING Computerization enables us to cut production costs by half. HELP SOMEONE DO/TO DO SOMETHING Using a computer helps you save/to save your precious time. CONJUNCTIONS Let’s put these ideas into a sentence, using different conjunctions SINCE/ AS/BECAUSE/INASMUCH AS/ON THE GROUNDS THAT (…icin) Since he was in a hurry, he took a taxi. FOR (icin) She didn’t go to work yesterday, for she was ill. EFFECT OF Stress is the effect of noise pollution. Brain tumor is the effect of using mobile phones. RESULT OF Environmental pollution is the result of burning plastic bottles. High blood pressure is the result of the excessive use of salt.
THEREFORE/SO/THUS/HENCE (bu yuzden) Payment was received two weeks after it was due. Therefore, you will be charged a late fee. CONSEQUENTLY/ AS A CONSEQUENCE / AS A RESULT/ /ACCORDINGLY (sonuc olarak) Our economy was poor. Consequently, many people were forced to move elsewhere in order to find jobs. DESPITE/IN SPITE OF/REGARDLESS OF/NONWITHSTANDING /FOR ALL (ragmen) Regardless of / Nonwithstanding/ For all/ Despite/ In spite of our request, he didn’t alter his plans.
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ALTHOUGH/THOUGH/EVEN THOUGH/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT/DESPITE THE FACT THAT (ragmen) Although it was dangerous, he decided to do it. Because of stress and addiction to the internet, Due to the heavy fog,Owing to On account of ( Noun/ Noun Phr/ Ving) ,As a result of | people may suffer from imsomnia. the tragic accident occured. sentence| OWING TO ON ACCOUNT OF THE FACT THAT ------------- , ---------------- (-den dolay? DUE TO BECAUSE OF Owing to the fact that communication was so poor, we couldn’t contact you. MOREOVER/FURTHERMORE/ALSO/BESIDES/IN ADDDITION…(bunun yan? s? ra) The cameras will deter potential criminals. Moreover, they will help police a great deal when a crime actually is committed. IN ADDITION TO/ BESIDES/AS WELL AS/ APART FROM (ayr? ca, bunun yan? s? a) Apart from his work, his only real interest is baseball. TOPIC SENTENCES The basic/main causes of sleeplessness reasons for| are | stress and internet addiction. | The cause of global warming are greenhouse gases and pollution. The reasons for global warming are the increased volumes of carbon dioxide and other human activities. The reasons why + SENTENCE| are| (Noun/ Noun Phr/ Ving)| The reasons why + SENTENCE| are that | SENTENCE| The reasons why people start smoking are social acceptance and stress.
The reasons why people start smoking are that young people are attracted to the 'image' they associate with smoking and they are under a lot of stress. *BENEFICIAL FOR Watching foreign channels on TV is beneficial for improving your second language. “ *Sleeplessness primarily/basically/mainly stems from stress and internet addiction. *Sleeplessness is primarily/basically/mainly caused by/ due to stress and internet addiction. Use some of the following structures / connnectors while introducing your supporting ideas and examples Introducing supporting ideas:
The first/basic reason is ..... The second reason is that ............ Another reason for sleeplessness is / is that....... The reason why people start smoking is social acceptance. The reasons why people start smoking is that young people are attracted to the 'image' they associate with smoking. GIVING EXAMPLES For example, ... To illustrate, ........ For instance, ..... In other words,….. ... (n) .... such as/like …. (n)…… That is, …. That is to say, ….. Namely,…. TO SUMMARIZE we use All in all,….. In brief,…. In short,…. In a nutshell,….. To sum up,….. To summarize,….
In conclusion,…. To conclude,… Briefly,….. Shortly,….. What are the causes of road accidents / watching TV? ROAD ACCIDENTS Having road accidents every day has three main reasons. The major cause of road accidents is careless drivers who are responsible for the death of other people. By ignoring the rules and drinking on roads, they bring about car crashes and lead innocent people to die deliberately. According to a survey conducted in 2003, 4 out of 10 people in the U. S. A. passed away due to road accidents. Furthermore, weather conditions sometimes give rise to road accidents.
That is to say, when roads are wet or icy, it is hard to control cars. Hence, it is required to check the weather conditions before driving and take some necessary precautions for our safety. Another cause of road accidents is that there are too many cars on roads. In our modern world, every family member has a car; therefore, it is inevitable to have heavy traffic in metropolitans. In other words, the fact that families have more than one car causes trafic jam . This chaos leads people to have both physical and mental problems.
That is, it is so easy to have car accidents if there are millions of cars on roads. All in all, lack of consciousness, unsuitable weather conditions and excessive number of cars are responsible for road accidents. TV Watching television is a good way of improving one’s English for several reasons . First of all, one can learn new words by watching broadcasts on TV. News is a good source of picking up new words about current events and world issues. In this way, foreign channel viewers can hear authentic English full of useful words. Secondly, by following episodes such as Lost”, “Prison Break”, and “The Simpsons”, one can learn daily expressions which are commonly used in daily English. Finally, while watching TV, it is possible to improve one’ s listening skills. Although one may not understand everything on TV, one can get familiar with the sounds of English and the pronunciation of words. Besides, the more one listens to English, the more one understands. Therefore, it will be good practice to listen to songs on MTV or Number 1 TV where hundreds of songs appear a day. In short, TV enables learners of English to better their English in an enjoyable way.
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