Abnormal Psychology Chap. 1 Core Concepts 2nd Edition ZkC

Which of the following occurred in the late twentieth century?
a movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community
What type of prevalence estimate tends to be highest?
lifetime prevalence
Ideally, a sample is described as what?
representative
Dr. Gordon finds that heroin-addicted adults almost always smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol when they were young adolescents. Knowing this strong association we can conclude that
there is an association among the variables, but no causal inferences should be drawn.
All of the following are reasons for the growth of the deinstitutionalization movement EXCEPT
a desire to involve the family in the care of the mentally ill.
Phillipe Pinel
believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such – with kindness and caring.
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The early asylums
were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill.
The insanity associated with general paresis
results from an infection of the brain.
What is important to remember about the apparent high lifetime rate of mental disorders?
Many people with disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time.
To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use
a control group.
In the United States, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Freud is the first to describe the unconscious: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected.
unconscious
Mesmer was a proponent of
the power of animal magnetism.
Dorothea Dix
is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.
A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the “experimental” research method.
experimental
Who established the first experimental psychology laboratory?
Wundt
Which of the following best describes the DSM?
a work in progress that classifies mental disorders based on what is currently known
What do the textbook authors identify as the most problematic element of Wakefield’s definition of mental disorder?
We have yet to discover the dysfunction that underlies most mental disorders.
Why is it believed that the surveys used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimate that prevalence?
Measures of several types of disorders were not included.
One strength of case studies is
they can generate hypotheses.
The Solarists are a cult whose members believe that they control the movements of the sun with special hand gestures. What would the DSM-4 say about this group?
While some of this group’s individual members may meet criteria for a DSM-4 diagnosis, the DSM-4 does not diagnose groups.
Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT
taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders
Kraepelin is credited with
identifying different types of mental disorders.
Which of the following is an example of point prevalence?
1% of the population is currently experiencing depressive symptoms.
In ancient societies, if a person’s abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was
thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.
A researcher interested in the health problems of people with schizophrenia interviews only those people diagnosed with the disorder who are in an inpatient facility. The most glaring weakness in this study is
nonrepresentative sampling.
A researcher says, “These studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background factors they expect to find. However, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the disorder emerges.”
What kind of research strategy is the researcher referring to? Retrospective strategies.
Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being?
mental hygiene
What makes defining abnormality difficult?
There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal.
Which of the following is a sufficient element to determine abnormality?
There is no sufficient element.
The fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates that
the values of a society may change over time.
What is a reason for classifying mental disorders?
A classification system allows information to be organized.
Classification is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.
Classification
Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?
When a label is used to describe an individual’s behavior, information about the person is lost.
Which of the following statements is true concerning classification systems for mental disorders?
Classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims.
All of the following are disadvantages of classifying and diagnosing mental disorders EXCEPT
providing structure.
Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means
the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with
mental illness.
What is wrong with describing someone as being “schizophrenic”?
Labels should be applied to disorders, not to people.
In the field of abnormal psychology, what does DSM stand for?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
Which of the following is included in the DSM?
means of identifying different mental disorders
According to the DSM-4 definition of mental disorder, impairment in one or more areas of functioning or disability
may be present but is not a necessary condition for making a diagnosis.
The Solarists are a cult whose members believe that they control the movements of the sun with special hand gestures. What would the DSM-4 say about this group?
While some of this group’s individual members may meet criteria for a DSM-4 diagnosis, the DSM-4 does not diagnose groups.
Brett persistently injects himself with pain killers. This has greatly increased his chance of overdosing and dying. His behavior harms no one else. According to the DSM, is Brett’s behavior consistent with the definition of a mental disorder?
Yes, because he is persistently acting in a way that harms him.
The current DSM is
atheoretical.
Wakefield’s conception of “mental disorder” included the idea of “harmful dysfunction” as most central to diagnosis.
harmful dysfunction
According to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder?
When it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual
What does the case of JGH, a Native American elder, illustrate?
A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when
depressed.
What is a culture-specific disorder?
A disorder seen only in certain cultures
Practically speaking, abnormal behavior means
unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed.
Maria believes that her dead grandmother occasionally speaks to her. In deciding if Maria has a mental illness or not, which of the following is important?
Is Maria’s belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture?
Why is it important to know how many people have diagnosable mental illnesses?
Such information is needed to plan for the provision of adequate services.
How should information about the frequency of mental disorders in different groups of people be used?
Information about the incidence of disorders among certain groups of
people may provide information as to what causes a particular disorder.
What is epidemiology?
The study of the distribution of a disorder in a population
Mental health epidemiology is
the study of the distribution of mental disorders in a given population.
What does it mean if a disorder is said to be highly prevalent?
It is common.
What type of prevalence estimate tends to be lowest?
Point prevalence
“Prevalence” rates may be reported in terms of the lifetime risk of contracting a particular disorder.
Prevalence
What type of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder?
Point prevalence
The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year. The mayor should ask an epidemiologist for the “incidence rate” of the
disorder.
incidence rate
What term refers to the number of new cases of a disorder that occur over a given time period?
Incidence
Why is it believed that the NCS survey used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimated that prevalence?
Measures of several types of disorders were not included.
What is the most prevalent grouping of psychological disorder?
Anxiety disorders
What can be said about individuals who have a history of at least one serious psychological disorder?
Over 50% have at least two or more other disorders.
Comorbidity means
that a person has two or more disorders.
A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that
over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or
more comemorbid disorders.
Most mental health treatment
occur in an outpatient setting.
Most people with psychological disorders
delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years.
The trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that
people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient
basis.
Which of the following mental health professionals has a doctoral degree in psychology with both research and clinical skill specialization?
the clinical psychologist
Which of the following mental health professionals has a medical degree?
The psychiatrist
A clinical psychologist is
a Ph.D. in psychology with experience in mental health.
Describing a disorder as acute means that
is is a disorder that is short in duration.
Why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder?
The selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by
assumptions about causality.
Why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies?
Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed.
Which of the following typically involves the use of trained observers?
Direct observation
A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person’s feelings and responses. This research strategy is
weak; because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.
Carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he has had several arrests for driving will intoxicated, Carl reports that he has no problems with drinking. This is an example of
the problems with self-report data.
“Hypotheses” are more or less plausible ideas used to explain something, e.g., a behavior, and can be tested using research methods.
Hypotheses
One strength of case studies is
they can generate new ideas to explore.
An important FIRST step in studying a particular disorder is
determining the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder.
Upon deciding to study individuals with a given disorder, what is the next step that should be taken?
Select criteria for identifying individuals with the disorder.
Why is a representative sample desirable?
The more representative a sample is, the more generalizable the data.
Dr. Katz is researching the causes of phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is
he is not getting a representative sample.
Why would a researcher want to ensure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample?
It increases the researcher’s ability to generalize findings to the larger
group.
In Dr. Lu’s study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls with eating disorders are the “criterion”group.
criterion
In Dr. Lu’s study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the “control” group.
control
In what significant ways do observational (correlational) research designs differ from experimental research designs?
There is no manipulation of variables in observational research.
What is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders?
A group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except they eat normally.
Why are correlational or observational research designs often used in abnormal psychology?
It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables
involved in abnormal psychology.
What is the most important limitation of correlational studies?
They cannot determine cause and effect.
Researchers have observed that women who wear bras for more than 16 hours a day are more likely to develop breast cancer than those who spend less time in a bra. In other words, there is a correlation between wearing a bra and breast cancer. Based on this finding, which of the following statements is true?
Some additional variable may serve to explain the relationship observed between wearing a bra and developing cancer.
What research approach require subjects to recall the past?
Retrospective
A researcher says, “These studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background factors they expect to find. However, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the
disorder emerges.” What kind of research strategy is the researcher referring to?
Retrospective strategies
Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y?
as x increases, y decreases
Individuals who have alcohol problems tend to come from families with other individuals who have alcohol problems. This would suggest that
although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be
concluded.
What type of research design begins with the identification of individuals who are likely to develop a particular disorder?
Prospective
Dr. Luigi has discovered that the more spaghetti people eat, the less likely they are to be diagnosed with depression. Based on this finding, what statement can be made about the relationship between spaghetti and depression?
There is a negative correlation between spaghetti eating and depression.
It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is “positively” correlated with developing schizophrenia.
positively
A significant positive correlation is found between variables x and y. Which of the following may be safely inferred?
as x increases, y increases
A researcher who studies children who are home-schooled and compares them to children who attend school is using the “correlational” research method.
correlational
In most prospective studies,
children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up.
Several studies have found that there is a correlation in children between amount of television watched and weight. What is one of the problems with using this finding to report that watching lots of television makes children obese?
It is just as possible that being obese causes children to watch more
television.
Which variable is manipulated in an experiment?
Independent
In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the ice cream can be described as what?
The independent variable
In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as what?
The dependent variable
Which of the following would most likely be explored with an experiment?
The effectiveness of a new treatment for depression
Which of the following is an example of an ABAB design?
A subject is observed both before and after two exposures to the treatment.
Fred refuses to speak at school, although he speaks normally at home. His therapist plans out a treatment where Fred is given a gold star every time he answers his teacher, and he can then trade in his stars for prizes. Fred begins
speaking in class. The therapist then tells the teacher to stop the program for a couple of weeks. Fred stopped talking during that time. The teacher then starting giving Fred stars again, and Fred again began to talk. This is an example of
an ABAB experimental design study.
What is the value of using an ABAB design?
The effects of a single form of treatment are studied twice in the same
subject.
A psychologist wishes to test the hypothesis that the experience of chronic physical pain can cause clinical depression, but the Ethics Committee of his university
won’t allow him to conduct a study in which he inflicts pain on the subjects. What kind of research design might best allow the psychologist to test this hypothesis while circumventing the committee’s objection?
Analogue
Which of the following is an example of an analogue study?
Rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Dr. Brown wants to study social phobia. She induces temporary anxiety by having normal subjects believe they will be negatively evaluated by another person. This is an example of
an analogue study.
What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock?
Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.
A major scientific problem with analogue studies is
the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon.
“Stereotypes” are automatic beliefs concerning other people based on little information.
Stereotypes
The number of people who have suffered from a particular disorder at any time in their lives is “lifetime prevalence”.
lifetime prevalence
When mental disorders are short in duration, they are known as acute. When they are long in duration, they are “chronic”.
chronic
If the score on one variable is high and the score on another variable is low, this is known as a “negative” correlation.
negative
“Analogue research” is used to study questions that would not be possible to study with human subjects.
Analogue research
Why is it difficult to agree on a definition of abnormal behavior?
There are no sufficient or necessary conditions. Also, what is abnormal at one point in time may no longer be considered abnormal at another time.
What are the benefits of classifying mental disorders?
Allows information to be organized, needed for research, most sciences do it, establishes the range of problems mental health professionals can address.
Discuss one disadvantage of developing a classification system for mental disorders.
1.) There is a loss of information when a classification scheme is applied to behavior, as will happen when any single word is used to convey something as complex as a mental disorder.
2.) In addition, there may be some stigma attached to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis.
3.} Stereotyping may occur, leading to incorrect assumptions about and expectations of an individual who has
received a psychiatric diagnosis.
What is mental health epidemiology? How is it studied?
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of a health-related problem within a population. Mental health epidemiology is the distribution and frequency of mental disorders. A key element in studying this is the frequency of mental disorder, which includes prevalence rates.
Explain what a culture-specific syndrome is and provide an example of one.
A culture-specific syndrome is a disorder that occurs most commonly in or exclusively in a specific culture. While many disorders may present themselves differently in different cultures, these are disorders that are unique to a particular culture. Koro, a disorder seen most commonly in young Asian males, is one example. This anxiety disorder is characterized by an extreme fear that a body part is shrinking.
Discuss the difference between prevalence and incidence.
Prevalence is the number of active cases of a disorder in a given population during a given period of time. Incidence is the number of new cases that occur over a given period of time.
What is comorbidity?
The presence of two of more disorders in the same person. This is common in serious mental disorders, rarer for mild disorders.
Briefly discuss why research in abnormal psychology is important.
Through the use of research, the characteristics of disorders can be studied and our understanding of the etiology of disorders is furthered. In addition, research must be used to determine the effectiveness of treatment.
What is a case study and what are its benefits and drawbacks?
An in-depth, detailed account of a single case. They are good sources of research ideas and hypotheses. However, information from them does not generalize. They are uncontrolled and often impressionistic, so any conclusions drawn may be incorrect.
What is sampling and why is it important?
Sampling is the procedure used to select subjects to study. As it is not possible to study all of the population of interest, a subset of the population is selected. The sample studied needs to resemble the larger population on all relevant variables so that findings made when studying the sample can be generalized to the population. In other words, results obtained with a sample should provide accurate information about the larger population.
Discuss the limitations of self-report data.
Can be misleading, sometimes deliberately lie, misinterpret questions or try to present themselves more favorably or less favorably than is true.
What is an analogue study?
A study of an approximation of the real thing in which the researcher is
interested. Often done if studying the real thing is difficult or it would be unethical to manipulate the variables of interest.
Discuss some of the difficulties involved in attempting to define abnormal behavior.
“Abnormal” presupposes some norm from which behavior deviates, but there is no definition of “normal” about which people can all agree. Abnormal is also related to behavior that is deemed undesirable by society. Value issues therefore always complicate the objective definition of disorders. What, exactly, comprises distress, disability, or dysfunction is also difficult to define. In addition, definitions of abnormality vary not only with culture, but over time.
What is the DSM and how does it define mental disorder?
The DSM is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The DSM is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides information to be used in identifying mental disorders. The DSM does not provide information as to the cause of mental disorders.
continuation… A mental disorder, according to the DSM, is a psychological problem that is not the result of some culturally accepted response to a live event but that causes one or more of the following: present distress or a painful symptom;
disability or impairment in one or more areas of functioning; increased risk of suffering death, pain, or disability; and an important loss of freedom. A mental disorder is not simply deviant or unacceptable behavior and is believed to be the product of some sort of dysfunction within the individual. end.
Describe the retrospective and prospective research designs. What are the benefits and problems of these designs?
Retrospective: Study people with a disorder by collecting information about their lives before they became sick. Problem is faulty and selective memory, bias on the part of the person and the researcher. Prospective: Find people with high risk of developing a disorder before they have it, measure variables ahead of time and track the person to see who develops the disorder. Problem: Can’t know how may will develop the disorder; small sample size.
What is an observational research design and how can such an approach further our understanding of abnormal behavior. What limitations are there of such designs and how can these be overcome?
When an observational research design is employed, no manipulation is made, and data is merely gathered on the subject or subjects of interest. A group who is at risk for some disorder or one that has a particular disorder may be studied in order to gather information as to the factors that might influence the development of the disorder or the
progression of the disorder.
continuation… Just as a control group is used in an experiment, a control group must be used when conducting observational research. It is important, however, to recognize that no conclusions can be made about cause and effect. Correlational data, observing that two factors are related, does not permit such conclusions to be made as other factors may be the true cause for the observed relationship.
For example, if a researcher observes a correlation between obesity and depression, it can’t be concluded that depression causes obesity or that obesity causes depression. While either may be true, it cannot be determined from such data. In addition to these obvious causal connections, there could be additional factors that are causing both problems. Thus, while observational research designs provide information as to how things are related, no conclusions can be made as to cause and effect. end
Describe the ABAB research design and give an example.
A type of single case research design. A way of using case study to develop and test therapy techniques within a scientific framework. The same subject is studied over time. Phase A – collect information about the subject but don’t intervene. Phase B – intervention. Repeating the phases tells whether it is what was done in the B phase that produced any changes. Many possible examples.