Abnormal Practice Exam 1

While psychoanalytic and humanistic models assume that abnormality lies within the individual, ________ models assume that abnormal behavior must be understood in a larger context outside of the individual.
A.socioenvironmental
B.sociocultural
C.sociopathic
D.phenomenological
sociocultural
According to Freud’s theory, the id is
A.located at the conscious level of awareness.
B.the source of basic drives and of psychic energy.
C.capable of delaying gratification through its conscience.
D.controlled by the superego but not by the ego.
the source of basic drives and of psychic energy.
Having a biological predisposition for a disorder means that a person
A.will only develop a partial manifestation of the problem behavior.
B.has a genetic mutation for the disorder.
C.has increased vulnerability to developing a disorder.
D.will develop the full syndrome over the life span.
has increased vulnerability to developing a disorder.
In Pavlov’s experiment with dogs, classical conditioning was demonstrated when
A.the CS elicited the CR.
B.the UCS elicited the CR.
C.the UCS elicited the UCR.
D.the CS was paired with the UCS.
the CS elicited the CR.
A primary reason why patients do not take their medications is because _______.
A.they often come with unpleasant side effects
B.They don’t have the time
C.they may exacerbate symptoms
D.they often lack symptom alleviation
they often come with unpleasant side effects
The social learning model of behavioral acquisition proposes that
A.only behaviors in a social context are reinforced.
B.punishment is only effective in producing learning in humans.
C.a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it.
D.humans are motivated more by primary reinforcers than secondary reinforcers.
a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it.
Dr. Pambros returns Abnormal Psychology exams. Juanita, Kevin, and Morgan all receive grades of “C.” Juanita is grateful to have passed. Kevin is devastated. Morgan is mildly disappointed but recognizes that there are three remaining exams that could boost his grade. How would the cognitive model explain the different responses of these students to the same event?
A.Grades are inherently powerful events.
B.Thoughts are not as important at the event itself.
C.Grades are classic negative reinforcers.
D.The event is essentially neutral.
The event is essentially neutral.
Carl Rogers felt that therapists should demonstrate _______, which involves valuing clients for who they are and not judging them.
A.unconditional positive regard
B.therapeutic insight
C.emotional distancing
D.self-disclosure
unconditional positive regard
The key elements of systematic desensitization include progressive muscle relaxation, constructing a hierarchy of fears and _______.
A.the learning process
B.the Freudian process
C.the Oedipal process
D.the aversion process
the learning process
What are the two primary degrees associated with clinical psychology?
A.master of science; doctor of philosophy
B.doctor of medicine; doctor of philosophy
C.doctor of psychology; doctor of philosophy
D.doctor of medicine; doctor of psychology
doctor of psychology; doctor of philosophy
Men are more likely than women to suffer from
A.mood disorders and anxiety disorders.
B.alcohol and drug abuse.
C.alcohol abuse and mood disorders.
D.depression and anxiety disorders.
alcohol and drug abuse.
Freud and his successor, Carl Jung, had fundamental disagreements about the motivation for behavior. While Freud thought that past events and sexual impulses were important, Jung believed that
A.future goals and spiritual motivators were causal elements.
B.present events and spiritual motivators cause behavior.
C.past events and sexual and spiritual motivators were important.
D.birth order was the most important determinant.
future goals and spiritual motivators were causal elements.
All of the following are techniques Freud used for treatment EXCEPT
A.hypnosis.
B.dream analysis.
C.sublimation.
D.free association.
sublimation.
Dr. Santiago is interested in evaluating the prevalence of binge drinking in freshmen and seniors at a local college. After collecting data from a self-report survey, he concludes that freshmen have a higher rate of binge drinking than seniors. Given these findings, what is Dr. Santiago able to conclude from the research?
A.Freshmen will continue to drink at this rate throughout their college careers.
B.Freshmen binge drink more than seniors in this college at this time.
C.The freshman rate for binge drinking will decrease as students move closer to graduation.
D.Seniors most likely engaged in high rates of binge drinking as freshmen.
Freshmen binge drink more than seniors in this college at this time.
Which of the following neuroimaging techniques uses a radioactive substance and allows us to trace neuotransmitter pathways in the brain?
A.Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
B.Functional MRI (fMRI)
C.MRI
D.CAT scan
Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
In a positive correlation of Factor A and Factor B, if Factor A goes up, Factor B ______.
A.also goes up
B.remains the same
C.goes down
D.doubles in size
also goes up
The most important function of neurotransmitters in the brain is to relay electrical signals
A.down the axon.
B.into the endocrine system
C.across the synapse.
D.into the myelin
across the synapse.
The _______ group of clinical participants is intentionally given treatments with no active ingredients.
A.blind
B.evidential
C.placebo control
D.experimental
placebo control
One way to overcome a limitation of the case study method is to
A.standardize the types of treatment methods used.
B.vary the levels of the independent variable.
C.generate conclusions as to the cause of a disorder in a case report.
D.vary the number of sessions used.
standardize the types of treatment methods used.
A placebo control group is one in which
A.no active treatment is given.
B.blindedness is of no concern.
C.participants do not really have the disorder under study.
D.assessment is not provided.
no active treatment is given.
In correlational research, it is possible that a third variable influences the relationship of the other two variables. This type of variable is labeled a(n)
A.moderator variable.
B.independent variable.
C.dependent variable.
D.indirect variable.
moderator variable.
Dr. Chin is interested in determining the relationship between a student’s attending class and the final grade received by the student. What type of research should he conduct?
A.case study
B.observational
C.correlational
D.survey
correlational
The human nervous system is composed of two parts, the
A.autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system.
B.central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
C.peripheral nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
D.peripheral nervous system and the brain nervous system.
central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Which of the following is the primary function of the hypothalamus?
A.Regulation of sleep and arousal systems
B.Maintenance of homeostasis
C.Regulation of emotions
D.Coordination of fine motor movement
Maintenance of homeostasis
Select the following correlation that demonstrates the strongest relationship between two variables.
A.-.76
B.+.75
C.-.50
D.+.20
-.76
In observational epidemiology, the most common method of data collection used for evaluating the presence of psychological disorders is a(n)
A.psychiatric rating scale.
B.self-report.
C.unstructured interview.
D.diagnostic interview.
diagnostic interview.
Clinical assessments for outcome evaluation may be repeated over time during treatment in order to
A.evaluate a patient’s progress.
B.recheck the accuracy of the diagnosis.
C.determine the patient’s changing attitudes toward the therapist.
D.be certain the problem behavior has been identified.
evaluate a patient’s progress.
Which of the following is an example of an open-ended interview question?
A.”How frequently do you miss class?”
B.”Do you have periods of feeling blue or hopeless?”
C.”Tell me more about it.”
D.”Is your family supportive of your decision to seek treatment?”
“Tell me more about it.”
Select the statement that is TRUE of the DSM classification system.
A.The number of diagnostic categories continues to decline as new research data emerges on disorders.
B.The system uses broad categories of underlying conflicts to explain the causes of maladaptive reactions.
C.It undergoes revision based on new research and field studies regarding disorders.
D.It continues to include important diagnostic information such as assumptions about the causes of each disorder.
It undergoes revision based on new research and field studies regarding disorders.
Select the statement that is most likely TRUE of dimensional models.
A.They are innately more complex than categorical models.
B.They lead to considerable within-category heterogeneity.
C.They facilitate clinical decision-making more than categorical models do.
D.They pigeonhole patients into types.
They are innately more complex than categorical models.
Why would scientist-practitioners choose to use a projective test with inadequate normative data?
A.They do not subscribe to such rigid psychometric requirements as empirically oriented psychologists.
B.They may find them useful to “get the patient talking” in the initial stages of therapy.
C.They find that patients often relate better to unstructured tests than to structured tests.
D.They take less time to score and less training to administer than self-report measures of psychopathology.
They may find them useful to “get the patient talking” in the initial stages of therapy.
Two psychologists diagnosed a patient and both arrived at the same disorder and same diagnosis. This is an example of _____.
A.multiaxial classification
B.concurrent validity
C.comorbidity
D.interrater reliability
interrater reliability
Geraldine has completed an IQ test. In reviewing the test results, the psychologist observes that the patient’s Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) is significantly lower than her Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). Given this information, which of the following tests has the psychologist administered to Geraldine?
A.Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
B.Simon Intelligence Test for Adults
C.Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV
D.Luria-Nebraska Intelligence Test
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV
Rachael is asked to record her cigarette cravings as they occur each day over the course of a week. She writes down how often she feels the urge to smoke, how long the cravings last, and her behavior and thoughts about each episode. Within a behavioral paradigm, this activity recording would be known as
A.functional monitoring.
B.behavioral analysis.
C.antecedent analysis.
D.self-monitoring.
self-monitoring.
Both structured and unstructured clinical interviews are used for screening, diagnosis, treatment planning, and
A.outcome evaluation.
B.field testing.
C.reliability monitoring.
D.establishing construct validity.
outcome evaluation.
The Reliable Change Index (RCI) is a measure of
A.the change in a patient’s condition from the beginning to the end of therapy.
B.the degree of change a therapist might expect based on no treatment.
C.the predicted change in a patient’s behavior compared with that of similar patients.
D.the degree of change in a patient’s condition estimated to be attributable to non-therapeutic factors
the change in a patient’s condition from the beginning to the end of therapy.
What approach to classification focuses on a specific characteristic and how much of that characteristic is displayed?
A.subjective
B.labeling
C.dimensional
D.categorical
dimensional
Although Dr. Johnson has been trained in Exner’s comprehensive system for scoring and interpreting the Rorschach Inkblot Test, he does not use the test as part of his clinical test battery. Having reviewed the literature, Dr. Johnson found that
A.the test has significant test reliability and validity but the normative data are outdated.
B.the projective nature of the test makes it useful for screening severe pathology, but it results in false negatives when used with normal individuals.
C.the test has questionable test reliability, its normative data are outdated, and it has limited validity.
D.the test has appropriate validity properties, but its projective nature limits its use for scientist-practitioners.
the test has questionable test reliability, its normative data are outdated, and it has limited validity.
In behavioral terms, the goal of psychotherapy in treating an anxiety disorder is to
A.identify the cause rooted in early childhood.
B.reverse the pattern of negative reinforcement.
C.reverse the pattern of the client’s dependency on avoidance behaviors.
D.identify the pattern of bad relationships
reverse the pattern of negative reinforcement.
In nonwestern societies, people tend to be more concerned with how anxiety affects _____.
A.their social life and their work life
B.the business climate
C.their work life
D.their families and their religious experiences
their families and their religious experiences
When anxious people attend to threatening cues, which of the following is likely to occur?
A.Their ability to perform will increase.
B.They will become distracted by repetitive thoughts.
C.They will control of their emotions.
D.They will remain safe at all times.
They will become distracted
Biofeedback training often combines monitoring of physiological responses with
A.medication.
B.self-reports of anxiety levels.
C.in vivo exposure.
D.relaxation training.
relaxation training.
What are the common side effects of benzodiazepines?
A.sedation with mild psychomotor and cognitive impairments
B.mania, dry mouth, and overstimulation
C.food cravings, weight gain, and high blood pressure
D.hyperactivity, insomnia, and overstimulation
sedation with mild psychomotor and cognitive impairments
The most serious adverse effect of benzodiazepines is _______.
A.the potential for addiction
B.tardive dyskinesia
C.sudden weight gain
D.severe insomnia
the potential for addiction
An intense fear reaction resembling sheer terror is called
A.a nervous breakdown.
B.an acute stressor.
C.a phobia.
D.a panic attack.
a panic attack.
Obsessions are distinguished from worry in that obsessions most often are about _____.
A.everyday things and common concerns
B.fear of the future
C.attempts to reduce depression
D.socially unacceptable themes
socially unacceptable themes
What brain structures are involved in the processing of conditioned fear?
A.thalamus, parietal lobe, amygdala
B.cerebral fluid, thalamus, hypothalamus
C.amygdala, pituitary gland, visual cortex
D.thalamus, amygdala, hypothalamus
thalamus, amygdala, hypothalamus
Specific phobias of ______ are more common in women than in men.
A.blood-injury-illness
B.heights
C.animals
D.needles
animals
Gwen is preparing for her Psychology of Learning midterm exam. Although she has read all of the material and been active in class discussions, she has recurring thoughts of failing the exam. Her thoughts persist even though she is an honors student and has never failed a test. Gwen is experiencing
A.a panic attack.
B.delusions.
C.suicidal ideation.
D.anxiety.
anxiety.
Which of the following are components of the autonomic nervous system?
A.Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
B.Brain and spinal cord
C.Peripheral nervous system and brain
D.Somatic sensory system and parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
_______, or the ability to speak freely and openly about anything, is a cornerstone of Freud’s treatment methods.
A.Unconditional positive regard
B.Biochemical therapy
C.Changing cognitions
D.Free association
Free association
The term “deviance” implies
A.having a mental illness.
B.engaging in criminal wrongdoing.
C.looking different.
D.behaving differently.
behaving differently.
_______ is now rarely used as a treatment for psychological disorders because of its irreversible brain damage.
A.Psychoanalytic therapy
B.Psychopharmacology
C.Electroconvulsive therapy
D.Psychosurgery
Psychosurgery
During which of the following psychosexual stages does a child experience fantasies about the opposite-sex parent?
A.Oral Stage
B.Anal Stage
C.Phallic Stage
D.Genital Stage
Phallic Stage
Which therapy would treat depression and anxiety by attaining insights, along with a release of emotions, which would act to develop more mature patterns of behavior?
A.Cognitive-Behavioral
B.Psychodynamic
C.Humanistic
D.Biological
Psychodynamic
Patients who have the most severe problems are often comorbid, meaning _____.
A.they have a mental disorder that cannot be cured
B.they are near death
C. they are experiencing more than one condition
D.they exhibit low levels of social and functional impairment
they are experiencing more than one condition
Approximately what total percentage of adults in the U.S. have suffered from a psychological disorder at some time in their lives?
A.25%
B.38%
C.10%
D.47%
47%
What is classical conditioning?
A.removing a stimulus to increase responses
B.adding a stimulus to increase responses
C.learning by use of consequences
D.learning an association that produces a conditioned response
learning an association that produces a conditioned response
Regarding psychological disorders, biological treatments focus on _______.
A.curing the disorder
B.alleviating the physical symptoms
C.unconscious motives
D.eliminating the root cause
alleviating the physical symptoms
Gerry is a night watchman who has worked at the same company for 25 years. He is described as very shy and withdrawn around others. While this behavior is not problematic at work, his relatives find him “weird” and tend to shun him at family gatherings. Despite encouragement by his immediate family to mingle, Gerry hardly speaks to others at these events. According to the “goodness-of-fit” concept, Gerry’s behavior would
A.only be viewed as a problem if it caused difficulty for his immediate family.
B.not be viewed as a problem at all.
C.not be viewed as a problem at family gatherings.
D.not be viewed as a problem at work but would be viewed as a problem at family gatherings.
not be viewed as a problem at work but would be viewed as a problem at family gatherings.
Dr. Otto went to graduate school for five years and completed an internship. She now has a doctoral degree and works with patients and treats them using psychotherapy. She cannot prescribe medication, but is pursuing the right to do so. Name Dr. Otto’s profession.
A.a psychiatrist
B.a social worker
C.a mental health counselor
D.a clinical psychologist
a clinical psychologist
According to Freud, which of the following was critical to overcoming psychological difficulties?
A.Insight
B.Empathy
C.Hypnosis
D.Regression
Insight
Humanistic therapy is similar to cognitive behavioral therapy because it primarily focuses on ________.
A.transference
B.unconscious processes
C.the present
D.the past
the present
Which statement best illustrates the major advantage of a case study?
A.It provides summaries on a large number of individuals who share unusual mental conditions.
B.It provides research statistics on interesting personality issues.
C.It provides generalities about psychological symptoms.
D.It provides an in-depth account of an individual’s experience with a mental disorder.
It provides an in-depth account of an individual’s experience with a mental disorder.
Amin is a professional who collects data and analyzes both the frequency and the distribution of mental health disorders in his state. Amin works as a(n) ______.
A.social worker
B.pathologist
C.Psychiatrist
D.epidemiologist
epidemiologist
Identify a primary limitation of case studies.
A.They do not apply to the general population, only the mentally ill.
B.It is risky to draw general conclusions about a disorder from a single example.
C.Their basis for truth is flawed.
D.They become outdated quickly.
It is risky to draw general conclusions about a disorder from a single example.
Which of the following is NOT a lobe of the brain?
A.frontal
B.temporal
C.parietal
D.four
four
Randomized controlled designs depend on two conditions in assessment instruments. What are they?
A.standardization, efficacy
B.efficacy, reliability
C.reliability, validity
D.validity, efficacy
reliability, validity
The _____ is the basic building block of the brain.
A.synapse
B.axon
C.neuron
D.neurotransmitter
neuron
The type of sample selected for a research study affects the recruitment strategy for participants as well as the
A.number of dependent variables studied.
B.generalizability of the study findings.
C.number of conditions in a study.
D.length of the study.
generalizability of the study findings.
One difficulty associated with family studies is that
A.it is difficult to determine the contribution of dominant versus recessive genes in family members.
B.the drop-out rate for family members tends to be high.
C.it is not possible to separate the influence of genetics from that of the environment.
D.they do not indicate whether symptoms “run in families.”
it is not possible to separate the influence of genetics from that of the environment.
Which of the following IS NOT a feature of randomized controlled designs that can affect a study’s outcome?
A.Assessment strategies
B.Participant selection procedures
C.Internal validity
D.Moderator variables
Moderator variables
What are the differences between incidence and prevalence in epidemiology?
A.Incidence refers to the number of cases within a small sample; prevalence is the number of cases within a population.
B.Incidence refers to the number of new cases in a population within a certain time; whereas prevalence is the total number of active cases.
C.Incidence consists of the total number of cases in a research study; prevalence is the number of new cases in a study.
D.Incidence is the number of cases in 12 months or less; prevalence describes the number of cases in 12 months or more.
Incidence refers to the number of new cases in a population within a certain time; whereas prevalence is the total number of active cases.
After being startled by a balloon that popped, you once again calm down. Which nervous systems, in order, are involved in this example?
A.autonomic; parasympathetic
B.sympathetic; parasympathetic
C.parasympathetic; sympathetic
D.peripheral; autonomic
sympathetic; parasympathetic
The cerebral cortex is divided into _____ lobes.
A.four
B.three
C.five
D.two
four
A researcher is interested in evaluating rates of posttraumatic stress disorder for firefighters involved in 9/11. In this example, participants would be labeled a(n) ________ cohort.
A.incident
B.exposure
C.inception
D.birth
exposure
The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a clinician-administered scale that
A.focuses on the patient’s perceptions of his or her progress in treatment.
B.measures a broad range of psychological symptoms.
C.is used exclusively with psychiatric patients.
D.uses 21 items to assess psychological functioning in inpatient populations.
measures a broad range of psychological symptoms.
What are the two primary reasons for the need of a classification system for abnormal behavior?
A.It helps clinicians identify the cause of a disorder and it is used in the search for new knowledge.
B.It helps clinicians to identify the reason for a disorder and to determine catharsis for the client.
C.It helps clinicians identify the cause of a disorder and determine what medication to use.
D.It helps clinicians match the disorder with an effective intervention and it is used in the search for new knowledge.
It helps clinicians match the disorder with an effective intervention and it is used in the search for new knowledge.
What is the best definition of interrater reliability?
A.interpretation of statistical data
B.stability of a disorder over time
C.consistency of measurements
D.agreement among clinicians
agreement among clinicians
A patient comes to a clinician with complaints of depression and anxiety. Given the rule of no symptom appearing in more than one category, what would likely be the diagnostic result?
A.No diagnosis would be entered given the contradictory information.
B.The International Classification of Diseases-10 would be used.
C.The rule would not affect the diagnosis.
D.Comorbid diagnoses would be recorded.
Comorbid diagnoses would be recorded.
Stigma is defined as a(n) _______ that sets a person apart from others, connects the person to undesirable features, and leads others to reject the person.
A.mental disorder
B.emotion
C.label
D.thought process
label
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assesses an individual’s ability to set shift, or display flexibility, in thinking as the goal of a task changes. As a “frontal lobe test,” it is able to discriminate
A.a frontal lesion from a nonfrontal lesion in a patient.
B.violent versus nonviolent patients.
C.and detect only subcortical lesions.
D.persons at risk for a seizure disorder.
a frontal lesion from a nonfrontal lesion in a patient.
Paulo reassessed his patient three times within a two-week period in order to confirm his diagnosis. What assessment procedure is demonstrated here?
A.split-half reliability
B.test-retest reliability
C.etiological validity
D.interrator reliability
test-retest reliability
Morgan obtains a score on a screening device for depression, which indicates the presence of significant depression. Morgan’s psychologist is most likely to do what at this point in the assessment process?
A.Repeat the testing to determine reliability
B.Look at the treatment outcome
C.Refer Morgan for in-patient hospitalization
D.Recommend further evaluation
Recommend further evaluation
Which of the following is TRUE about observation techniques?
A.Observations provide an indirect measure of behavior.
B.All types of psychopathology can be observed.
C.Observation tells us about only what happens in particular situations.
D.Observers rarely have biased perceptions so observational errors are unusual.
Observation tells us about only what happens in particular situations.
Lois avoids crowded streets and stores, and rarely ventures to the theater or to church. She is particularly fearful of traveling through a tunnel or bridge, and has never ventured onto a bus. Lois most likely suffers from _______.
A.panic disorder
B.social phobia
C.agoraphobia
D.PTSD
agoraphobia
Post-traumatic stress disorder is initiated when an individual experiences a traumatic event or
A.is witness to serious injury or the violent death of another.
B.recalls a traumatic event as a flashback.
C.hears another person discuss a traumatic event and relives the experience.
D.is threatened with violence by another.
is witness to serious injury or the violent death of another.
Which of the following is TRUE of an individual diagnosed with agoraphobia without history of panic disorder?
A.The person has panic disorder that is in remission.
B.The disorder usually remits without treatment.
C.The person has never been diagnosed as having panic disorder.
D.The person fears open spaces because of previous panic attacks.
The person has never been diagnosed as having panic disorder.
Symptoms of PTSD generally _________.
A.increase significantly over time, with or without treatment
B.diminish over time, particularly if treatment is received
C.get worse gradually over time, even with treatment
D.do not change over a lifetime
diminish over time, particularly if treatment is received
Teddy suffers from agoraphobia. His therapist has urged him to join a therapy group which takes controlled, periodic outings to shopping malls, grocery stores and theaters. The group has had great success in making its members feel more comfortable in crowded situations. The therapist is recommending a form of therapy known as _______.
A.aversion therapy
B.interoceptive exposure
C.situational exposure
D.flooding
situational exposure
Family and genetic studies tell us that compared with relatives of people without an anxiety disorder, relatives of someone diagnosed with an anxiety disorder are
A.more likely to also have the disorder.
B.less susceptible to the disorder.
C.less likely to have the disorder.
D.not at higher risk for the disorder.
more likely to also have the disorder.
Anxiety can be _____ at low levels but _____ at high levels.
A.excessive; emotionally arousing
B.debilitating; socially acceptable
C.adaptive; incapacitating
D.rarely seen; invisible
adaptive; incapacitating
What are the two components of relaxation training?
A.slow breathing; alternating muscle relaxation and tension
B.desensitization; flooding
C.accelerated breathing; cognitive behavior techniques
D.slow breathing patterns; response prevention
slow breathing; alternating muscle relaxation and tension
Compulsions can best be defined as _______.
A.irrational fears of situations
B.emotional states derived from environmental threats
C.unwanted intrusive thoughts or images
D.repetitive behaviors that reduce anxiety
repetitive behaviors that reduce anxiety
In the classical conditioning paradigm demonstrated by Pavlov through his study of the physiology of dog digestion, what was the UCS?
A.Pavlov
B.Bell
C.Food powder
D.Salivating
Food powder
William is a well-educated 40-year-old man who suffers from schizophrenic disorder. Originally, he was employed as a computer programmer, but he was fired two months ago because of chronic absenteeism. For the last several weeks he has been homeless. He sleeps at night in a cardboard box behind a Dunkin Donut after closing time. Which of the following theories might describe William’s current plight?
A.Downward drift
B.Developmental trajectory
C.Downward shift
D.Downward SES
Downward drift
Which of the following approaches would allow an understanding of how abnormal behavior varies in severity over time, perhaps increasing and decreasing, or how behaviors change from one disorder to another?
A.dimensional
B.categorical
C.rational
D.orthogonal
dimensional
The biopsychosocial perspective, compared with the perspectives of Freud, Jung, and Rogers,
A.assumes the nature of man to be good.
B.adequately explains all disorders.
C.focuses on early developments as the diathesis.
D.is broader than the other models.
is broader than the other models.
What is a major advantage to cognitive behavior therapy?
A.It tries to understand the complex dynamics of personality.
B.It may cause memory loss
C.It is empirically-based and designed to change behavior.
D.It gives people the unconditional positive regard they desire
It is empirically-based and designed to change behavior.
What does the diathesis-stress model of abnormal behavior focus on?
A.relationships with parents, siblings, and peers
B.differences in conflict management style
C.the nature of intimacy in relationships
D.difficult experiences, risk factors, and genetic predispositions
difficult experiences, risk factors, and genetic predispositions
If mental health professionals identify themselves as eclectic, what do they mean?
A.They use different treatments for different disorders.
B.They use only humanistic techniques to treat disorders.
C.They rely on psychoanalysis as a treatment option.
D.They alternate between two primary therapeutic techniques.
They use different treatments for different disorders.
Hippocrates believed that maladaptive behaviors were caused by an imbalance in bodily humors that originated either with physical factors or
A.demonic possession.
B.a shifting of lunar tides.
C.the wrath of the gods.
D.a change in the seasons.
a change in the seasons.
The hypothalamus is a structure within the _____ that regulates _____.
A.limbic system; emotion
B.limbic system; basic biological urges
C.autonomic nervous system; emotion
D.hindbrain; basic biological urges
limbic system; basic biological urges
You are able to read and understand this question because of processing and information integration that takes place in your
A.midbrain.
B.cerebral cortex.
C.brain stem.
D.hindbrain.
cerebral cortex.
Longitudinal studies provide valuable data about which of the following?
A.how labels for mental illness currently vary from one culture to the next
B.how mental illness is currently perceived by people in different regions of the country
C.how mental illness develops across the life span
D.how labels for mental illness stigmatize persons when they apply for a job
how mental illness develops across the life span
Both PET scans and MRIs are neuroimaging techniques that allow us to understand brain structures. While the PET scan relies on __________, the MRI uses _______ to produce images of the brain.
A.X-rays, radioactive positrons
B.radiofrequency waves; radioactive dye and x-rays
C.radioactive positrons; magnetic fields
D.radioactive dye; x-rays
radioactive positrons; magnetic fields
The fiber used by a cell to transport information to other cells is called a(n)
A.soma
B.synapse
C.axon
D.dendrite
axon
An older client is being evaluated for memory deficits. After completing an assessment, the clinician suspects that the client suffers from Alzheimer’s disease. This client would most likely have problems in which part of the limbic system?
A.Caudate
B.Hippocampus
C.Amygdala
D.Cingulate gyrus
Hippocampus
Clara enters her dark apartment after a brief out-of-town trip. As she turns on the light, her cat jumps out from behind a large plant, causing Clara to scream and drop her bags. Clara is experiencing arousal of _______.
A.her thyroid gland
B.her autonomic nervous system
C.her pituitary gland
D.her somatic nervous system
her autonomic nervous system
What is the major disadvantage of the experimental method?
A.Researchers cannot determine correlation from the experimental method.
B.Researchers cannot determine causation from the experimental method.
C.Many important variables cannot be manipulated.
D.Researchers cannot use random assignment in the experimental method.
Many important variables cannot be manipulated.
A major drawback of the ABAB reversal design lies in
A.the length of time it takes to complete all of the treatment conditions.
B.its limited use with adults and developmentally disabled persons.
C.the fact that there are limits to generalizability of results to other cases.
D.the problem of determining accurate baselines for behaviors targeted for treatment.
the fact that there are limits to generalizability of results to other cases.
In an experiment involving a specific form of therapy, the independent variable is the
A.outcome of the intervention.
B.variable not manipulated by the experimenter.
C.treatment administered.
D.variable that serves as a moderator.
treatment administered.
What are the advantages to using brain imaging techniques?
A.They can rule out neurological conditions and can help researchers explore the relationship between brain functions and specific mental disorders.
B.They can define and determine the severity of almost any disorder.
C.They can accurately diagnose the patient without other data.
D.They are inexpensive to conduct and can take the place of psychological assessments.
They can rule out neurological conditions and can help researchers explore the relationship between brain functions and specific mental disorders.
In the technique known as behavioral observation, the first step is
A.determining whether the patient can keep reliable records of his or her own behavior.
B.testing possible observers to see if they can be sufficiently attentive in a natural environment.
C.defining the behavior so that it can be closely observed and reliably monitored.
D.choosing an observer who can work without bias.
defining the behavior so that it can be closely observed and reliably monitored.
Why do clinicians use unstructured interviews?
A.to determine interrater reliability and judge the patient’s character
B.to help people clarify their subjective feelings and to provide general empathic support
C.to help prepare people for job interviews
D.to introduce themselves to the patient and begin the psychotherapy process
to help people clarify their subjective feelings and to provide general empathic support
What are the advantages of the clinical interview process, in addition to gathering a lot of information in a relatively short amount of time?
A.The interviewer can control the interaction and can probe further when necessary.
B.The patient can self-report and the psychologist can self-monitor.
C.The patient can take an unstandardized tests and the clinician can interpret results concurrently with the interview.
D.Family members can report objective observations and the psychologist can make a diagnos
The interviewer can control the interaction and can probe further when necessary.
The Rorschach projective test includes _______.
A.a behavioral journal
B.a structured interview
C.a series of images on cards
D.a detailed questionnaire
a series of images on cards
Which of the following best captures the meaning of reliability?
A.Test scores vary over time but stay within 2 standard deviations of the mean.
B.Test scores of different people are highly correlated.
C.A test consistently produces the same score for the same person.
D.Interrater agreement is low.
A test consistently produces the same score for the same person.
Joe comes to the counseling center with complaints of “overwhelming anxiety” in social situations. After an initial interview, the psychologist asks Joe to complete a homework assignment: identify the nature of the situations in which he is anxious. He is asked to recall what happens just before he becomes anxious and what happens immediately after he becomes anxious. What would the psychologist be trying to find out about Joe’s anxiety attacks?
A.The antecedents and consequences of the behavior that are maintaining it
B.The internal, enduring states maintaining the emotional reaction
C.The negative reinforcers present before the anxiety is experienced
D.The classically conditioned extinction response that precedes the behavior
The antecedents and consequences of the behavior that are maintaining it
Clinical assessments made for the purpose of diagnosis typically include an evaluation of the problem behavior’s symptoms and severity, patterns of symptoms over time, and
A.an estimation of the length of treatment time.
B.an evaluation of the patient’s strengths and weaknesses.
C.a clinical judgment as to the need for a second opinion.
D.a mental status exam by a collaborating psychiatrist.
an evaluation of the patient’s strengths and weaknesses.
A psychologist might question the concept of “comorbidity” in DSM because
A.it is difficult to determine if there are two distinct disorders present or if what is being observed is a different manifestation of a single disorder.
B.the concept of comorbidity implies the presence of an underlying medical disorder.
C.manifestations of different symptoms in a given disorder are rare.
D.true comorbidity is not generally accepted by most mental health professionals.
it is difficult to determine if there are two distinct disorders present or if what is being observed is a different manifestation of a single disorder.
Current IQ test scores are standardized using a mean of ______ and a standard deviation of __________.
A.100; 10
B.115; 10
C.115; 15
D.100; 15
100; 15
The intelligence quotient or IQ was originally determined by
A.using the mental age as a gauge of natural intelligence.
B.dividing a child’s chronological age by his mental age.
C.taking the child’s mental age and dividing it by his chronological age.
D.comparing a child’s score with those obtained by peers.
taking the child’s mental age and dividing it by his chronological age.
Psychological assessment is the process of _____.
A.collecting and interpreting information that will be used to understand a person
B.interpreting only unconcious cues and signals
C.using a therapeutic technique to treat a person
D.predicting a prognosis for a person
collecting and interpreting information that will be used to understand a person
Women are about twice as likely as men to experience _______.
A.substance dependence and eating disorders
B.obsessive compulsive disorder
C.panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder
D.hallucinations
panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder
_____ has to be present in order for a fear to be considered a phobia.
A.Excessive worry
B.Avoidance
C.Sudden onset
D.Panic
Avoidance
Flooding is a therapeutic technique involving _____.
A.gradual acceptance of an obsessive thought
B.gradual memory recall regarding anxious incidents
C.immediate exposure to the most feared stimulus
D.progressive breathing and relaxation techniques
immediate exposure to the most feared stimulus
In the brain, emotional stimuli involving fear follow two primary pathway(s) leading to the _____.
A.corpus callosum
B.thalamus
C.hypothalamus
D.amygdala
amygdala
Which of the following IS NOT a social situation that creates distress for someone with a social anxiety disorder?
A.Playing a sport with others
B.Eating with others
C.Drinking with others
D.Writing in the presence of others
Playing a sport with others
Blood-injury-illness phobias are different from other phobias in a unique way involving vasovagal syncope. This condition involves
A.elevated blood pressure.
B.sympathetic system response.
C.overuse of emergency room facilities.
D.parasympathetic system activation.
parasympathetic system activation.
Thought suppression may actually _____ associated with those thoughts.
A.eradicate unwanted cognitions
B.instill healthy coping behaviors
C.decrease the physical responses
D.increase the undesirable emotions
increase the undesirable emotions
Roberto has been diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder and is about to begin treatment. What type of treatment will probably be most effective for Roberto?
A.a combination of exposure and response prevention
B.a combination of flooding and breathing retraining
C.a combination of breathing techniques and thought suppression
D.a combination of exposure and progressive muscle relaxation
a combination of exposure and response prevention
Thirty years of research on psychological interventions for anxiety disorders have shown behavioral therapy and ______ interventions to be the most efficacious treatments.
A.client-centered
B.reality based
C.cognitive-behavioral therapeutic
D.psychoanalytic
cognitive-behavioral therapeutic
More than half of the people with obsessive-compulsive disorder also have comorbid disorders such as social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, GAD, panic disorder and
A.bipolar disorder.
B.depression.
C.agoraphobia.
D.sexual dysfunctions.
depression
What is the function of the id, according to psychoanalytic theory?
A.houses biological drives
B.mediates the interactions between the superego and the ego
C.reduces conscious anxiety
D.promotes awareness of societal norms
houses biological drives
In operant conditioning, a reinforcer serves to _______ a behavior it follows.
A.strengthen
B.weaken
C.diminish
D.extinguish
strengthen
In medieval Europe, mental illness was thought to be caused by
A.evil or demonic spirits.
B.a dysfunctional family.
C.a wandering uterus.
D.retribution from the gods.
evil or demonic spirits.
Carl Rogers proposed that phenomenology is critical in understanding an individual. Phenomenology means the
A.difference between what one perceives and what one ought to do.
B.degree to which objective reality and subjective reality are a fit.
C.objective world of reality.
D.subjective world of the individual.
subjective world of the individual.
A syndrome is defined as a group of _____.
A.symptoms that identify a particular disorder
B.random symptoms that do not lead to any particular diagnosis
C.symptoms that rule out a mental disorder
D.generalized symptoms that can represent many disorders
symptoms that identify a particular disorder
The diathesis-stress model is one way to explain _____ influences on abnormal behavior.
A.singular
B.developmental
C.role-prescribed
D.multiple
multiple
Sigmund Freud’s basic assumption was that ______.
A.sex is the key drive for all behaviors
B.biology is destiny, and our entire lives are preordained and predetermined
C.many motivations, and protective psychological processes are unconscious
D.the ego does not begin to develop until adulthood
many motivations, and protective psychological processes are unconscious
Gender roles directly affect the ______ of abnormal behaviors.
A.chronicity
B.expression
C.cause
D.severity
expression
This qualification is needed in order to become a psychiatrist.
A.must complete graduate school and a two year internship
B.must complete graduate school and two internships in psychopharmacology
C.must conduct original research with a university
D.must complete medical school and residency training that is focused on abnormal behavior
must complete medical school and residency training that is focused on abnormal behavior
What is the most important factor in humanistic therapy techniques?
A.the ability of the client to uncover family secrets and blocked emotions
B.the ability of the client to categorize his or her true feelings
C.the frequency and duration of therapy sessions
D.the relationship between the client and the therapist
the relationship between the client and the therapist
Your college newspaper features a headline reading, “COUNSELING CENTER RESEARCHER SEEKING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS FOR SMOKING STUDY. PARTICIPANTS WILL BE PAID FOR THEIR TIME.” This type of recruitment is most typical of which of the following research techniques?
A.Analogue sample
B.Random sample
C.Correlational study
D.Clinical sample
Analogue sample
A researcher is interested in studying the effect of orange juice on test performance. She will evaluate the test performance of students who drink the juice a half-hour before the test against the performance of students who receive nothing to drink before the test. The groups are equivalent in terms of demographics, intelligence, and prior college classes. In this example, the orange juice would be the
A.comparison control.
B.experimental variable.
C.control variable.
D.experimental control.
experimental variable
Which of the following designs captures a “snapshot” of a cohort at one time?
A.Cross-sectional
B.Randomized controlled
C.Longitudinal
D.ABAB reversal
Cross-sectional
What is meant by the term “empirically supported treatment”?
A.It means that Dr. Phil has used the therapy.
B.It means that a treatment has demonstrated its ability to improve patients’ symptoms.
C.It means that the patient goes through catharsis.
D.It means that a patient is able to uncover their unconscious desires.
It means that a treatment has demonstrated its ability to improve patients’ symptoms.
A major limitation of the current DSM approach is that
A.not all persons with the exact same diagnosis experience the exact same symptoms.
B.all people do not accept the underlying etiology of their disorders.
C.not all persons experience the exact same symptoms at the exact same age.
D.all people do not meet any symptoms outlined for a disorder.
not all persons with the exact same diagnosis experience the exact same symptoms.
Functional brain images have been used to examine the _______ related to mental disorders.
A.social factors
B.emotional elements
C.neurological underpinnings
D.physical disabilities
neurological underpinnings
The content and style of questions used in a clinical interview are guided by the
A.presenting problem and the nature of the patient’s difficulty.
B.clinician’s theoretical orientation and presenting problem.
C.presenting problem.
D.clinician’s theoretical orientation.
clinician’s theoretical orientation and presenting problem.
From 1952 to the present, the number of diagnostic categories in DSM has approximately
A.more than doubled.
B.remained the same.
C.reduced by half.
D.more than tripled.
more than doubled.
Select the following domain that IS NOT assessed through the use of neuropsychological tests.
A.language
B.motor skills
C.learning abilities
D.temperament
temperament
A clinician is interested in classifying identical twins. She finds that James has a higher level of measured intelligence than his twin, John. What type of classification system is the clinician using?
A.dimensional
B.continuous
C.categorical
D.qualitative
dimensional
Patients who take benzodiazepines for anxiety disorders for extended periods of time may risk
A.severe disruptions in sleep.
B.physical and psychological dependency.
C.excessive weight gain.
D.depressive episodes.
physical and psychological dependency.
Allison is irrationally afraid of being inside elevators, small closets, and small vehicles. She is so afraid of being in small spaces that she avoids them altogether. While visiting Chicago with her friends, Allison refused to go to the top of the Sears Tower because it would involve riding in an elevator. Her extreme fear of small spaces is _____.
A.an element of panic disorder
B.a compulsive behavior
C.a phobia
D.an example of excessive worry
a phobia
A very important concern with patients with PTSD is an increased risk of _______.
A.eating disorders
B.impulsive decisions
C.risky sexual behavior
D.suicide
suicide
It is now widely accepted that _____ play an important role in the development of anxiety disorders as mediators between experience and response.
A.social factors
B.cognitive factors
C.biological factors
D.environmental factors
cognitive factors
Trent suddenly begins trembling, sweating and having heart palpitations as he enters the convention center where he is scheduled to speak. He feels like he is losing control, and just wants to run away and hide. After breathing deeply and slowly for several minutes, the feeling subsides. What is Trent likely experiencing?
A.a compulsion
B.a panic attack
C.obsessive-compulsive disorder
D.generalized anxiety disorder
a panic attack
“I have to worry about the future. It’s always been a good strategy. If I worry, I’m able to avoid problems and negative consequences. It’s kind of like trouble-shooting.” A statement of this sort would most likely come from someone who has
A.obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B.a social anxiety disorder.
C.post-traumatic stress disorder.
D.generalized anxiety disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
A factor to be considered in discriminating normal anxiety from abnormal anxiety is
A.the genetic component.
B.the type of object feared.
C.the patient’s response to medication.
D.functional impairment.
functional impairment.
Willie has always been shy, but his new job requires him to give presentations to clients. As the first presentation approaches, Willie gets more and more nervous, until he finally calls in sick to work that day. He is just not sure how he will handle this in the future. Willie suffers from _______.
A.aerophobia
B.generalized anxiety disorder
C.acrophobia
D.a social phobia
a social phobia
Generalized anxiety probably evolved as a way to _____.
A.deal with sudden personal loss
B.bond with others when facing hopelessness and despair
C.prepare for threats that could not be identified clearly
D.provide a way to avoid dealing with certain types of imminent anger
prepare for threats that could not be identified clearly
What is the most effective therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder?
A.Systematic desensitization
B.systematic dysregulation
C.response prevention combined with exposure
D.Flooding
response prevention combined with exposure
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.Modern psychologists believe that psychopathology is physiologically based.
B.Understanding abnormal behaviors requires an integration of models.
C.Abnormal behavior may be best understood using a single theoretical framework.
D.Sociocultural factors are the best explanation for disordered behavior.
Understanding abnormal behaviors requires an integration of models.
A parent is using positive and negative reinforcement to change a child’s behavior. What paradigm is this parent using?
A.cognitive behaviorial
B.psychodynamic
C.humanistic
D.biological
cognitive behaviorial
LaShelle takes a drug to regulate her mood disorder. The drug inhibits the reuptake of a neurotransmitter in the brain. What condition in LaShelle’s brain is contributing to her mood disorder?
A.increased amounts of serotonin
B.increased amounts of dopamine
C.depletion of serotonin
D.blocked receptor sites for dopamine
depletion of serotonin
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is an important tool for ______.
A.classifying and diagnosing mental disorders
B.developing new treatment options for mental disorders
C.learning more about personality traits and their effect on culture
D.researching mental disorders within large populations
classifying and diagnosing mental disorders
In psychology, if the term “abnormal” means “away from normal,” what problem doesthis definition present when categorizing someone as being “abnormal”?
A.It does not allow for positive deviations.
B.It does not measure standard deviations.
C.It does not assume abnormality is negative.
D.It does not provide for negative deviation on both sides of average.
It does not allow for positive deviations.
What is the major disadvantage of case studies?
A.Case studies do not provide in-depth accounts.
B.Case studies provide very little information on the individual.
C.Case studies do not provide information about family history.
D.It is difficult to draw generalities from case studies.
It is difficult to draw generalities from case studies.
The brain stem is critical to survival because it
A.contains the area known as the cerebral cortex.
B.mediates responses between the autonomic and peripheral nervous system.
C.regulates higher cognitive functioning.
D.controls most of the biological functions associated with living.
controls most of the biological functions associated with living.
Culture-bound syndromes are best described as groups of symptoms that
A.start in one culture and spread to others.
B.occur universally across cultures.
C.occur uniquely in certain ethnic or racial groups.
D.are omitted from the DSM because they are culturally biased.
occur uniquely in certain ethnic or racial groups.
Neuropsychological Battery tests are used by clinicians to evaluate the
A.level of brain dysfunction due to substance abuse.
B.symptoms of a severe personality disorder.
C.presence of brain damage.
D.client’s emotional intelligence level along neuropsychological dimensions.
presence of brain damage.
A projective personality test is one in which a person _____.
A.is asked to answer straightforward questions about himself or herself
B.replies to casual and informal questions from a clinician
C.is presented with a series of ambiguous stimuli
D.responds to true/false questions about physical complaints, psychological states, social attitudes, and occupational preferences
is presented with a series of ambiguous stimuli
A major purpose of a diagnosis is to
A.help patients understand the root cause of their problems.
B.assist the referral source in making a differential diagnosis.
C.aid communication among researchers and clinicians.
D.communicate the psychologist’s theoretical orientation to treatment.
aid communication among researchers and clinicians.
A community screening for depression might identify
A.people at risk for depression if they are not treated.
B.the number of people likely to recover without any psychological treatment.
C.the people in a cohort who might benefit from a particular type of therapy.
D.what a specific cohort’s cut-off score should be, considering all risk factors.
people at risk for depression if they are not treated.
Which of the following is the most common cause of PTSD?
A.sudden and unexpected death of a loved one
B.sexual or physical abuse
C.military participation in combat
D.weather emergency or natural disaster
sudden and unexpected death of a loved one
Psychologists using psychological challenge studies examine brain functioning through PET scans of people affected by a disorder and of those not affected by it. For obsessive-compulsive disorder studies, this technique would
A.question participants in order to activate certain portions of the brain.
B.engage participants in storytelling in order to identify underactivated brain areas.
C.present subjects with contaminated objects and note differences in brain activity.
D.measure differences in response times for object recognition.
present subjects with contaminated objects and note differences in brain activity.
People who suffer from generalized anxiety disorder are characterized by excessive worry about
A.safety issues.
B.cleanliness.
C.specific feared objects.
D.many different things.
many different things.
All of the following EXCEPT ________ are symptoms of PTSD.
A.an overactive sympathetic nervous system
B.compulsions
C.numbing
D.an exaggerated startle response
compulsions
Anxiety disorders are often _____ conditions.
A.extremely short-term
B.chronic
C.acute
D.violent
chronic
Harry, who is afraid of snakes, wants to get over his fear before taking a camping trip with his buddies. A therapist tells Harry to stand in an enclosure filled with nonpoisonous snakes for several minutes, until he no longer feels fearful. What technique is the therapist recommending?
A.aversion therapy
B.systematic desensitization
C.flooding
D.psychodynamic therapy
flooding
A researcher trains a rat to press a bar in order to receive food. What type of conditioning is this?
A.negative
B.positive
C.classical
D.operant
operant
Ahmid is experiencing some significant emotional changes for no apparent reason. This signals a mental disorder if the condition results from some internal dysfunction and _____.
A.no cure can be found
B.appears to be permanent
C.causes a harmful dysfunction according to cultural standards
D.he also suffers significant physical distress
causes a harmful dysfunction according to cultural standards
A genotype is an individual’s _____, whereas a phenotype represents its _____.
A.environmental structure; biological structure
B.physical expression; emotional structure
C.dominant gene structure; recessive gene structure
D.genetic structure; physical expression
genetic structure; physical expression
Darien is 3 years old. He slips off a step, falls, and bruises his knee. Upon picking the crying toddler up, Darien’s mother kisses his knee and gives him an M&M. Magically, Darien’s pain disappears. This phenomenon would be known as the _____________ in psychology.
A.talking cure
B.Positive effect
C.classical conditioning effect
D.placebo effect
placebo effect
What did the psychodynamic paradigm identify as the cause of abnormal behavior?
A.the pleasure principle
B.the id, superego, and ego
C.unconscious mental conflicts
D.hysteria
unconscious mental conflicts
In Aaron Beck’s model of depression, the cognitive triad consists of
A.past, present, and future expectations.
B.three levels of the mind.
C.three types of negative thoughts.
D.Freud’s id, ego and superego.
three types of negative thoughts.
Every time little Jeffrey goes shopping with his mom, there is an incident at the checkout line when he spots candy. Typically, Jeffrey’s mom initially refuses his request for a candy bar. When the child throws himself to the floor kicking and screaming, Jeffrey’s mom gives in and hands him the candy bar to end the embarrassing scene. In operant conditioning terms, what is maintaining the child’s “checkout tantrums”?
A.Positive reinforcement
B.Negative reinforcement
C.Vicarious reinforcement
D.Non-contingent reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
now about the relationship of the variables?
A.There is no relationship between the variables.
B.As hours of sleep increase, test performance increases.
C.As hours of sleep decrease, test performance increases.
D.There is a causal relationship between the variables.
As hours of sleep decrease, test performance increases.
A psychologist is interested in finding the lifetime prevalence rate for substance abuse in the U.S. His main interest is in learning
A.if the rate of substance abuse is higher in adolescence than adulthood.
B.the number of people who currently report substance abuse problems.
C.the number of people who report substance abuse problems at any point in their lives.
D.whether the number of people who report developing substance abuse problems has increased within the last year.
the number of people who report substance abuse problems at any point in their lives.
What does a correlational study assess?
A.the pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of a disorder
B.the relation between two factors
C.biological structures
D.causality among multiple factors
the relation between two factors
The “placebo response” is the result of ________ on the part of the _________.
A.blinded treatment; participant
B.expectations; researcher
C.expectations; participant
D.blinded treatment; researcher
expectations; participant
The most obvious reason for using assessment procedures is to _____.
A.explain the reasons for the patient’s hallucinations
B.recommend hypnosis
C.predict the patient’s prognosis
D.describe the nature of the patient’s main problem
describe the nature of the patient’s main problem
In using the same test more than once during the course of therapy, the psychologist is most likely trying to gauge the course of symptoms over time or
A.the acceptability of the treatment recommendations.
B.the effect of treatment.
C.the baseline frequency of symptoms.
D.the validity of the diagnosis.
the effect of treatment.
In making a differential diagnosis, the psychologist performing the assessment gathers data from multiple sources and completes a process that is more extensive than a screening in order to determine the
A.likelihood that a psychological disorder is present.
B.presence or absence of psychosocial factors contributing to multiple disorders.
C.likelihood that the patient has one disorder as opposed to another.
D.presence or absence of an organic basis for a specific disorder.
likelihood that the patient has one disorder as opposed to another.
Mary, a 19-year old college sophomore, has been referred to a psychologist by her physician. Mary has a high level of anxiety and complains of intrusive thoughts that interfere with her ability to study for exams. She also reports having severe migraine headaches before exams. Most likely, the psychologist will
A.conduct a brief assessment because of Mary’s young age and the simplicity of the case.
B.assume that the migraines are triggered by the stress of Mary’s worries about exams and will assess her test-taking skills.
C.disregard his theoretical approach and use behavioral assessments that have been proved effective in anxiety-reduction cases.
D.consider Mary’s medical state, age, and symptoms in selecting appropriate assessment tools.
consider Mary’s medical state, age, and symptoms in selecting appropriate assessment tools.
In the clinical assessment process, referral questions aid in the determination of
A.an appropriate placement for the patient upon discharge.
B.the goals of assessment and the psychological tests or measurements to be administered.
C.the best way to psychologically triage the individual for further testing.
D.how long the therapeutic process will take.
the goals of assessment and the psychological tests or measurements to be administered.
Compare the following, and determine which is most likely to trigger the onset of an anxiety disorder?
A.a disability or impairment
B.a loss or failure
C.a threat or danger
D.a relationship or friendship
a threat or danger
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves symptoms that ________.
A.are either long-lasting or have a delayed onset
B.occur within four weeks of the traumatic event
C.are less severe than those of acute stress disorder
D.are immediate
are either long-lasting or have a delayed onset
Someone who has panic symptoms and cannot identify an environmental trigger for the event is most likely experiencing which specific type of attack?
A.Situationally bound attack
B.False attack
C.Situationally cued attack
D.Uncued attack
Uncued attack
Which of the following statements about reinforcement is TRUE?
A.Reinforcement may increase or decrease a behavior it follows, as it depends on the targeted behavior of the organism.
B.Reinforcement for one person may be punishment for another.
C.Reinforcement must be primary to have an impact.
D.Reinforcement must be delivered every time a behavior is emitted to strengthen that behavior.
Reinforcement for one person may be punishment for another.
Dr. Barstow is treating a young man who is afraid of dogs. One method he uses is progressive muscle relaxation using vivid imagery. Once the patient is relaxed, Dr. Barstow introduces the patient to a picture of a dog with instructions to “Breathe deeply and remain calm and relaxed.” Which learning principle is being employed in this example?
A.Negative reinforcement
B.Mindfulness
C.systematic desensitization
D.shaping
systematic desensitization
Juan has been diagnosed with both major depression and alcoholism. This is referred to as ______.
A.comorbidity
B.a syndrome
C.mild psychosis
D.sex additction
comorbidity
What does the biopsychosocial model state?
A.Biological and gender factors contribute to mental disorders.
B.Only biological factors contribute to mental disorders.
C.Only gender and culture factors contribute to mental disorders.
D.Biological, social, and psychological factors contribute to mental disorders.
Biological, social, and psychological factors contribute to mental disorders.
Dr. Clark works in a hospital where she studies and treats mental disorders. Earlier she had a patient with major depression and she prescribed an antidepressant for him. Identify Dr. Clark’s profession.
A.clinical psychologist
B.social worker
C.psychiatrist
D.mental health counselor
psychiatrist
Mario has just returned from his third deployment to Iraq. For several months after returning, he is unable to sleep and has difficulty dealing with flashbacks of mortar fire over the compound in which he worked. Using a biopsychosocial model, we might explain his problems as deriving from
A.a diathesis and the stress of deployment.
B.the stress of deployment alone.
C.a failure in coping alone.
D.a lack of social support.
a diathesis and the stress of deployment.
What is operant conditioning?
A.measuring behaviors by use of observation
B.learning by use of rewards and punishments
C.learning by use of associations
D.ending an association by use of extinction
learning by use of rewards and punishments
Aaron Beck theorized that depression is caused by _______.
A.neurochemical imbalances
B.genetic predisposition
C.childhood maltreatment
D.distorted thinking
distorted thinking
Which of the following IS NOT a benefit of the case study method?
A.It allows for the examination of rare disorders or conditions.
B.It allows for the evaluation of large groups with rare disorders.
C.Case studies may highlight important clinical issues that may not surface in group studies.
D.It may lead to the generation of new hypotheses to be tested in group studies.
It allows for the evaluation of large groups with rare disorders.
Genomewide linkage analysis allows researchers studying a disorder to focus on specific areas on specific chromosomes through using large families with the disorder or
A.members of large families matched against cohorts from the general population.
B.large groups of non-relatives affected by the disorder.
C.large samples of affected relative pairs.
D.large samples of non-affected relative pairs.
large samples of affected relative pairs.
One Minnesota study highlighting the importance of genetic factors was conducted
A.on DZ twins reared apart.
B.on DZ twins reared together.
C.on MZ twins reared together.
D.on MZ twins reared apart.
on MZ twins reared apart.
All scientific research using case study methodology has this severe drawback.
A.it can make a patient’s condition worse
B.it is too intrusive to the patient
C.it is quite costly
D.it is subject to multiple interpretations and cannot be generalized to the population
it is subject to multiple interpretationsand cannot be generalized to the population
Dr. Shomeyer is conducting a twin study in order to determine the presence of ADHD in familial cohorts. Ultimately, she hopes to uncover information on the degree to which the disorder might be heritable. Dr. Shomeyer’s methodology would be described as a __________ approach.
A.familial determinism
B.candidate gene
C.behavioral genetic
D.genomewide
behavioral genetic
The type of sample selected for a research study affects the recruitment strategy for participants as well as the
A.number of dependent variables studied.
B.generalizability of the study findings.
C.number of conditions in a study.
D.length of the study.
generalizability of the study findings.
The dimensional model of classification is qualitative, implying that
A.it is not possible to place disorders along a continuum of functioning.
B.different observed disorders are quantitatively distinct from each other.
C.disorders that are observed are simply extreme variations of normal behavior.
D.no real differences exist among diagnostic subtypes.
disorders that are observed are simply extreme variations of normal behavior.
In some branches of medicine, diagnosis refers to the identification of a physical illness and may be made on the basis of laboratory tests. In psychology, however, a diagnosis is
A.based more on the presence of clusters of symptoms.
B.made only after consultation with the primary physician.
C.based on several significant epidemiological factors.
D.made on the basis of a single behavior, if significant.
based more on the presence of clusters of symptoms.
A psychologist is conducting an assessment of a child who appears to have high distractibility in a classroom setting. The psychologist is interested in what happens just before the child is distracted from a task, how the child behaves during the distracted period, and what happens immediately after the task disruption. In assessing the relationship between situational influences and behavior, the psychologist is using a
A.structural analysis.
B.internal analysis.
C.topical analysis.
D.functional analysis.
functional analysis.
On psychological tests, the standard deviation gives an indication of
A.the number of points required for a person’s score to fall within the “normal” range.
B.the distance between an obtained score and the average score of the normative group.
C.the number of standard points required for a person’s score to demonstrate improvement.
D.the distance between the scores of a referent group and the scores of a normative group.
the distance between an obtained score and the average score of the normative group.
A patient has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Her therapist has used decatastrophisizing to treat her symptoms. What type of therapy has the clinician used?
A.systematic desensitization
B.cognitive
C.interoceptive exposure
D.biological
cognitive
Seven weeks after returning from the war in Iraq, Bob is experiencing intense negative emotions and has flashbacks of combat. What do these symptoms suggest?
A.acute stress disorder
B.somatoform disorder
C.dissociative symptoms
D.posttraumatic stress disorder
posttraumatic stress disorder
Roshanda is a good-natured four-year-old who typically enjoys her 7:30 PM bedtime ritual. After the first day of preschool, Roshanda cries and refuses to stay in bed following her mother’s goodnight kiss and demands to sleep in her parents’ bed. After three unsuccessful attempts to entice Roshanda to sleep in her own bed, her mother gives in. This pattern is repeated every night. Which statement most appropriately applies to this scenario?
A.Roshanda’s avoidance of bedtime is maintained through negative reinforcement.
B.The mother could overcome Roshanda’s resistance to obedience through vicarious conditioning.
C.The pattern of behavior is not indicative of a typical fear response for a child.
D.Roshanda’s behavior is resistant to extinction.
Roshanda’s avoidance of bedtime is maintained through negative reinforcement.
_____ is more immediate, more intense, and more emotionally focused than anxiety.
A.Panic
B.Excessive worry
C.Pessimism
D.Apprehension
Panic
The anxiety-sensitivity model of fear acquisition holds that some people
A.are highly sensitive to the anxiety cues manifested by others.
B.believe that anxiety will result in negative consequences.
C.lack the ability to regulate their emotions.
D.are more motivated by anxiety than others.
believe that anxiety will result in negative consequences.
Raul is a college freshman who looks forward to weekend parties at college. He especially likes to play “beer pong” and is known on campus as a champion player. After a recent party, Raul received a DUI citation. Raul’s parents have urged him to seek treatment for his “alcohol problem,” but Raul refuses. He does not believe he has a drinking problem. In Freud’s theory, which of the following defense mechanisms is Raul likely using?
A.Intellectualization
B.Rationalization
C.Denial
D.Repression
Denial
A recent news story describes an unusual condition found among females at a local high school. After eating frozen yogurt from their cafeteria, a number of girls have begun to “spin wildly” throughout the lunchroom until being restrained by a faculty hall monitor. Immediately after being stopped, each girl reported feeling compelled to “spin” after eating. The number of girls involved in these incidents increased until the yogurt machine was removed from the cafeteria. In all probability, this behavior can be considered an episode of
A.mass hysteria.
B.mass-induced mania.
C.emotional dysplasia.
D.demonic possession.
mass hysteria.
Jeffrey’s therapist is conducting an initial interview with him. The therapist spends a lot of time asking questions about Jeffrey’s parents and his early life experiences. Since he seems to view Jeffrey’s parents as the “root cause” of his problems, this therapist is most likely oriented toward ____________.
A.behaviorism
B.psychoanalysis
C.behavioral genetics
D.humanism
psychoanalysis
Cognitive behavior therapy is based on changing a client’s behavior rather than _______.
A.understanding why the behavior is happening
B.punishing bad behavior
C.encouraging desired behavior
D.trying to understand the dynamics of their personalities
trying to understand the dynamics of their personalities
Which statement below is TRUE of the original definition of a culture-bound illness?
A.It is usually found only in children.
B.The behavior usually requires hospitalization in the home culture.
C.The abnormal behavior is specific to a particular location or group.
D.It is less severe than other forms of mental illness.
The abnormal behavior is specific to a particular location or group.
In psychoanalytic theory, what is the analyst’s primary tool for facilitating insight?
A.helping the patients change their thinking
B.suggesting drug alternatives
C.providing unconditional positive regard
D.providing interpretation of the patient’s account of their life, including hidden meanings
providing interpretation of the patient’s account of their life, including hidden meanings
The statistical significance of a research finding refers to the
A.judgment of a clinician that the results are important.
B.probability that findings did not occur by chance.
C.relevance of clinical results.
D.degree to which the treatment group reports symptom reduction.
probability that findings did not occur by chance.
A screening device is able to indicate a problem when it is present and accurately indicate the absence of a problem when none exists. In psychological terms, this would constitute
A.screening specificity.
B.differential diagnosis.
C.sensitivity and specificity.
D.screening sensitivity.
sensitivity and specificity.
Bill has been undergoing cognitive behavior therapy for two years after being diagnosed with PTSD. He is frustrated because he does not seem to be getting better, and exhibits signs of depression. His therapist has given Bill a prescription for an antidepressant. What is the most likely explanation?
A.Bill is no longer suffering from PTSD, but the therapist wants to relieve some troubling symptoms.
B.Bill has high levels of anxiety regarding his lack of therapeutic progress.
C.PTSD and depression have high comorbidity rates, making it likely that Bill is suffering from depression.
D.Antidepressants will help Bill block past traumatic events and work toward healing.
PTSD and depression have high comorbidity rates, making it likely that Bill is suffering from depression.
Reynaldo has an irrational fear of cats and has all the symptoms of a phobia. Knowing that some behavioral techniques are effective with fears of certain types, his therapist decides to bring a cat into the office. Which behavioral technique is the therapist using?
A.dream exposure
B.Imaginal exposure
C.In vivo exposure
D.Virtual exposure
In vivo exposure
Every evening, Ramin must knock on his front door three times before going to bed. He discovered that this was an effective way to ward off robbers. His knocking on the door is an example of
A.an obsession.
B.an intrusive thought.
C.a cognitive impairment.
D.a compulsion.
a compulsion.
Benzodiazepines bind to receptors in the brain that are associated with what substance?
A.GABA
B.glutamate
C.serotonin
D.norepinephrine
GABA
Sonia had an unusual experience this morning. As she walked into her class, she suddenly felt sheer terror. Her heart raced and she had difficulty breathing. During the attack, her thoughts swirled and she thought she might be losing control over herself. Sonia’s experience is best described as a
A.stress-related episode.
B.gender-specific stress incident.
C.panic attack.
D.school-related phobia.
panic attack.
Doyle has a genetic history of heart disease in his family (diathesis). He has worked in a physically demanding field for 35 years (stress). He has also smoked cigarettes for 35 years. According to the diathesis-stress model, smoking cigarettes is a(n) _____ related to the development of heart disease.
A.genetic factor
B.predisposition
C.risk factor
D.pathway
risk factor
A message that implies “I will love you if you graduate with honors” is an example of
A.conditional positive regard.
B.conditional negative regard.
C.unconditional positive regard.
D.unconditional negative regard.
conditional positive regard.
Javier has been diagnosed with agoraphobia. He is seeing a cognitive behavior therapist that uses muscle relaxation, a ranking process for his fears, and a learning process to decrease his phobia. What cognitive behavior technique is the therapist using?
A.contingency management
B.aversion therapy
C.social skills training
D.systematic desensitization
systematic desensitization
Biological scarring, as seen in some disorders such as PTSD, demonstrates that
A.the brain is capable of healing itself after a trauma.
B.genetics plays a vital role in vulnerability to a disorder.
C.brain plasticity is not possible after trauma.
D.the brain may change as a result of the disorder.
the brain may change as a result of the disorder.
You are walking toward your car in the campus parking garage late at night. Suddenly, you hear a car horn and are startled. Instantaneously, your heart begins to race and your breathing becomes shallow. Which system of your body responded to the car horn?
A.Sympathetic nervous system
B.Sensory-somatic nervous system
C.Peripheral nervous system
D.Parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
The experience of emotion, the regulation of emotional expression, and basic biological drives are of particular interest in abnormal psychology. These functions are controlled by structures in the ________ system.
A.nervous
B.limbic
C.reticular activating
D.endocrine
limbic
Mike and Jill are twins who were raised together. Jill developed an eating disorder at the age of 16, but Mike did not. Jill’s psychologist believes her hormones contributed to the development of her disorder. According to epidemiological studies, what is the most likely factor that would contribute to the difference between Mike and Jill?
A.society
B.attachment issues
C.gender differences
D.parenting style
gender differences
William was treated for anxiety related to test-taking. At the end of his therapy, he reported fewer anxiety symptoms and a better ability to manage his fear of failure. Most probably, William’s progress will be viewed as _______ at termination.
A.treatment resistant
B.a partial failure
C.clinically significant
D.clinically insignificant
clinically significant
The term “subthreshhold syndrome” in a categorical approach to diagnosis implies that the
A.client is trying not to display symptoms of a specific disorder. B.client does not have enough of the symptoms to warrant a specific diagnosis.
C.symptoms are too weak to be identified.
D.model is not sensitive enough to detect pathology more than half of the time.
client does not have enough of the symptoms to warrant a specific diagnosis.
Research indicates that the generalized subtype of social anxiety disorder is associated with a childhood history of
A.neglect.
B.abuse.
C.panic attacks.
D.shyness.
shyness.
Cognitive symptoms that accompany anxiety are also referred to as
A.compulsions.
B.subjective distress.
C.delusions.
D.flight reactions.
subjective distress.
Anxiety disorders are _____ than any other form of mental disorder.
A.more likely to require hospitalization
B.more common
C.less common
D.less understood
more common
Cognitive theories of fear acquisition focus on _________ as explanations for the condition.
A.environmental conditions
B.repression and denial
C.interpretations of internal or external events
D.how a person vicariously learns anxiety
interpretations of internal or external events