Abnormal final

(1) Lynda has experienced a depressed mood, negative ideas about being a failure, and constant difficulty sleeping for the past year. She has been diagnosed with depression. Which of these symptoms of depression is cognitive in nature?
negative ideas about being a failure
(1) Alcoholism is not a particularly rare disease, and so by the ________ criterion would not be considered abnormal—illustrating one of the problems with this criterion for defining abnormality.
deviance from the norm
(1) Amin has a great deal of difficulty concentrating on a task. He is impulsive and fidgety, and consequently does not do well in school. This does not bother him, but he may be held back. His parents and teachers all believe he is bright, but that his inability to focus is the main problem in his school performance. Based on this information, Amin’s behavior is abnormal according to the ________ criterion.
difficulty adapting with life’s demands
(1) Which of the following is one of the major problems of the experiencing personal distress criterion for defining abnormality?
it is hard to define where the cutoff for sufficient stress
(1) Jane wants to study mental problems to see how autism, ADHD, and conduct disorder develop, continue and can be prevented. Jane is a(n)
psychopathologist
(1) Which of the following statements illustrates the concept of abnormal behavior existing on a continuum?
We all feel anxiety, and sometimes it is low level and not a problem and sometimes it might be debilitating
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(1) If you believe trephination is an appropriate treatment for a mental disorder, you view the cause of the disorder as
spiritual
(1) Tarantism, lycanthropy, and St. Vitus’s dance are all examples of ________ that occurred during the Middle Ages.
mass madness
(1) Which individual probably had the greatest impact during the reform movement in the United States?
Dorothea Dix
(1) When did the mental hygiene movement emerge?
Around 1910
(1) A key idea behind the dimensional perspective that is a theme of this book is that people differ in
the degree, not kind, of symptoms
(1) Which of the following would a public health practitioner be most likely to work on?
promoting physical activity and social connections to increase wellness
(1) Programs like DARE and “this is your brain on drugs” that aim to prevent people from starting drug use are examples of ________ prevention.
primary
(1) Which of the following reflects the consumer theme in this text?
The text aims to make you better able to evaluate information you hear about mental health in news reports you hear.
(1) Connor has dyslexia. He is very ashamed of his dyslexia and avoids participating in classroom activities because he is sure he will fail at them. Connor is experiencing
self-stigma
(2) Shanda is a therapist. She sees herself as the teacher in the therapeutic environment. Shanda most likely has adopted the ________ model in her practice.
cognitive-behavior
(2) Kit’s life’s work is to identify the association between specific genes and the experience of depression in a person. Kit is probably a(n)
molecular geneticist
(2) If you want to design a medicine to increase a neurotransmitter level, the medicine should
block reuptake
(2) If a person was experiencing the sensation that they were being touched, which lobe of the brain would be important to processing this information?
parietal
(2) Which of the following statements is MOST correct about the biological model?
Biological features are risk factors for mental disorders.
(2) Ellen feels that every behavior that her husband exhibits is meaningful. If he accidentally calls her “Hellen” she thinks it means that he sees her as part of his living “hell” or that he has another woman named Helen on his mind. If he is late, she thinks it means he secretly doesn’t want to be with her. Ellen’s feelings reflect which key principle of the psychodynamic model?
psychic determinism
(2) Max’s psychology teacher is totally hot. He would love to make love to her, but knows that is not going to happen. Instead, he daydreams about sex with her constantly. Max’s daydreaming is an example of a(n) ________ process.
primary
(2) Brad is frustrated at work because he has been demoted. Instead of expressing his anger to his boss, he becomes increasingly hostile with his wife and children at home, to the point of being abusive. Brad is using which defense mechanism?
displacement
(2) Luc is dreaming about tall trees that have all been pruned back. His therapist tells him that the dream suggests Luc is uncomfortable with his maleness, and the trees all represent thoughts of castration. The latent content of Luc’s dream is
thoughts of castration
(2) Holly loves a new challenge. When she was 30, she completed a Master’s degree in Fine Arts and worked for a book company editing books that were struggling. As she got bored with that career, she went back to school in her 40’s and earned a Ph.D. in physics and had a great research career. Once she had tenure, she developed an interest in physical fitness and now competes in athletic competitions internationally for women 50 and over. She just loves taking on new activities abd mastering them for the sheer pleasure of it. Holly is motivated by which level of Maslow’s hierarchy?
self- actualization
(2) Isaac has high-functioning autism, but his parents accept him as he is and encourage him to find interests that he can pursue throughout his life. He loves Legos, and plays them all the time, even though he is 16 years old. His parents don’t criticize him for this behavior, but instead encourage him to design new creations and praise his creativity. Isaac’s parents exhibit
Unconditional positive regard
(2) Mary has had a rough semester, although every other semester before she did just fine. She thinks to herself, “I can’t do anything right!” Mary’s thinking is a good example of a(n)
cognitive distortion
(2) All of the following are features of the concept of “avoidance conditioning” EXCEPT
sociocultural factors
Mia has schizophrenia. She rarely bathes or brushes her teeth. She has been institutionalized, and on the inpatient ward, she is given points for showering and brushing her teeth. She can exchange these points later in the day for television privileges. Which treatment strategy is being used with Mia?
token economy
(2) Jim and Bella are unhappily married, and share a daughter who is thirteen years old. Jim and Bella never discuss their marital problems, unless their daughter is also present. She is included in all discussions, and often she becomes the way they can avoid discussing their issues. Which problematic family relationship do Jim and Bella have?
they are engaging in triangulation
(3) Lindy thinks that using drugs will make her more popular. Lionel does not believe this, but both of his parents are recovered drug addicts, and he has inherited their genetic predisposition for addiction. Both Lionel and Lindy have
a diathesis to abuse drugs.
(3) Elenita’s daughter has recently been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Elenita really wants to understand the causes of eating disorders so she can better understand her daughter. Her daughter’s therapist recommends a book that is supposed to be the best explanation of the causes of eating disorders. What title would make the most sense for a book on this topic?
The Etiology of Eating Disorders
(3) Millie wants to know how many new cases of autism there have been in the last year. She needs to know the ________ of autism.
incidence
(3) Children born after 1992 have a higher risk for autism than people born before 1992. This is an example of a(n)
cohort effect
(3) Who is likely to have the smallest delay between the onset of a disorder and first treatment contact?
a 20-year old with a mood disorder
(3) Being born in winter and having prenatal complications during one’s birth are both correlated with schizophrenia. These are examples of
risk factors
(3) Based on research on protective factors, who would have the lowest risk for mental disorder?
Krika, who is very smart and very religious.
(3) Although both of Richard’s parents have schizophrenia, Richard does not develop the disorder when he reaches adulthood. This demonstrates Richard’s
resilience
(3) A guiding principle of public health programs is
prevention
(3) Collin was diagnosed with depression back when he was in college. Now he is 40 years old, married, and has two children. He still takes an anti-depressant, and checks in which a psychiatrist every six months, but largely his life is not disrupted by depression any longer. Collin is at what point on the continuum of prevention?
maintenance
(4) Which of the following is MOST similar to primary prevention?
universal prevention
(4) the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders takes on the _______ approach
categorical
(4) All of the following are advantages of diagnosis EXCEPT
complexed and nuanced understanding of the dimensions of a mental disorder.
(4) Leigh Anne has been hallucinating and seems to have some awfully strange beliefs—she thinks she is the Mother of God and that everyone is out to kill her. She hears voices telling her to do odd things, and her personal hygiene has completely gone out the window. Two different psychologists interview Leigh Anne and both diagnose her with schizophrenia, indicating a high level of ________ reliability.
interrater
(4) Keenan is developing a test to measure anxiety. He hypothesizes that it will correlate highly and positively with existing measures of emotionality and biological measures of brain arousal. It does so, helping to establish his new test’s ________ validity.
construct
(4) Don is a therapist who is talking with a client for the first time. He asks whatever question comes to mind in any particular order. Don is using a(n)
unstructured interview
(4) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is an example of a(n) ________ personality assessment.
objective
(4) A psychiatrist has a patient and needs to assess the patient’s brain for gross structural abnormalities. Which tool will do the job for the lowest cost?
CT Scan
(4) If a physician needs to know how much of a neurotransmitter is in a specific brain region, he or she should measure it
indirectly using neurotransmitter metabolites.
(4) Which of the following is NOT one of the areas to consider in conducting a clinical assessment?
clinicians must be able to explain their own culture to clients.
(4) Taro conducts research on different treatments for depression to determine which is the most effective. He hypothesizes that cognitive-behavioral treatments will be superior to psychodynamic treatments. Some clients he offers cognitive-behavioral treatment, and others get psychodynamic treatment (insight therapy), randomly assigning them to these conditions. He measures their levels of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory before therapy begins, and after 12 weeks of therapy to compare for levels of improvement. The Beck Depression Inventory is the ________ in this experiment.
dependent variable
(4) If an experimenter is concerned that a participant in a study will show improvement in their symptoms simply because they expect to, they need to be sure to include a(n) ________ in their study design to assess for participant expectancy to strengthen the design.
placebo
(4) The more days of sunshine there are in a given geographical area, the fewer depression diagnoses there are. This relationship is relatively strong. Which correlation below fits this information?
r= -.60
(4) Greighson has ADHD. Every time his teacher uses a behavior chart with him, Greighson’s classroom behavior improves. If the chart is taken away, Greighson’s classroom behavior declines. If the chart is re-introduced, it improves again, and so on. What type of design is Greighson’s teacher using?
single object
(4) Pam is interested in studying the outcomes in children who were born very prematurely. She identifies a sample of 400 infants born prior to 32 weeks gestation, and follows them until they are 40, measuring their mental health and other things about them. What type of design is Pam using?
Longitudinal
(5) Karyn is a second-year college student. The job market in her field has not been very good in recent years, and she is very concerned about being able to find a job after graduation. She thinks a lot about the job market and what she can do to compete effectively in it, and plans her coursework around that. Karyn is experiencing ________ about the job market.
worry
(5) Which of the following is NOT a diagnosis in itself, but rather a component of many disorders?
panic attack
(5) Daniel worries about everything constantly. He worries that if he can’t take his mail to the post office it will get stolen from his home mailbox. He worries that his children might get hurt playing outside. He worries that he might fail at work. He can’t sleep at night sometimes for all the anxiety, and constantly has his muscles up around his neck in knots from all the tension. Daniel probably has
generalized anxiety disorder
(5) Which child most likely has separation anxiety disorder?
Amy, a 4th grader who cannot sleep alone, gets stomachaches as a result, and has always needed her mom with her all night.
(5) Dale has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. With which anxiety disorder is Dale most likely to have been diagnosed?
specific phobia
(5) The connection from the amygdala to the area of the brain that helps a person remember and learn about highly anxiety-provoking situations is called the
septal-hippocampal system
(5) Joey works in his family’s furniture store, and has for years. When a customer asks him a question that he does not know the answer to, he is certain that this will result in the business failing because of his ignorance. Joey is engaged in which cognitive distortion associated with anxiety disorders?
catastrophizing
(5) Ella is terrified of cats. She cannot be in a house with cats, she is terrified when she is on a walk and a cat is nearby. When she was young, she was attacked by a cat, which is where her phobia began. In this example, the cat is the
conditioned stimulus
(5) Which of the following is NOT a strategy that has been studied as a way to prevent anxiety disorders?
A program that educates children on all the possible threats that exist in their area of the country
(5) Sherae is working with a client who she believes has post-traumatic stress disorder. She wants to see how close her client can get to the site of the trauma before stopping. Sherae should use which assessment method?
behavior avoidance test
(5) Ariona is in treatment for an anxiety disorder. Her therapist has her tense and relax different muscle groups until she is completely tension-free. Her therapist asks her to focus on how different a muscle feels when it is tense versus relaxed. Ariona’s therapist is using ________ as part of her treatment.
relaxation training
(5)Bob is working with his therapist due to his social phobia. His therapist asks him to rate the likelihood that he will lose his job this week because of some social interaction going badly. Bob estimates it is 75% likely he will lose his job because of his social fear in the next week. His therapist suggests it is closer to 1% likelihood. The next week in their appointment, Bob’s therapist asks if Bob lost his job in the last week, and of course he didn’t. What cognitive therapeutic strategy is Bob’s therapist using?
hypothesis testing
(5) Which exposure technique would be most suitable for a client with obsessive-compulsive disorder?
response prevention
(6) Mindy is distressed about her financial situation, which has long been a difficulty for her. This distress seems to be expressed in stomachaches, headaches, and other physical symptoms. She visits the doctor for help in managing the discomfort these symptoms produce every year or so. This is an example of
somatization
(6) Danny is very depressed, and as part of that depression he experiences physical fatigue. Danny has
presenting somatization
(6) Marlon is under great pressure from his parents to become a star basketball player. He certainly looks the part—tall and athletic. But Marlon only wishes to pursue a career in science. As he enters high school, he really does not want to play ball. He is so stressed about the pressure from his parents. About this time, he develops numbness in his legs that progresses to the point of paralysis. The doctors cannot find any medical explanation for his loss of function. Which somatoform does Marlon MOST likely have?
conversion disorder
(6) You have exchanged letters with your new roommate for college, and know that she has a somatoform disorder of some kind because she tells you so in her note. Based only on the prevalence rates for the different kind of somatoform disorders, which one would you guess she has?
hypochondriasis
(6) Ansel has all kinds of pain that he cannot find a medical explanation for. His doctor suggests that it is somatization, and they undergo tests to look for patterns that might support or refute this idea. Which of the following medical results would support his physicians hypothesis?
Ansel has an overactive somatosensory cortex.
(6)Kaitlyn often complains of headaches and stomach pain, and has doctor’s appointments to try to address these symptoms every two weeks or so. Her physicians can find no medical explanation for her symptoms. Whenever Kaitlyn expresses complaints about these symptoms to her friends, they all make a point to call her more often and drop by to see how she is feeling. They may stay and visit, bring a little gift, of make a meal for her. Kaitlyn is experiencing ________ for her somatic complaints.
secondary gain
(6) Which type of medication would be most effective at treating somatoform disorders?
SSRI antidepressants like Paxil
(6) Linda has somatization disorder. As part of her treatment regimen, her husband and children are encouraged to focus on when she performs “well” behaviors and try to really reinforce that. So, if Linda makes it to work and doesn’t complain about headaches, they go out for a special dessert as a family. If she goes to a party and is able to make it through without describing a physical symptom, her daughters talk enthusiastically about what a fun lady she is. What treatment strategy is being used with Linda?
contingency management
(6) A child who always pretends to be sick so he or she can get out of going to school is
malingering
(6)Mitchell is extremely stressed at work, his wife has just lost her job, and his child is struggling in school. As the pressure mounts, he really becomes very distressed. Then one day, he simply does not come home from work. His family searches tirelessly for him. He is found living about 500 miles away, working in a coffee shop, and says he has no memory of Mitchell. “I’m Sam,” he tells them. “I don’t know what you are talking about!” Mitchell probably has
dissociative fugue
(6)Iliana has sought therapy because she cannot account for large blocks of missing time. For example, one night she was watching television. Then the next thing she remembers is waking up walking around by the riverbank, unsure of how she got there. And just last week her best friend called her and reported that although Iliana answered the phone, she did so in a strange voice, and insisted that her name was Eli, not Iliana. Eli sounded just like Iliana pretending to be a little boy. Eli is an example of a(n)
subpersonality
(6) Desiree has dissociative identity disorder. She often cannot remember what happened when a personality takes over for a while. The personalities that take over, though, are very aware of everything that Desiree has done and said. This illustrates a ________ relationship.
one-way amnesiac
(6) Which person is at the greatest risk for developing a dissociative disorder?
a person who is sexually abused throughout childhood
(6) Chuck was in a traumatic military action in which he lost many of his close friends, and sustained a severe and painful injury to his legs. Later, he develops dissociative identity disorder. The alter ego calls himself Hartford, and Hartford is very aware of the traumatic event. Chuck, however, seems to have blocked it out of his memory completely. The fact that Chuck has segmented his memory so that Hartford is aware of this event while he is not himself aware of it illustrates
compartmentalization
(6) The goal of most drug treatments for dissociative disorders is to
reduce the severity of co-morbid symptoms
spectator role
the process of attending to or worrying about sex rather than actually enjoying it.
frotteuristic
A paraphilic disorder in which the predominant focus of sexual activity is physical contact with an unsuspecting person.
exhibitionism
flashing or indecent exposure
voyauristic
secretly watching people undress
orgasmic reconditioning
treatment for paraphilic disorders which involves masturbating to a paraphilic stimulus then before climaxing, switching to a more appropriate stimulus.
brain features of depressive and bipolar disorders
altered size of prefrontal cortex and other cortical areas of the brain
decreased serotonin levels
reduced dopamine and norepinephrine
permissive hypothesis
depression: low serotonin plus low dopamine and norepinephrine
bipolar: low serotonin plus HIGH dopamine and norepinephrine
methadone
agonist and treats addiction to opiates