whether or not something measures what it is designed to measure
degree to which a measurement is consistent
process by which a certain set of standards or norms is determined for a technique in order to make its use consistent across different measures
In most experiments, researchers explore the expected influence of the _____ on the _____.
independent variable; dependent variable
In an experiment comparing the effectiveness of a depression treatment to a control group, the treatment group’s depression scores were much lower (less depressed) after treatment than those of the control group. If we measured how large the difference was between these groups, we would have the
What method of study does not use the scientific method?
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A research design that demonstrates a statistical relationship or association between two variables is called a(n) _____ design.
One of the major problems with the case study method is that it is too easy to make false conclusions based on:
Epidemiology is the study of:
incidence, distribution, and consequences of a problem in a population
The following is an example of treatment outcome research:
-examining the effect of Prozac on depression
What research strategy combines longitudinal and cross-sectional designs?
What type of research design is used if an experiment examines life satisfaction in different groups of 20-, 40-, and 60-year-olds to draw conclusions about age differences?
The dependent variable in a research study is the variable that:
is expected to be changed or influenced in the study. it is the variable which is measured
Analog research models:
create laboratory conditions that are comparable to the phenomenon under study
The more time one spends exercising, the less one generally weighs. The correlation between time on a treadmill each month and overall body weight would represent a(n):
In well-designed research studies, medications that enhance serotonin functioning have been found to help patients recover from episodes of depression. Given the realities of the patient uniformity myth, it would be a mistake to conclude that:
all depressed patients will be helped by these medications
The basis of an experiment is:
manipulation of the independent variable
Of the following, researchers use _____ to attempt to control for the phenomenon called the “allegiance effect” which occurs when experimenter bias influences research outcomes.
One important difference between a typical case study and the single-case experiment is that during the single-case experiment, behavior is generally:
measured more than once
One of the problems of using a withdrawal design as part of a single-case experiment is the:
ethical issue of removing treatment that appears to be helping the patient
Which type of study can help identify the location of specific genes associated with psychopathology?
genetic linkage analysis
One significant limitation of the cross-sectional design is called the “cohort effect.” This relates to the fact that:
age is confounded with experience
In cross-cultural research, the independent or treatment variable is generally the:
culture. i really don’t get this.
The function of replication in research is to:
rule out coincidence…. i think.