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A Study of Cash Flows Statement

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I. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to present and explain the statement of cash flows by incorporating the statements No. 95, 102 and 104 that establish standards for cash flows reporting issued by FASB[i]. FASB Statement No. 95 (FAS 95) “Statement of Cash Flows” supersedes APB Opinion No. 9, Reporting Changes in Financial Position, and requires a statement of cash flows as part of a full set of financial statements for all business enterprises[ii] in place of a statement of changes in financial position and classify cash receipts and payments according to whether they stem from operating, investing, or financing activities and provides definitions of each category. FASB Statement No.

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102 (FAS 102) amends FAS 95, to exempt from the requirement to provide a statement of cash flows (a) defined benefit pension plans covered by FASB Statement No. 5, Accounting and Reporting by Defined Benefit Pension Plans[iii] , and certain other employee benefit plans and (b) highly liquid investment companies that meet specified conditions. This Statement also requires that cash receipts and cash payments resulting from acquisitions and sales of (a) securities and other assets that are acquired specifically for resale and carried at market value in a trading account and (b) loans that are acquired specifically for resale and carried at market value or the lower of cost or market value be classified as operating cash flows in a statement of cash flows.

FASB Statement No. 104 (FAS 104) amends FAS 95 to permit banks, savings institutions, and credit unions to report in a statement of cash flows certain net cash receipts and cash payments for (a) deposits placed with other financial institutions and withdrawals of deposits, (b) time deposits accepted and repayments of deposits, and (c) loans made to customers and principal collections of loans.

This Statement also amends FAS 95 to permit cash flows resulting from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts, or swap contracts that are accounted for as hedges of identifiable transactions or events to be classified in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged provided that accounting policy is disclosed. II. Purpose of a Statement of Cash Flows The purpose of a statement of cash flows is: 1. To provide relevant information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period 2.

To help investors, creditors, and others to assess; 2. 1. The enterprise’s ability to generate positive future net cash flows 2. 2. The enterprise’s ability to meet its obligations, its ability to pay dividends, and its needs for external financing 2. 3. The reasons for differences between net income and associated cash receipts and payments 2. 4. The effects on an enterprise’s financial position of both its cash and noncash investing and financing transactions during the period.

So the objectives of standards of financial accounting and reporting is to require the presentation of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an enterprise by means of the statement of cash flows which classifies cash flows during the period according to operating, investing and financing activities. III. Focus on Cash and Cash Equivalents A statement of cash flows explains the changes in cash[iv] (cash on hand and demand deposits) and cash equivalents during a period.

Cash equivalents comprise the short-term, highly liquid investments that are (i) readily convertible to a known amount of cash and (ii) that are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Generally an investment normally meets the definition of a cash equivalent when it has a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition. Equity investments are normally excluded, unless they are in substance a cash equivalent (e. g. preferred shares acquired within three months of their specified redemption date).

Bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand and which form an integral part of an enterprise’s cash management are also included as a component of cash and cash equivalents. Examples of items commonly considered to be cash equivalents are treasury bills, commercial paper, money market funds, and federal funds sold (for an enterprise with banking operations). Cash purchases and sales of those investments generally are part of the enterprise’s cash management activities rather than part of its operating, investing, and financing activities, and details of those transactions need not be reported in a statement of cash flows.

An enterprise shall establish a policy concerning which short-term, highly liquid investments that satisfy the said definition of cash equivalents. For example, an enterprise having banking operations might decide that all investments that qualify except for those purchased for its trading account will be treated as cash equivalents, while an enterprise whose operations consist largely of investing in short-term, highly liquid investments might decide that all those items will be treated as investments rather than cash equivalents.

An enterprise shall disclose its policy for determining which items are treated as cash equivalents. Any change to that policy is a change in accounting principle that shall be affected by restating financial statements for earlier years presented for comparative purposes. IV. Gross and net cash flows Generally, information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments during a period is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments.

However, the net amount of related receipts and payments provides sufficient information not only for cash equivalents as noted in section III, but also for certain other classes of cash flows that have quick turnover, large amounts and short maturities. For certain other items such as demand deposits of a bank and customer accounts payable of a broker-dealer, the enterprise is substantively holding or disbursing cash on behalf of its customers.

Only the net changes during the period in assets and liabilities with those characteristics need be reported because knowledge of the gross cash receipts and payments related to them may not be necessary to understand the enterprise’s operating, investing, and financing activities[v]. Items that qualify for net reporting because their turnover is quick, their amounts are large, and their maturities are short are cash receipts and payments pertaining to (a) investments (other than cash equivalents), (b) loans receivable, and (c) debt, providing that the original maturity of the asset or liability is three months or less[vi].

Banks, savings institutions, and credit unions are not required to report gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments for (a) deposits placed with other financial institutions and withdrawals of deposits, (b) time deposits accepted and repayments of deposits, and (c) loans made to customers and principal collections of loans.

When those enterprises constitute part of a consolidated enterprise, net amounts of cash receipts and cash payments for deposit or lending activities of those enterprises shall be reported separate from gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments for other investing and financing activities of the consolidated enterprise, including those of a subsidiary of a bank, savings institution, or credit union that is not itself a bank, savings institution, or credit union. V. Classification of Cash Receipts and Cash Payments

A statement of cash flows shall classify cash receipts and cash payments as resulting from investing, financing, or operating activities[vii]. |Cash Flows from Investing Activities[viii] | |Cash inflows from receipts including; |Cash outflows for disbursements / payments including; | | | | |1. ollections of loans made by the enterprise |1. making loans by the enterprise | |2. sales of other entities’ debt instruments (other than cash |2. acquire debt instruments of other entities (other than cash | |equivalents and certain debt instruments that are acquired |equivalents and certain debt instruments that are acquired | |specifically for resale) that were purchased by the enterprise |specifically | |3. ales of equity instruments of other enterprises (other than |for resale) | |certain equity instruments carried in a trading account) |3. acquire equity instruments of other enterprises (other than | |and from returns of investment in those instruments |certain equity instruments carried in a trading account) | |4. sales of property, plant, and equipment and other productive |4. t the time of purchase or soon before or after purchase[ix] to | |assets. |acquire property, plant, and equipment and other productive | | |assets[x]. | | | | | | |Cash Flows from Financing Activities |Cash inflows from; |Cash outflows for; | | | | |1. Proceeds from issuing equity instruments |1. Payments of dividends or other distributions to owners, including | |2.

Proceeds from issuing bonds, mortgages, notes, and from |outlays to reacquire the enterprise’s equity instruments | |other short- or long-term borrowing. |2. Repayments of amounts borrowed | | |3. Other principal payments to creditors who have extended long-term | | |credit[xi]. | | | |Cash Flows from Operating Activities[xii] | |Cash inflows includes; |Cash outflows includes; | |1. Cash receipts from sales of goods[xiii] or services, |1.

Cash payments to acquire materials for manufacture or goods[xiv] | |including receipts from collection or sale of accounts and both |for resale, including principal | |short- and long-term notes receivable from customers arising |payments on accounts and both short- and long-term notes payable to | |from those sales |suppliers for those materials or goods | |2. Cash receipts from returns on loans, other debt instruments |2.

Cash payments to other suppliers and employees for other goods or | |of other entities, and equity securities—interest and dividends |services | |3. All other cash receipts that do not stem from transactions |c. Cash payments to governments for taxes, duties, fines, and other | |defined as investing or financing activities, such as amounts |fees or penalties | |received to settle lawsuits; proceeds of nsurance settlements |3. Cash payments to lenders and other creditors for interest | |except for those that are directly related to investing or |4. All other cash payments that do not stem from transactions defined| |financing activities, such as from destruction of a building; |as investing or financing activities, such as payments to settle | |and refunds from suppliers. |lawsuits, cash contributions to charities, and cash refunds to | | |customers. It is notable that certain cash receipts and payments may have aspects of more than one class of cash flows. For example, the acquisition and sale of equipment to be used by the enterprise or rented to others generally are investing activities. However, equipment sometimes is acquired or produced to be used by the enterprise or rented to others for a short period and then sold. In those circumstances, the acquisition or production and subsequent sale of those assets shall be considered operating activities.

Cash flows relating to extraordinary items should be classified as operating, investing or financing as appropriate and should be separately disclosed. The exchange rate used for translation of transactions denominated in a foreign currency and the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary should be the rate in effect at the date of the cash flows. [xv] Cash flows of foreign subsidiaries should be translated at the exchange rates prevailing when the cash flows took place.

As regards the cash flows of associates and joint ventures, where the equity method is used, the cash flow statement should report only cash flows between the investor and the investee; where proportionate consolidation is used, the cash flow statement should include the venturer’s share of the cash flows of the investee. Financial statements shall not report an amount of cash flow per share. Neither cash flow nor any component of it is an alternative to net income as an indicator of an enterprise’s performance, as reporting per share amounts might imply.

VI. Content and Form of the Statement of Cash Flows A statement of cash flows for a period shall report net cash provided or used by operating, investing, and financing activities[xvi] and the net effect of those flows on cash and cash equivalents during the period in a manner that reconciles beginning and ending cash and cash equivalents. In reporting cash flows from operating activities, enterprises are encouraged to use Direct Method to shows each major class of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments[xvii].

The operating cash flows section of the cash flow statement under the direct method would appear something like this: |Cash receipts from customers |xx,xxx | |Cash paid to suppliers |xx,xxx | |Cash paid to employees |xx,xxx | |Cash paid for other operating expenses |xx,xxx | |Interest paid |xx,xxx | |Income taxes paid |xx,xxx | |Net cash from operating activities |xx,xxx |

Enterprises that do so should, at a minimum, separately report the following classes of operating cash receipts and payments: Enterprises that choose not to provide information about major classes of operating receipts and payments by the direct method shall determine and report the same amount for net cash flow from operating activities indirectly by adjusting net income to reconcile it to net cash flow from operating activities (the indirect or reconciliation method). The Indirect Method adjusts accrual basis net profit or loss for the effects of non-cash transactions.

The operating cash flows section of the cash flow statement under the indirect method would appear something like this: |Profit before interest and income taxes | |xx,xxx | |Add back depreciation | |xx,xxx | |Add back amortization of goodwill | |xx,xxx | |Increase in receivables | |xx,xxx | |Decrease in inventories | |xx,xxx | |Increase in trade payables | |xx,xxx | |Interest expense | |xx,xxx | |Less Interest accrued but not yet paid | | xx,xxx | |Interest paid | |xx,xxx | |Income taxes paid | |xx,xxx | |Net cash from operating activities | |xx,xxx |

That requires adjusting net income to remove (a) the effects of all deferrals of past operating cash receipts and payments, such as changes during the period in inventory, deferred income, and the like, and all accruals of expected future operating cash receipts and payments, such as changes during the period in receivables and payables[xviii], and (b) the effects of all items whose cash effects are investing or financing cash flows, such as depreciation, amortization of goodwill, and gains or losses on sales of property, plant, and equipment and discontinued operations (which relate to investing activities), and gains or losses on extinguishment of debt (which is a financing activity). If the direct method of reporting net cash flow from operating activities is used, the reconciliation of net income to net cash flow from operating activities shall be provided in a separate schedule. If the indirect method is used, the reconciliation may be either reported within the statement of cash flows or provided in a separate schedule, with the statement of cash flows reporting only the net cash flow from operating activities.

If the reconciliation is presented in the statement of cash flows, all adjustments to net income to determine net cash flow from operating activities shall be clearly identified as reconciling items. Except for items described in section IV paragraphs 2 and 3, both investing/financing cash inflows and outflows shall be reported separately in a statement of cash flows—for example, outlays for acquisitions of property, plant, and equipment shall be reported separately from proceeds from sales of property, plant, and equipment; proceeds of borrowings shall be reported separately from repayments of debt; and proceeds from issuing stock shall be reported separately from outlays to reacquire the enterprise’s stock. VII.

Information about Noncash Investing and Financing Activities Information about all investing and financing activities of an enterprise during a period that affect recognized assets or liabilities but that do not result in cash receipts or cash payments in the period shall be reported in related disclosures. Examples of noncash investing and financing transactions are converting debt to equity; acquiring assets by assuming directly related liabilities, such as purchasing a building by incurring a mortgage to the seller; obtaining an asset by entering into a capital lease; and exchanging noncash assets or liabilities for other noncash assets or liabilities. Some transactions are part cash and part noncash; only the cash portion shall be reported in the statement of cash flows. VIII.

Exemptions from the Requirement to Provide a Statement of Cash Flows A statement of cash flows is not required to be provided by a defined benefit pension plan that presents financial information in accordance with the provisions of Statement 35. Other employee benefit plans that present financial information similar to that required by Statement 35 (including the presentation of plan investments at fair value) also are not required to provide a statement of cash flows. Employee benefit plans are encouraged to include a statement of cash flows with their annual financial statements when that statement would provide relevant information about the ability of the plan to meet future obligations (for example, when the plan invests in assets that are not highly liquid or obtains financing for investments).

For an investment enterprise (an investment company, an investment enterprise, a common trust fund, variable annuity account, or similar fund maintained by a bank, insurance company, or other enterprise in its capacity as a trustee, administrator, or guardian for the collective investment and reinvestment of moneys) to be exempt from the requirement to provide a statement of cash flows, all of the following conditions must be met: a. During the period, substantially all of the enterprise’s investments were highly liquid (for example, marketable securities, and other assets for which a market is readily available). b. Substantially all of the enterprise’s investments are carried at market value[xix]. c. The enterprise had little or no debt, based on the average debt outstanding[xx] during the period, in relation to average total assets. d. The enterprise provides a statement of changes in net assets. IX.

Classification of Cash Flows from Acquisitions and Sales of Certain Securities and Other Assets Banks, brokers and dealers in securities, and other enterprises may carry securities and other assets in a trading account[xxi]. Cash receipts and cash payments resulting from purchases and sales of securities and other assets shall be classified as operating cash flows if those assets are acquired specifically for resale and are carried at market value in a trading account. Some loans are similar to securities in a trading account in that they are originated or purchased specifically for resale and are held for short periods of time. Cash receipts and cash payments resulting from acquisitions and sales of loans lso shall be classified as operating cash flows if those loans are acquired specifically for resale and are carried at market value or at the lower of cost or market value[xxii]. Cash receipts resulting from sales of loans that were not specifically acquired for resale shall be classified as investing cash inflows. That is, if loans were acquired as investments, cash receipts from sales of those loans shall be classified as investing cash inflows regardless of a change in the purpose for holding those loans. X. Net Reporting of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments According to FAS No. 95, information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments during a period generally is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and cash payments.

However, for certain items, the net amount of cash receipts and cash payments may provide sufficient information. For example, gross cash flows need not be reported for demand deposits of a bank or for investments, loans receivable, and debt of any enterprise if the original maturity of the asset or liability is three months or less. As a result banks, savings institutions, and credit unions are not required to report gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments for (a) deposits placed with other financial institutions and withdrawals of deposits, (b) time deposits accepted and repayments of deposits, and (c) loans made to customers and principal collections of loans.

When those enterprises constitute part of a consolidated enterprise, net amounts of cash receipts and cash payments for deposit or lending activities of those enterprises shall be reported separate from gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments for other investing and financing activities of the consolidated enterprise. XI. Classification of Cash Flows from Hedging Transactions The Board received requests from various enterprises to reconsider the classification of cash flows from an item that is intended as a hedge of another item. Those requests generally focused on cash flows from a futures contract or forward contract that is accounted for as a hedge of an inventory transaction.

FAS 104 modifies FAS 95 to permit cash flows resulting from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts, or swap contracts that are accounted for as hedges of identifiable transactions or events (for example, a cash payment from a futures contract that hedges a purchase or sale of inventory), including anticipatory hedges, to be classified in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged provided that accounting policy is disclosed. If for any reason hedge accounting for an instrument that hedges an identifiable transaction or event is discontinued, then any cash flows subsequent to the date of discontinuance shall be classified consistent with the nature of the instrument. Endnotes ———————– i]- “Portions of various FASB Statements, copyright © by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, 401 Merritt 7, PO Box 5116, Norwalk, CT 06856-5116, USA, are reproduced with permission. Complete copies of these documents are available from the FASB. ” [ii]- A statement of cash flows is not required for defined benefit pension plans and certain other employee benefit plans or for certain investment companies as provided by FAS 102, Statement of Cash Flows—Exemption of Certain Enterprises and Classification of Cash Flows from Certain Securities Acquired for Resale. [iii]- The financial reporting requirements of defined benefit pension plans are addressed in Statement 35.

Paragraph 6 of that Statement specifies that the annual financial statements of a plan shall include: (a) A statement that includes information regarding the net assets available for benefits as of the end of the plan year (b) A statement that includes information regarding the changes during the year in the net assets available for benefits (c) Information regarding the actuarial present value of accumulated plan benefits as of either the beginning or end of the plan year (d) Information regarding the effects, if significant, of certain factors affecting the year-to-year change in the actuarial present value of accumulated plan benefits. Statement 35 also states that existing generally accepted accounting principles other than those discussed in that Statement may apply to the financial statements of defined benefit pension plans. iv]- Consistent with common usage, cash includes not only currency on hand but demand deposits with banks or other financial institutions. Cash also includes other kinds of accounts that have the general characteristics of demand deposits in that the customer may deposit additional funds at any time and also effectively may withdraw funds at any time without prior notice or penalty. All charges and credits to those accounts are cash receipts or payments to both the entity owning the account and the bank holding it. For example, a bank’s granting of a loan by crediting the proceeds to a customer’s demand deposit account is a cash payment by the bank and a cash receipt of the customer when the entry is made. v]- cash flows from investing and financing activities should be reported gross by major class of cash receipts and major class of cash payments except for the following cases, which may be reported on a net basis: Cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers (for example, receipt and repayment of demand deposits by banks, and receipts collected on behalf of and paid over to the owner of a property). Cash receipts and payments for items in which the turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the maturities are short, generally less than three months (for example, charges and collections from credit card customers, and purchase and sale of investments). cash receipts and payments relating to fixed maturity deposits. Cash advances and loans made to customers and repayments thereof. Investing and financing transactions which do not require the use of cash should be excluded from the cash flow statement, but they should be separately disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements. vi]- For this purpose, amounts due on demand are considered to have maturities of three months or less. For convenience, credit card receivables of financial services operations–generally, receivables resulting from cardholder charges that may, at the cardholder’s option, be paid in full when first billed, usually within one month, without incurring interest charges and that do not stem from the enterprise’s sale of goods or services–also are considered to be loans with original maturities of three months or less. [vii]- Generally, each cash receipt or payment is to be classified according to its nature without regard to whether it stems from an item intended as a hedge of another item.

For example, the proceeds of a borrowing are a financing cash inflow even though the debt is intended as a hedge of an investment, and the purchase or sale of a futures contract is an investing activity even though the contract is intended as a hedge of a firm commitment to purchase inventory. However, cash flows from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts, or swap contracts that are accounted for as hedges of identifiable transactions or events (for example, a cash payment from a futures contract same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged provided that accounting policy is that hedges a purchase or sale of inventory), including anticipatory hedges, may be classified in the disclosed.

If for any reason hedge accounting for an instrument that hedges an identifiable transaction or event is discontinued, then any cash flows subsequent to the date of discontinuance shall be classified consistent with the nature of the instrument. [viii]- Investing activities exclude acquiring and disposing of certain loans or other debt or equity instruments that are acquired specifically for resale, as discussed in Statement 102. [ix]- Generally, only advance payments, the down payment, or other amounts paid at the time of purchase or soon before or after purchase of property, plant, and equipment and other productive assets are investing cash outflows. Incurring directly related debt to the seller is a financing transaction, and subsequent payments of principal on that debt thus are financing cash outflows. x]- Payments to acquire productive assets include interest capitalized as part of the cost of those assets. [xi]- Refer to footnote 8 which indicates that most principal payments on seller-financed debt directly related to a purchase of property, plant, and equipment or other productive assets are financing cash outflows. [xii]- Operating activities include all transactions and other events that are not defined as investing or financing activities in paragraphs 15-20. Operating activities generally involve producing and delivering goods and providing services. Cash flows from operating activities are generally the cash effects of transactions and other events that enter into the determination of net income. xiii]- The term goods include certain loans and other debt and equity instruments of other enterprises that are acquired specifically for resale, as discussed in Statement 102. [xiv]- The term goods include certain loans and other debt and equity instruments of other enterprises that are acquired specifically for resale, as discussed in Statement 102. [xv]- Paragraph 12 of FASB Statement No. 52, Foreign Currency Translation, recognizes the general impracticality of translating revenues, expenses, gains, and losses at the exchange rates on dates they are recognized and permits an appropriately weighted average exchange rate for the period to be used to translate those elements. This Statement applies that provision to cash receipts and cash payments. xvi]- Separate disclosure of cash flows pertaining to extraordinary items or discontinued operations reflected in those categories is not required. An enterprise that nevertheless chooses to report separately operating cash flows of discontinued operations shall do so consistently for all periods affected, which may include periods long after sale or liquidation of the operation. [xvii]- a. Cash collected from customers, including lessees, licensees, and the like b. Interest and dividends received c. Other operating cash receipts, if any d. Cash paid to employees and other suppliers of goods or services, including suppliers of insurance, advertising, and the like e. Interest paid f. Income taxes paid g. Other operating cash payments, if any. xviii]- Adjustments to net income to determine net cash flow from operating activities shall reflect accruals for interest earned but not received and interest incurred but not paid. Those accruals may be reflected in the statement of financial position in changes in assets and liabilities that relate to investing or financing activities, such as loans or deposits. However, interest credited directly to a deposit account that has the general characteristics described footnote 1, is a cash outflow of the payor and a cash inflow of the payee when the entry is made. [xix]- Securities for which market value is determined using matrix pricing techniques, which are described in the AICPA Audit and Accounting Guide, Audits of Investment Companies, would meet this condition.

Other securities for which market value is not readily determinable and for which fair value must be determined in good faith by the board of directors would not. [xx]- For the purpose of determining average debt outstanding, obligations resulting from redemptions of shares by the enterprise from unsettled purchases of securities or similar assets, or from covered options written generally may be excluded. However, any extension of credit by the seller that is not in accordance with standard industry practices for redeeming shares or for settling purchases of investments shall be included in average debt outstanding. [xxi]- Characteristics of trading account activities are described in FASB Statement No. 9, Financial Reporting and Changing Prices, and in the AICPA Industry Audit Guide, Audits of Banks, and Audit and Accounting Guide, Audits of Brokers and Dealers in Securities. [xxii]- Mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities held for sale are required to be reported at the lower of cost or market value in accordance with FASB Statement No. 65, Accounting for Certain Mortgage Banking Activities. References 1. Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 95 Statement of Cash Flows November 1987 Financial Accounting Standards Board of the Financial Accounting Foundation 401 MERRITT 7, P. O. BOX 5116, NORWALK, CONNECTICUT 06856-5116 2. Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 102

Statement of Cash Flows—Exemption of Certain Enterprises and Classification of Cash Flows from Certain Securities Acquired for Resale an amendment of FASB Statement No. 95 February 1989 Financial Accounting Standards Board of the Financial Accounting Foundation 401 MERRITT 7, P. O. BOX 5116, NORWALK, CONNECTICUT 06856-5116 3. Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 104 Statement of Cash Flows—Net Reporting of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments and Classification of Cash Flows from Hedging Transactions an amendment of FASB Statement No. 95 December 1989 Financial Accounting Standards Board of the Financial Accounting Foundation 401 MERRITT 7, P. O. BOX 5116, NORWALK, CONNECTICUT 06856-511

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