In the past years, SMART trains have been hit by poor maintenance issue as their trains were breaking down when it was needed the most (peak-hours) thus affecting their efficiency. After the major breakdowns, SMART publicly announced numerous of changes. However, there were more break-downs in the following months. A research will be done in this paper to study, investigate and search reasons for this resistance. 2. Literature Review Change is something most people are afraid of as it sometimes requires a walk into he unknown and it definitely disturbs the status quo of the present environment.
The researcher would be discussing this subject matter as shown in the diagram below. 2. 1 Importance for Change Change in an organization often occurs as a response to an ever-changing environment, a retort to a recent crisis situation. The developing body has within it an underlying form, logic, program, or code that regulates the process of change and moves the entity from a given point of departure toward a subsequent end that is preferred in the present state. (Wick and Quinn, 1999, up. 361--386) Individual heartsickness are not seen as an important determinant of innovative behavior between people in organizations.
However, administrative positions and roles do seem to have an impact on the involvement of an individual in the change process. Structural characteristics of the organization strongly affect the organization's innovative behavior. Political and economical factors and other organizations innovativeness is a major determinant of an organization's change behavior. (Baldric and Burnham, 1975, up. 165--176) In this viewpoint, the political, economical, social and technological factors play a major role in the importance for hanged. 2. 1. Political and Economical Factors Even though political and economical factors are two separate factors, economical issues are usually derived from legislations be it local or in a foreign country. Change can be affected by these factors by a number of causes. It has been identified that political issues can affect the success in managing change. (Baldric and Burnham, 1975, up. 165--176) "A good example would be the need to find an alternative to oil.
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It is a particularly related illustration at the time of writing, with the condition in Iraq remaining unsound and with U. S. Iran affairs being unstable" (Raviolis, 2013). While managing change, firms need to sustain a high standard of honesty and integrity to be able to operate successfully in markets (Retreat and Brick et al. , 2009, up. 371-?390) especially in countries where the government keeps a close eye on its economy. However, in some instances, if an enterprise contributes a significant economic activity to the host nation, the host country may become more dependent on the subsidiary. (Rosenstein and Sings, 1991, up. 340-?361) for examples, small countries like Singapore depend on investments of Multinationals.
Thus, these roves that political and economical factors in the globalizes world would affect an organization's need to change. 2. 1. 2 Social Factors As political and economical factors can affect organizations, it as well affects the social environment hence affecting the organizations indirectly. This is sometimes due to social movements of the society at large. Be it psychologically (due to technological advancements) or physically and thus, organizations would have to reposition and maintain itself to survive. At times, these social movement ends up becoming an organization.
Organizational continuance is a special form of ambition alteration, in which the primary movements of the organization is to maintain or to get an increase of membership, funds, and other necessities of organizational existence and losing its original goal. (Zeal and Ash, 1966, up. 327--341) Slight changes can lead to bigger ones, and original intent can be completely lost. For example, a social movement can become a commercial establishment; a radical rock radio station becomes an almost respectable part of a large corporation. March, 1980)
According to the researcher, these movements include how the mass population thinks. The reason is because whenever new information is provided and understood, it would be setting the stage for the failure or rise of organizations. An example would be the fall of Monika and rise of Apple. 2. 1. 3 Technological Factors The technological advancements in society have made it more difficult for organizations to adapt in today's volatile environment. Technology seems to evolve in response to the interplay of history, individuals, and market demand.
Technological change is a function of variety and chance as well as structure and pattern (Dustman and Anderson, 1986, up. 439-?465) and in this globalizes environment this statement is further supported by Townsend and Demark et al. (1998, up. 17-?29) as new organizations will be unrestrained by geography, time, and organizational boundaries due to the advancement of technology. 3. Why is change resisted Bringing change to an organization is good if the organization would want keep up if the changing times. However, not every employee in the organization would want change.
The researcher would be discussing a few of the major resistance which goes against the organization. 3. 1. 1 Political Resistance Organization employees may have political resistance because they think that they would lose something of importance when the change is accepted, like loss of power, ole, and position in the company, status, size of budget, even individual compensation. (Wilma and Killingly, 2013, up. 14-?21) This type of resistance is usually by employees who are in decision making positions. Individuals and groups can also convey or feel degrees of resistance.
It must be kept in mind that resistance is self-motivated and it changes depending on the different types of situations. (Starr, 2011, up. 646--660) This means that this resistance is as well purely based on self interest and not on the interest of the organization. For example, the employees loud feel that they will not be seen with the same value as they were after the change, learn new software and systems 3. 1. 2 Uncertainties/ Blind Resistance Uncertainty represents the degree of argument that is often inherent to an organization accounting improvement and change. (Masque and Teller et al. 011) Employees usually resist change as they are venturing into uncharted charity and thus it would be disturbing the status quo of their environment.
Uncertainties usually happens when individuals are not capable to give a logical reason to the events or to even guess future actions, even as uncertainty is connected to the childhood of assigning numerous guesses to the same event. (Modern, 2007) Uncertainties are closely linked with political resistance as these two are interlinked with one another. 3. 0. 3 Low tolerance for change It has been noted by researchers that every individual are constrained by their ability to adapt to change.
Cotter and 2008, p. 130) had stated that the key barrier to organizational growth is managers' lack of ability to modify their attitudes and behavior as quickly as their organizations would need. This is even though the managers understand the need to change in the way they work but are moieties psychologically incapable to make the change. Kelley and up. 453-?465) suggests a generalization that echoes the same finding. The attitudes of high valued group members will have a larger opposition to change than with those of low valued group members.
This simply states the fact that employees with more power and influence would have little to no tolerance for change whilst employees with less influence and power would have a greater tolerance for change. 4. Methods to Reduce Change Resistance Whenever change is resisted in an organization, the organization must devise ways to educe this resistance. As the researcher has discussed in section 3, there are many forms of resistance and to counter these resistances, there are a number of tools organizations use to reduce the resistances.
The researcher would be discussing eight of the most effective ways to try and offset the resistance. . 0. 1 Education & Communication Whenever employees resist change, it is usually because they were not informed on the benefits the change can bring to the organization. However, it can be that the decision maker is positioned above the change agent. Now, the decision maker is costively willing to a planned change but refuses to give endorse the change as it may adversely affect the confidence or competence of the employees. This is when the subordinate must go on to communicate and educate the employees of the organization so as to get the endorsement from the superiors. Patti, 1974, up. 367--383) To "unfreeze" employees and to make them comfortable with change, Fern and Ex. et al. (2006, up. 168-?176) suggests employing effective written and verbal communication amongst fellow colleagues. The result would make it for the superior to consent the change as the employees would have an open mind to the change. . 0. 2 Participation and negotiation If by educating and communicating has little effect to reduce the resistance, the change champion can employ the participation and negotiation tactics.
This is when Boomer and Rich et al (2005, up. 733-?753) found out that influence strategy of 'encouraging appeals' (I. E. , exciting eagerness based on principles, morals etc. ) and 'consultation' (I. E. , looking for participation and support) more often elicited commitment rather than compliance or resistance. In a participative work culture, because staff share identical identity and appreciate why new actions and changes re essential, they are more prepared to work as one and engage in new activities. (Chou and David et al. , 2006, up. 48--263)
Negotiation can be employed when employees are losing out because of change such as loss of power or to handle more work. By negotiating and coming to terms with offers, employees' resistance would be greatly reduced. 4. 0. 3 Small Scale of Change When there is a radical change, there is a major shake-up in how the organization works and many employees resist this change as they are not ready. To counter this resistant, the organization could slowly and gradually transform so as to not create a rustic disturbance in the status quo of the working environment.
As stated by Choc and Rona, (2011, up. 46-?73) most organizational change models recognize the significance of the "unfreezing" step through such phase as building energy, warm- up or defrosting behaviors, or gaining buy-in to the change attempt. They usually do this by applying incremental changes and not to radicalized the way work is done in the organization 4. 0. 4 Explicit and Implicit Coercion When the previous three methods fails to reduce the resistance of some employees, the management would have no choice but to take a final stand and would have to Royce the employees.
The need to coerce employees into doing something they would otherwise not do that is, to work as hard as they can all the time, even though such hard work is not obviously in their own interests. (Swell and Barker, 2006, up. 934--961) would be in the interest of the organization. This argument is further supported by Cotter and Schlesinger (2008, p. 130) as managers frequently deal with opposition coercively. At this Juncture, they basically compel employees by implicitly threatening them (with the loss of Jobs, promotion possibilities, and so forth).
This loud be the final draw for every manager as the next option would be to release the employee. 5. Conclusion With the research done on why employees resist change and how to deal with this resistance, the researcher would like to conclude by suggesting to SMART to consistently upgrade and update about the organization to their employees has this will be seen as applying incremental change. The top management would have to as well think of ways to prevent future breakdowns of transport services and not be resistant to change and only focus on the future profits as this has drastic consent
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