A.P. Art History 250 Descriptions

Apollo 11 Stones
Namibia, c.a. 25,000 B.C.E., Charcoal on stone
Oldest art in Africa nad first evidence of artistic expression globally
Layers below where stones were found contain non-native materials suggesting human settlement
Animal form but has human hind legs
Curved horns, possibly animal/human form reflecting shamanisitic beliefs
Shows homo sapiens had capacity for modern thought 
Animal in profile view, named after Apollo 11 landing
Apollo 11 Stones

Namibia, c.a. 25,000 B.C.E., Charcoal on stone

Oldest art in Africa nad first evidence of artistic expression globally
Layers below where stones were found contain non-native materials suggesting human settlement
Animal form but has human hind legs
Curved horns, possibly animal/human form reflecting shamanisitic beliefs
Shows homo sapiens had capacity for modern thought
Animal in profile view, named after Apollo 11 landing

Great Hall of the Bulls
Lascaux, France
Paleolithic 15000-13000 B.C.E.
Rock paintin
Natural products used for pigment like iron, charcoal,plants
650 paintings of cows, bulls, horses, and deer
Bodies in profile while head/horns in frontal view, some animals pregnant
Overlapping of figures, evidence of structures used to stand on to reach up higher
Used for successful hunt, animal worship, shamanism
Not dwellings as most people were migratory
Paintings deep inside the cave, hundreds of feet, so not much natural light went through
Great Hall of the Bulls
Lascaux, France
Paleolithic 15000-13000 B.C.E.
Rock paintin

Natural products used for pigment like iron, charcoal,plants
650 paintings of cows, bulls, horses, and deer
Bodies in profile while head/horns in frontal view, some animals pregnant
Overlapping of figures, evidence of structures used to stand on to reach up higher
Used for successful hunt, animal worship, shamanism
Not dwellings as most people were migratory
Paintings deep inside the cave, hundreds of feet, so not much natural light went through

Camelid sacrum in shape of canine
Central Mexico 14000- 7000 B.C.E.
Bone
Sculpture from camel like animal bone from back of spine with triangular shape
Uses already present features to make an image of a dog/wolf 
Shows use of one natural form to make another
Mesoamerican idea of 2nd skull
Camelid sacrum in shape of canine

Central Mexico 14000- 7000 B.C.E.
Bone

Sculpture from camel like animal bone from back of spine with triangular shape
Uses already present features to make an image of a dog/wolf
Shows use of one natural form to make another
Mesoamerican idea of 2nd skull

Running Horned Woman
Algeria, 6000-4000 B.C.E. Pigment on rock
Composite view of body, face is frontal, body is profile
Painting has great contrast b/w dark and light mediums
Detailed decorations found on woman
Large central woman has transparency to her allowing the background figures to be shown
Dots on body reflect body paint used for rituals
Running Horned Woman
Algeria, 6000-4000 B.C.E. Pigment on rock
Composite view of body, face is frontal, body is profile
Painting has great contrast b/w dark and light mediums
Detailed decorations found on woman
Large central woman has transparency to her allowing the background figures to be shown
Dots on body reflect body paint used for rituals
Beaker with Ibex motifs
Susa Iran, 4200-3500 B.C.E
Painted terra cotta
Found near burial site, one of first ceramic pieces
Use of potters wheel and thin design was result of it
Stylized aquatic birds at top, stylized dogs below, central ibex portrayed
Ibex has oversized horns that give it an abstract quality
Middle has clan symbol of family ownership showing that the deceased belonged to a certain family
Geometric, linear, and curved forms balance each other
Beaker with Ibex motifs

Susa Iran, 4200-3500 B.C.E
Painted terra cotta

Found near burial site, one of first ceramic pieces
Use of potters wheel and thin design was result of it
Stylized aquatic birds at top, stylized dogs below, central ibex portrayed
Ibex has oversized horns that give it an abstract quality
Middle has clan symbol of family ownership showing that the deceased belonged to a certain family
Geometric, linear, and curved forms balance each other

Anthropomorphic Stele
Arabian Peninsula, 4000 B.C.E.
Sandstone
3 ft. tall, sculpted, emphasis on front with chest, head, and nose
Necklace hangs with two diagonal chords across the body with a tool attached
Double bladed dagger hangs from belt that wraps figures body
Figure seems to be abstract but is anthropomorphic, showing a human form but not actually human
Very stylized representation of a human form
Anthropomorphic Stele

Arabian Peninsula, 4000 B.C.E.
Sandstone

3 ft. tall, sculpted, emphasis on front with chest, head, and nose
Necklace hangs with two diagonal chords across the body with a tool attached
Double bladed dagger hangs from belt that wraps figures body
Figure seems to be abstract but is anthropomorphic, showing a human form but not actually human
Very stylized representation of a human form

Jade Cong
China, 3300-2200 B.C.E.
Carved Jade
Circular hole inside a square
Abstract geometric design with 4 corners having mask-like images representing spirits/deities
Jade found in tombs of elite and linked with virtues of durability, solidity, and beauty
Neolithic Liangzhu China
Jade Cong

China, 3300-2200 B.C.E.
Carved Jade

Circular hole inside a square
Abstract geometric design with 4 corners having mask-like images representing spirits/deities
Jade found in tombs of elite and linked with virtues of durability, solidity, and beauty
Neolithic Liangzhu China

Stonehenge
Wilshire, UK
Neolithic,2500-1600 B.C.E.
Sandstone
Took 1000 years to build by many generations
Post and Lintel system used
Large stones form circular shape, stones often brought from distant locations
Oriented with summer and winter solstices
Believed to astronomical or religious center based around the sun
New theories bring evidence of bones being found indicating it was a ceremonial burial site
Stonehenge

Wilshire, UK
Neolithic,2500-1600 B.C.E.
Sandstone

Took 1000 years to build by many generations
Post and Lintel system used
Large stones form circular shape, stones often brought from distant locations
Oriented with summer and winter solstices
Believed to astronomical or religious center based around the sun
New theories bring evidence of bones being found indicating it was a ceremonial burial site

Ambum Stone
Ambum Valley, Papua New Guinea, c.a. 1500 B.C.E
Greywacke
Composite human and animal form with anteater head with a human body
Use of subtractive sculpting allowing for a free standing head and neck
Used stone to sculpt stone
Still maintains shape of original stone
Ambum Stone

Ambum Valley, Papua New Guinea, c.a. 1500 B.C.E
Greywacke

Composite human and animal form with anteater head with a human body
Use of subtractive sculpting allowing for a free standing head and neck
Used stone to sculpt stone
Still maintains shape of original stone

Tlatilco Female Figurine
Central Mexico, 1200-900 B.C.E.
Ceramic
Emphasis on wide hips and legs with a narrow waist symbolizing fertility
Double faced with two noses mouths etc. but only three eyes
Elaborate hairstyle depicted with incising of clay
Relates to concept of duality within people in Mesoamerica
Possible shamanistic function
Societies now sedentary allowing specialization of labor and products like this to be made
Foreshadowed the art of great civilizations in the area to come
Tlatilco Female Figurine
Central Mexico, 1200-900 B.C.E.
Ceramic
Emphasis on wide hips and legs with a narrow waist symbolizing fertility
Double faced with two noses mouths etc. but only three eyes
Elaborate hairstyle depicted with incising of clay
Relates to concept of duality within people in Mesoamerica
Possible shamanistic function
Societies now sedentary allowing specialization of labor and products like this to be made
Foreshadowed the art of great civilizations in the area to come
Terra Cotta Fragment
Lapita, Reef Islands, 1000 B.C.E.
Terra Cotta
Human face with intricate geometric designs 
Use of curved stamp like patterns
One of earliest representations of human face in Pacific
Lapita people known for pottery work
Terra Cotta Fragment

Lapita, Reef Islands, 1000 B.C.E.
Terra Cotta

Human face with intricate geometric designs
Use of curved stamp like patterns
One of earliest representations of human face in Pacific
Lapita people known for pottery work

White Temple and Ziggurat
Uruk, Sumeria, ca 3500-3000 B.C.E.
Mud Bricks
Dedicated to all Sumerian deities, but Anu most important
Built so it tapers down, allowing rainwater to wash off
Sides feature geometric design
Temple on top set back and removed from populace as it was reserved for clergy/royalty
Contains multiple rooms and cella which is the most important room accessed by ruler and priest
Terrace outside temple on top for outdoor rituals
Stands out as it was on a flat terrain
Built at high place as gods would descend from heaven
4 Corners oriented towards cardinal directions
White Temple and Ziggurat

Uruk, Sumeria, ca 3500-3000 B.C.E.
Mud Bricks

Dedicated to all Sumerian deities, but Anu most important
Built so it tapers down, allowing rainwater to wash off
Sides feature geometric design
Temple on top set back and removed from populace as it was reserved for clergy/royalty
Contains multiple rooms and cella which is the most important room accessed by ruler and priest
Terrace outside temple on top for outdoor rituals
Stands out as it was on a flat terrain
Built at high place as gods would descend from heaven
4 Corners oriented towards cardinal directions

Palette of King Narmer
Predynastic Egypt, 3000-2920 B.C.E
Greywacke
Palettes were used to prepare eye makeup probably ceremonial purpose cause of elaborate decoration
Relief sculpture where King Narmer Unites Upper/Lower Egypt
One of earliest examples of heiroglyphs
Figures stand on ground line and arranged hierachally
Front: (Right)
Narmer, largest figure, wears cobra crown of lower Eygpt, reviewing heads of enemy
Preceded by 4 common people and a priest, followed by his foot washer
Center has stylized lionesses with elongated necks symbolizing unification
Bottom has bull knocking down fall, same as Narmer knocking down his enemies
Back: (Left)
Narmer central figure with bull tail on waist, shows strength, pin shaped crown shows king of united Egypt
Beneath are defeated Egyptians
Hawk is Horus and he triumphs over Narmer's foes, holds papyrus plant symbolizes lower Egypt
Schematic lines show musculature in forearms
Hieroglyphs explain piece and add meaning
Palette of King Narmer
Predynastic Egypt, 3000-2920 B.C.E
Greywacke
Palettes were used to prepare eye makeup probably ceremonial purpose cause of elaborate decoration
Relief sculpture where King Narmer Unites Upper/Lower Egypt
One of earliest examples of heiroglyphs
Figures stand on ground line and arranged hierachally
Front: (Right)
Narmer, largest figure, wears cobra crown of lower Eygpt, reviewing heads of enemy
Preceded by 4 common people and a priest, followed by his foot washer
Center has stylized lionesses with elongated necks symbolizing unification
Bottom has bull knocking down fall, same as Narmer knocking down his enemies
Back: (Left)
Narmer central figure with bull tail on waist, shows strength, pin shaped crown shows king of united Egypt
Beneath are defeated Egyptians
Hawk is Horus and he triumphs over Narmer’s foes, holds papyrus plant symbolizes lower Egypt
Schematic lines show musculature in forearms
Hieroglyphs explain piece and add meaning
Statues of Votive Figures, from Square Temple at Eshnunna
Sumeria, 2700 B.C.E.
Limestone
Different heights of figures showing social hierarchy
Hands folded in prayer, as figures were placed facing altar of the gods
Large eyes swell possibly cause staring at a deity
Bare chest, skirt from waist down, beard in ripple pattern
Stylized depiction of human form with no anatomical accuracy
Statues of Votive Figures, from Square Temple at Eshnunna
Sumeria, 2700 B.C.E.
Limestone
Different heights of figures showing social hierarchy
Hands folded in prayer, as figures were placed facing altar of the gods
Large eyes swell possibly cause staring at a deity
Bare chest, skirt from waist down, beard in ripple pattern
Stylized depiction of human form with no anatomical accuracy
Seated Scribe
Egypt, Old Kingdom, 2650-2500 B.C.E.
Painted Limestone
Uncommon that such a large sculpture isnt of a pharaoh
Very naturalistic representation of pose and sagging chest unlike the very rigid stylized sculptures known of Egypt
Conventional image of scribe, attentive expression
Holds papyrus in his lab and formerly had a writing utencil
Seated Scribe

Egypt, Old Kingdom, 2650-2500 B.C.E.
Painted Limestone

Uncommon that such a large sculpture isnt of a pharaoh
Very naturalistic representation of pose and sagging chest unlike the very rigid stylized sculptures known of Egypt
Conventional image of scribe, attentive expression
Holds papyrus in his lab and formerly had a writing utencil

Standard of Ur from Royal Tombs at Ur
Sumeria, 2600-2400 B.C.E.
Wood, shells, lazuli and red limestone
Two sides, one of war, and one of peace, early use of historical narrative
Figures organized into registers on ground lines read top to bottom
War Side: Sumerian king taller and in center, descended from chariot to inspect enemies brought to him
Lower row shows chariots riding over dead bodies
Peace Side: Food brought in a procession to the banquet, musician playing a lyre, ruler wears kilts and is larger than other figures
Mediums used reflects extensive trade networks as they got their materials from different reigons
Figures shown in profile with broad shoulders and emphasis on face
Standard of Ur from Royal Tombs at Ur

Sumeria, 2600-2400 B.C.E.
Wood, shells, lazuli and red limestone

Two sides, one of war, and one of peace, early use of historical narrative
Figures organized into registers on ground lines read top to bottom
War Side: Sumerian king taller and in center, descended from chariot to inspect enemies brought to him
Lower row shows chariots riding over dead bodies

Peace Side: Food brought in a procession to the banquet, musician playing a lyre, ruler wears kilts and is larger than other figures

Mediums used reflects extensive trade networks as they got their materials from different reigons
Figures shown in profile with broad shoulders and emphasis on face

Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx
Giza, Egypt, Old Kingdom, 2550-2490 B.C.E.
Monuments for dead pharaohs
Pile of limestone blocks shaped as pyramid with small room inside beneath the building where ruler buried
Each side of pyramid oriented to different direction on compass
Shape influenced by sacred stone Benben found at center of sun god cult 
Great Sphinx: Generalized features of human, some say Khafre cause his pyramid directly behind it
Carved from giant rock, symbolic of sun god
Body of lion, head of pharaoh/god
Seen as protector of pyramids, therefore protector of pharaohs
Originally painted to stand out in the desert 
Badly damaged during Middle Ages
Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx

Giza, Egypt, Old Kingdom, 2550-2490 B.C.E.
Monuments for dead pharaohs
Pile of limestone blocks shaped as pyramid with small room inside beneath the building where ruler buried
Each side of pyramid oriented to different direction on compass
Shape influenced by sacred stone Benben found at center of sun god cult

Great Sphinx: Generalized features of human, some say Khafre cause his pyramid directly behind it
Carved from giant rock, symbolic of sun god
Body of lion, head of pharaoh/god
Seen as protector of pyramids, therefore protector of pharaohs
Originally painted to stand out in the desert
Badly damaged during Middle Ages

King Menkaura and Queen
Old Kingdom, 2490-2472 B.C.E.
Greywacke
Figures carved from block of stone, arms/legs not free, no open space between body
Rigid frontal pose with left food proceeding
Staring out into space
Wife holding him, presenting him to the gods
Menkaura shown with strong physique showing how powerful of a king he was
Gender equality as both figures same height
King Menkaura and Queen

Old Kingdom, 2490-2472 B.C.E.
Greywacke

Figures carved from block of stone, arms/legs not free, no open space between body
Rigid frontal pose with left food proceeding
Staring out into space
Wife holding him, presenting him to the gods
Menkaura shown with strong physique showing how powerful of a king he was
Gender equality as both figures same height

The Code of Hammurabi
Babylon, 1792-1750 B.C.E.
Basalt
Earliest law code ever written and enforced by ruler, used Akkadian language
Sun God Shamash enthroned is handing Hammurabi a rope, ring, and rod symbolizing divine right to rule
Shamash shown with both frontal and profile view
Hammurabi has greeting gesture, figures stare at each other despite shoulders being frontal
300 laws below narrative as these were the laws given to Hammurabi to enforce
The Code of Hammurabi

Babylon, 1792-1750 B.C.E.
Basalt

Earliest law code ever written and enforced by ruler, used Akkadian language
Sun God Shamash enthroned is handing Hammurabi a rope, ring, and rod symbolizing divine right to rule
Shamash shown with both frontal and profile view
Hammurabi has greeting gesture, figures stare at each other despite shoulders being frontal
300 laws below narrative as these were the laws given to Hammurabi to enforce

Temple of Amun Re
Near Luxor Egypt, New Kingdom 1550 C.E. 
Sandstone Mud and Brick
Hypostyle Hall
1250 B.C.E.
Largest and most elaborately decorated structure in all Egypt
Large columns closely packed together admit light into the sanctuary 
Columns elaborately painted and have varying artistic styles
Lintels connect each column
Tallest columns have papyrus capitals
Clerestory allows so light and air into the temple
Lower columns have bud capitals
Columns in sunken relief 
One enters complex through massive gateway, then into peristyle courtyard, through hypostyle hall, and finally to a sanctuary where very few could go
Largest religious complex in the world
Hypostyle hall has 134 columns
Temple of Amun Re

Near Luxor Egypt, New Kingdom 1550 C.E.
Sandstone Mud and Brick

Hypostyle Hall
1250 B.C.E.

Largest and most elaborately decorated structure in all Egypt
Large columns closely packed together admit light into the sanctuary
Columns elaborately painted and have varying artistic styles
Lintels connect each column
Tallest columns have papyrus capitals
Clerestory allows so light and air into the temple
Lower columns have bud capitals
Columns in sunken relief
One enters complex through massive gateway, then into peristyle courtyard, through hypostyle hall, and finally to a sanctuary where very few could go
Largest religious complex in the world
Hypostyle hall has 134 columns

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
Near Luxor Egypt, 1473-1458 B.C.E.
Sandstone and Red Granite
3 colonnaded terraces and 2 ramps
Rigid geometric quality of structure contrasts greatly with the natural striking cliffs behind
Structure carved directly into the cliff side with little to no structures in the area illustrating its importance as it was in such a powerful area with cliffs forming an amphitheater around it 
First time in history that a woman's achievements are celebrated
Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut
One of 200 statues at the temple, 10 statues identical to this one
Kneeling position as pharaohs would only kneel to a god, and she presents gifts in her hands to the sun god Amon Re
Given male attributes such as false beard, male costume, slender proportions, and only slight breasts
Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
Near Luxor Egypt, 1473-1458 B.C.E.
Sandstone and Red Granite
3 colonnaded terraces and 2 ramps
Rigid geometric quality of structure contrasts greatly with the natural striking cliffs behind
Structure carved directly into the cliff side with little to no structures in the area illustrating its importance as it was in such a powerful area with cliffs forming an amphitheater around it
First time in history that a woman’s achievements are celebrated
Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut
One of 200 statues at the temple, 10 statues identical to this one
Kneeling position as pharaohs would only kneel to a god, and she presents gifts in her hands to the sun god Amon Re
Given male attributes such as false beard, male costume, slender proportions, and only slight breasts
Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and 3 daughters
New Kingdom 1353-1335 B.C.E.
Limestone
Placed in a private, domestic environment for worship 
Akenaton holds his oldest daughter ready to be kissed
Nefertiti holds daughter with another daughter on shoulder 
State religion changed to honor one god Aton, symbolized by sun-disk with cobra
Composite view of body, hips in profile while shoulders frontal
Anatomy of figures very stylized and elongated, different from past forms of figures
Rays of light have ankhs at the end the Egyptian symbol of life, and they point at the figures
Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and 3 daughters

New Kingdom 1353-1335 B.C.E.
Limestone

Placed in a private, domestic environment for worship
Akenaton holds his oldest daughter ready to be kissed
Nefertiti holds daughter with another daughter on shoulder
State religion changed to honor one god Aton, symbolized by sun-disk with cobra
Composite view of body, hips in profile while shoulders frontal
Anatomy of figures very stylized and elongated, different from past forms of figures
Rays of light have ankhs at the end the Egyptian symbol of life, and they point at the figures

Tutankhamun's Tomb, Innermost coffin
New Kingdom, 1323 B.C.E.
Gold with enamel inlay and semiprecious stones
Tut returned the religion back to its previous, normal status instead of keeping his father Akhenaten's religion
In tomb discovered by Howard Carter 1922
Mummified Tut buried with 143 precious objects
Made of solid gold with many precious stones, depicted as a god in his divine form of the afterlife
Shows quality of workmanship and attention to detail of Egyptian art
6'7
Tutankhamun’s Tomb, Innermost coffin

New Kingdom, 1323 B.C.E.
Gold with enamel inlay and semiprecious stones

Tut returned the religion back to its previous, normal status instead of keeping his father Akhenaten’s religion
In tomb discovered by Howard Carter 1922
Mummified Tut buried with 143 precious objects
Made of solid gold with many precious stones, depicted as a god in his divine form of the afterlife
Shows quality of workmanship and attention to detail of Egyptian art
6’7″ Long coffin with body of Tut
Mask has smooth idealized features of boy-king
Holds crook and flail across chest, symbols of Osiris
Possibly handicapped due to inbreeding between his parents

Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer, page from Book of the Dead
New Kingdom 1275 B.C.E. 
Painted papyrus scroll
Hu nefer was a scribe with a priestly status
Goes through a process deciding whether or not he lived a ethical life and if he should continue to the afterlife
Anubis holding an Ankh symbolizing eternal life leads him into the hall where his heart is compared to a feather to see if it is lighter
Crocodile/Lion animal is ready to eat heart if it proves he didnt live ethically
Thoth on right documents this event
Osiris on the far right is overlooking this process and grants Nefer entrance to the afterlife
White base on right represents natron, the substance used to dry out/preserve bodies
Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer, page from Book of the Dead

New Kingdom 1275 B.C.E.
Painted papyrus scroll

Hu nefer was a scribe with a priestly status
Goes through a process deciding whether or not he lived a ethical life and if he should continue to the afterlife
Anubis holding an Ankh symbolizing eternal life leads him into the hall where his heart is compared to a feather to see if it is lighter
Crocodile/Lion animal is ready to eat heart if it proves he didnt live ethically
Thoth on right documents this event
Osiris on the far right is overlooking this process and grants Nefer entrance to the afterlife
White base on right represents natron, the substance used to dry out/preserve bodies

Lamassu from Citadel of Sargon II
Neo-Assyria, 720-705 B.C.E, 
Alabaster
Male-headed winged animal guardian figures 
Five legs, 4 when looking from profile view that seem to be in motion, 2 when looking from frontal view that seem to be stationary protecting the structure
Very decorative/ ornamental representation of the animals with many detailed patterns like the beard and wings 
Meant to ward off enemies both visible and invisible
Has a feeling of harmony and stability
Carved out of one piece of stone
Stand in front of structures guarding and providing them protection
Had structural use as it helped support the column overhead
Lamassu from Citadel of Sargon II

Neo-Assyria, 720-705 B.C.E,
Alabaster

Male-headed winged animal guardian figures
Five legs, 4 when looking from profile view that seem to be in motion, 2 when looking from frontal view that seem to be stationary protecting the structure
Very decorative/ ornamental representation of the animals with many detailed patterns like the beard and wings
Meant to ward off enemies both visible and invisible
Has a feeling of harmony and stability
Carved out of one piece of stone
Stand in front of structures guarding and providing them protection
Had structural use as it helped support the column overhead

Athenian Agora Plan
Archaic to Hellenistic Greek
600 B.C.E.-150 C.E.
Most important public space in all of Athens, heart of Athenian democracy
Plaza at the base of the Acropolis containing buildings that contained commercial, civic, religious, and social buildings, and ceremonies took place here
Setting for Panathenaic festival, festival honoring Athena
Panathenaic Way cuts through the plaza on its way up to the Acropolis
Structures such as a bouleuterion (house for council), and temples surround the plaza
Large stoa (peristyle court) where much of the commercial and civil roles of the people were performed
Athenian Agora Plan

Archaic to Hellenistic Greek
600 B.C.E.-150 C.E.

Most important public space in all of Athens, heart of Athenian democracy
Plaza at the base of the Acropolis containing buildings that contained commercial, civic, religious, and social buildings, and ceremonies took place here
Setting for Panathenaic festival, festival honoring Athena
Panathenaic Way cuts through the plaza on its way up to the Acropolis
Structures such as a bouleuterion (house for council), and temples surround the plaza
Large stoa (peristyle court) where much of the commercial and civil roles of the people were performed

Anavysos Kouros
Archain Greek 530 B.C.E.
Marble with remnants of paint
Used as a grave marker, replacing vases used in the earlier geometric period
Has traditional pose of such figures similar to Egyptian sculpture with left foot slightly proceeding 
More naturalistic representation of the figure, parts of body flow smoothly into each other 
Still has rigidity present in his stance
Traditional knotted, braided hair that falls neatly on the figures back
Arms and legs are separated b/w body with a space unlike Egyptian where it was one solid block 
Archaic smile used common to sculpture of this period
Movement towards the greek ideal of a muscular body with perfect symmetrical anatomical features, but isnt there yet
Slight musculature present
Anavysos Kouros

Archain Greek 530 B.C.E.
Marble with remnants of paint

Used as a grave marker, replacing vases used in the earlier geometric period
Has traditional pose of such figures similar to Egyptian sculpture with left foot slightly proceeding
More naturalistic representation of the figure, parts of body flow smoothly into each other
Still has rigidity present in his stance
Traditional knotted, braided hair that falls neatly on the figures back
Arms and legs are separated b/w body with a space unlike Egyptian where it was one solid block
Archaic smile used common to sculpture of this period
Movement towards the greek ideal of a muscular body with perfect symmetrical anatomical features, but isnt there yet
Slight musculature present

Peplos Kore from Acropolis
Archaic Greek 530 B.C.E., marble
Found on the acropolis, female equivalent of a kouros
Kore usually an offering to the goddess Athena, but possibly a representation of a goddess
Unusual clothing similar to that of a goddess
Left hand possibly used to hold a weapon such as a bow signifying she was Artemis
Right hand is clenched around a possible arrow no longer there anymore possibly artemis
Archaic smile present
Very feminie with protruding breasts and a narrow waist
Naturalistic representation with hair falling naturally on her body
Peplos Kore from Acropolis

Archaic Greek 530 B.C.E., marble

Found on the acropolis, female equivalent of a kouros
Kore usually an offering to the goddess Athena, but possibly a representation of a goddess
Unusual clothing similar to that of a goddess
Left hand possibly used to hold a weapon such as a bow signifying she was Artemis
Right hand is clenched around a possible arrow no longer there anymore possibly artemis
Archaic smile present
Very feminie with protruding breasts and a narrow waist
Naturalistic representation with hair falling naturally on her body

Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes
Persepolis Iran, Persia
520-465 B.C.E.
Limestone
Built by Darius I and Xerxes I, destroyed by Alexander the Great
Built as a seat for receptions and festivals
Lamassu are at the gates with as inscription announcing that it was
Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes

Persepolis Iran, Persia
520-465 B.C.E.
Limestone

Built by Darius I and Xerxes I, destroyed by Alexander the Great
Built as a seat for receptions and festivals
Lamassu are at the gates with as inscription announcing that it was “The Gate of all Nations” showing the empires importance
Relief sculptures show people from throughout the empire bringing gifts which would be stored in the treasury, site chosen as it was a central location in the Persian Empire
Audience hall or Apadana had 36 columns with a wooden roof that could hold thousands of people, used for kings festivals
It is a hypostyle hall, hall supported by many columns in rows
Only 13 of these columns remain on the platform for the structure
Columns had a bell-shaped base with an inverted lotus blossom, capitals are of bulls and lions
Stairs feature Immortals which were the Kings Guard
Many different cultures contribute to its creation, Greek, Persian, Babylonian, Egyptian
Structure built to dwarf the viewer
Stairs feature a central relief with the king surrounded by his people
Order and harmony in world as people present the king with gifts

Sarcophagus of the Spouses
Etruscan, 520 B.C.E
Terra Cotta
Large ceramic container with two figures that serve as a lid for this sarcophagus
Very naturalistic flowing representation of the figures with arms extending into the space of the viewer
Cut in half so the terra cotta could fit into a kiln 
Figures arms appear to be holding something possibly a pomegranate or egg representing the eternal life 
Smile on figures similar to that of the greek archaic smile, archaic period in Greece at the time so probably influenced by Kourous figures
Figures have an intimate relaxed expression and pose as they embrace each other
Shows symbiotic relationship of males and females in Etruscan society, and males had to protect the females
Detailed upper body, with less detail in lower body/legs
Sarcophagus of the Spouses

Etruscan, 520 B.C.E
Terra Cotta

Large ceramic container with two figures that serve as a lid for this sarcophagus
Very naturalistic flowing representation of the figures with arms extending into the space of the viewer
Cut in half so the terra cotta could fit into a kiln
Figures arms appear to be holding something possibly a pomegranate or egg representing the eternal life
Smile on figures similar to that of the greek archaic smile, archaic period in Greece at the time so probably influenced by Kourous figures
Figures have an intimate relaxed expression and pose as they embrace each other
Shows symbiotic relationship of males and females in Etruscan society, and males had to protect the females
Detailed upper body, with less detail in lower body/legs

Temple of Minerva 
Sculptor Vulca, 510-500 B.C.E. 
Wood, Mud Brick
Not much architecture survives from this period
Design done by Vitruvius
Steps in front direct the attention to the deep porch, emphasizing the entrance
Used tuscan capitals that vary slightly from Greek Doric capitals 
3 doors that allow the viewer to enter the temple represent 3 gods
The interior is divided into 3 separate space
Sculpture of Apollo from Veii
One of 4 figures that originally stood on top of the Temple of Veii dedicated to Minerva
Meant to be seen from below
Figure has spirit, it moves quickly as it strides foward seen in the dynamic position of his legs
Greek influence with the Archaic smile 
Carved by Vulca, the most famous Etruscan sculptor of the period 
Terra Cotta
Temple of Minerva

Sculptor Vulca, 510-500 B.C.E.
Wood, Mud Brick

Not much architecture survives from this period
Design done by Vitruvius
Steps in front direct the attention to the deep porch, emphasizing the entrance
Used tuscan capitals that vary slightly from Greek Doric capitals
3 doors that allow the viewer to enter the temple represent 3 gods
The interior is divided into 3 separate space

Sculpture of Apollo from Veii
One of 4 figures that originally stood on top of the Temple of Veii dedicated to Minerva
Meant to be seen from below
Figure has spirit, it moves quickly as it strides foward seen in the dynamic position of his legs
Greek influence with the Archaic smile
Carved by Vulca, the most famous Etruscan sculptor of the period
Terra Cotta

Tomb of Triclinium
Etruscan
Tarquinia, Italy 480-470 B.C.E.
Tufa and Fresco
Named after Triclinium, an ancient Roman dining table which appears in the fresco
Banqueting couple recline, eating in the ancient manner
Ancient convention of men painted in darker colors than women
Trees spring up b/w the main figures, and shrubbery grows beneath suggesting a rural setting
Intended as a funeral banquet as the fresco is inside a tomb, but all the emotions shown are of celebration
Musicians and dancers are depicted on the side walls 
Ceiling is painted with checkerboard pattern with alternating colors evoking the fabric tents constructed near tombs for ceremonies
Tomb of Triclinium

Etruscan
Tarquinia, Italy 480-470 B.C.E.
Tufa and Fresco

Named after Triclinium, an ancient Roman dining table which appears in the fresco
Banqueting couple recline, eating in the ancient manner
Ancient convention of men painted in darker colors than women
Trees spring up b/w the main figures, and shrubbery grows beneath suggesting a rural setting
Intended as a funeral banquet as the fresco is inside a tomb, but all the emotions shown are of celebration
Musicians and dancers are depicted on the side walls
Ceiling is painted with checkerboard pattern with alternating colors evoking the fabric tents constructed near tombs for ceremonies

Niobides Krater
Classical Greek painter known as Niobid
460-450 B.C.E. Severe Style
Red-figure technique
Done by anonymous sculptor named Niobides
Back of vase shows women Niobe who had 7 daughters and 7 sons, and she proclaimed to be more fertile and her children them to be more beautiful than the children of goddess Leto, Apollo and Artemis 
Artemis and Apollo are depicting killing each and every one of the 14 figures
Gods often punished mortals for showing hubris or excessive pride 
Dead bodies found throughout the picture space
Figures have a rigid formal quality to them common to earlier greek art
Red Figure technique with black outline allows for tremendous detail especially notable in Apollo's body
Godess and God rendered in perfect profile view
Dead bodies shown in 3/4 to a frontal view
Done in the severe style, time period between archaic and classical
Figures depicted on multiple lines in both the foreground and the background different from past pottery where all the figures were on one strict ground line
Front portion shows Herakles surrounded by warriors
Warriors are coming to Herakles asking for Herakles for protection in battle 
Relaxation of figures contrast greatly with the dead rigid bodies on the opposite side
Niobides Krater

Classical Greek painter known as Niobid
460-450 B.C.E. Severe Style
Red-figure technique

Done by anonymous sculptor named Niobides
Back of vase shows women Niobe who had 7 daughters and 7 sons, and she proclaimed to be more fertile and her children them to be more beautiful than the children of goddess Leto, Apollo and Artemis
Artemis and Apollo are depicting killing each and every one of the 14 figures
Gods often punished mortals for showing hubris or excessive pride
Dead bodies found throughout the picture space
Figures have a rigid formal quality to them common to earlier greek art
Red Figure technique with black outline allows for tremendous detail especially notable in Apollo’s body
Godess and God rendered in perfect profile view
Dead bodies shown in 3/4 to a frontal view
Done in the severe style, time period between archaic and classical
Figures depicted on multiple lines in both the foreground and the background different from past pottery where all the figures were on one strict ground line
Front portion shows Herakles surrounded by warriors
Warriors are coming to Herakles asking for Herakles for protection in battle
Relaxation of figures contrast greatly with the dead rigid bodies on the opposite side

Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
Polykleitos
450-440 B.C.E. Classical 
Roman copy marble, Greek original 
bronze
Ideal beauty,the Greco-Roman ideal of human body
Perfect body created through use of proportion
Turn away from stiff rigid pose of past sculpture
Exemplifies contrapposoto pose as one leg is relaxed and the opposite arm is relaxed, while one leg is weight bearing and the opposite arm is weight bearing of what was believed to be a spear making harmony/balance
Contrapposoto also sculptor to show that the figure is about to move
Human musculature depicted
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)

Polykleitos
450-440 B.C.E. Classical
Roman copy marble, Greek original
bronze

Ideal beauty,the Greco-Roman ideal of human body
Perfect body created through use of proportion
Turn away from stiff rigid pose of past sculpture
Exemplifies contrapposoto pose as one leg is relaxed and the opposite arm is relaxed, while one leg is weight bearing and the opposite arm is weight bearing of what was believed to be a spear making harmony/balance
Contrapposoto also sculptor to show that the figure is about to move
Human musculature depicted

Acropolis 
Athens, Greece
447-410 B.C.E.
Iktinos and Kallikrates
Acropolis Plan
Acropolis

Athens, Greece
447-410 B.C.E.
Iktinos and Kallikrates

Acropolis Plan

Parthenon, Acropolis 
Iktinos and Kallikrates
437-438 B.C.E. High Classical
Most recognizable building on the Acropolis, built as a shrine to Athena
Doric columns with doric capitals
Sculpture heavily present throughout the metopes,frieze, and pediment characteristic of the Ionic style
Symbols of rational thought over chaos
Ionic columns also present inside the temple
Athena parthenos inside 
Pericles oversaw construction as old temple was destroyed during Persian War
Structure symbol of cities power/wealth
Based on mathematical proportions to construct structure x=2y+1 
Entasis present where columns taper and widen towards the bottom 
Floor is higher in middle so rain could run off the structure
Influence on practically all Western Architecture
Parthenon, Acropolis
Iktinos and Kallikrates
437-438 B.C.E. High Classical

Most recognizable building on the Acropolis, built as a shrine to Athena
Doric columns with doric capitals
Sculpture heavily present throughout the metopes,frieze, and pediment characteristic of the Ionic style
Symbols of rational thought over chaos
Ionic columns also present inside the temple
Athena parthenos inside
Pericles oversaw construction as old temple was destroyed during Persian War
Structure symbol of cities power/wealth
Based on mathematical proportions to construct structure x=2y+1
Entasis present where columns taper and widen towards the bottom
Floor is higher in middle so rain could run off the structure
Influence on practically all Western Architecture

Helios, Horses, and Dionysus on the Acropolis 
Sculpture on east Pediment of the Parthenon, classical period 
Central portion which no longer survives depicts the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus
Figures are relaxed yet sense of nobility and god status present 
Sculpture have classical depiction with flowing drapery revealing the from of their bodies
Figures heighten as they get towards the middle because in triangular space
Helios, Horses, and Dionysus on the Acropolis

Sculpture on east Pediment of the Parthenon, classical period
Central portion which no longer survives depicts the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus
Figures are relaxed yet sense of nobility and god status present
Sculpture have classical depiction with flowing drapery revealing the from of their bodies
Figures heighten as they get towards the middle because in triangular space

Temple of Athena Nike 
Acropolis
Amphiprostyle, four columns in front and four on sides
Commemorates the win at the battle of Marathon where Nike announced the win
Ionic style with ionic columns and a frieze in the entablature
Temple of Athena Nike
Acropolis

Amphiprostyle, four columns in front and four on sides
Commemorates the win at the battle of Marathon where Nike announced the win
Ionic style with ionic columns and a frieze in the entablature

Victory Adjusting her Sandal from Temple Athena Nike
High relief along the peripet or railing on the side of the temple
Relaxed yet awkward pose as Nike reaches down to adjust her sandal
Flowing drapery wraps around her giving naturalistic representation
Form of her body revealed, in some cases, nude
Breasts shown and wide hips clearly a female
Human-like representation showing the gods had the same flaws as humans
Victory Adjusting her Sandal from Temple Athena Nike

High relief along the peripet or railing on the side of the temple
Relaxed yet awkward pose as Nike reaches down to adjust her sandal
Flowing drapery wraps around her giving naturalistic representation
Form of her body revealed, in some cases, nude
Breasts shown and wide hips clearly a female
Human-like representation showing the gods had the same flaws as humans

Plaque of the Ergastines from Acropolis
Depicts the Pan-Athenian procession where citizens of Athens came together and walked along the sacred way up to the Acropolis where the Parthenon stood
Shows contemporary real life event not common to temple sculpture
Figures appear noble and depicted naturally as it was the high classical period, 
Intricate folds follow the form of the peoples bodies, other areas drapery falls straight down
Contrapposto pose showing dynamism of figures as they walk
6 Ergastines shown who were responsible for making the peplos that would be put on a sculpture of Athena during the festival
Plaque of the Ergastines from Acropolis

Depicts the Pan-Athenian procession where citizens of Athens came together and walked along the sacred way up to the Acropolis where the Parthenon stood
Shows contemporary real life event not common to temple sculpture
Figures appear noble and depicted naturally as it was the high classical period,
Intricate folds follow the form of the peoples bodies, other areas drapery falls straight down
Contrapposto pose showing dynamism of figures as they walk
6 Ergastines shown who were responsible for making the peplos that would be put on a sculpture of Athena during the festival

Grave Stele of Hegeso
Kallimachos, 410 B.C.E.
Marble and paint
End of classical period where funerary sculpture was revived
Serves as private grave marker
Hegeso depicted seated opening a box containing a necklace possibly her dowry
Domestic setting surrounded by pilasters and pediment
Pediment has inscription identifying her and her father
Drapery closely follows her body giving relaxed natural representation
Grave Stele of Hegeso

Kallimachos, 410 B.C.E.
Marble and paint

End of classical period where funerary sculpture was revived
Serves as private grave marker
Hegeso depicted seated opening a box containing a necklace possibly her dowry
Domestic setting surrounded by pilasters and pediment
Pediment has inscription identifying her and her father
Drapery closely follows her body giving relaxed natural representation

Winged Victory of Samothrace
Hellenistic Greek, 190 B.C.E. Marble
Theatrical stance with vigorous movement
Intense emotional movement and wind blown drapery 
Sense of energy present 
Dramatic contrapposto pose 
Drapery clings to her body and wraps her revealing her mass and feminine features
Winged Victory of Samothrace

Hellenistic Greek, 190 B.C.E. Marble

Theatrical stance with vigorous movement
Intense emotional movement and wind blown drapery
Sense of energy present
Dramatic contrapposto pose
Drapery clings to her body and wraps her revealing her mass and feminine features

Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
Asia Minor, Hellenistic Greek, 175 B.C.E.
Post Alexander the Great
Classical-Romantic continuum 
Expressive dramatic facial expressions looking up to the heavens
Deeply carved figures which overlap providing spatial illusion
Bodies still feature greco-roman ideal and muscles are flexed with exaggeration of anatomical detail increasing drama and emotion
Athena depicted fighting the Giants for control of the world 
A triumphant Athena being crowned by Nike as she is dominating the figures in battle
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon

Asia Minor, Hellenistic Greek, 175 B.C.E.

Post Alexander the Great
Classical-Romantic continuum
Expressive dramatic facial expressions looking up to the heavens
Deeply carved figures which overlap providing spatial illusion
Bodies still feature greco-roman ideal and muscles are flexed with exaggeration of anatomical detail increasing drama and emotion
Athena depicted fighting the Giants for control of the world
A triumphant Athena being crowned by Nike as she is dominating the figures in battle

Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon Plan
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon Plan
House of the Vetti
Pompeii, Imperial Rome
2nd Century B.C.E.
Cut stone and fresco
Common domestic architecture of a home
2 brothers owned the house and made their money as merchants
Large reception area, the atrium with impluvium to catch water, cubicula surround radiate around the atrium
Peristyle garden in rear with fountain and statues, was the private area of the home
Exterior lacks windows, and light came in through the atrium and garden
Plan, Atrium, Frescoes !!!
House of the Vetti

Pompeii, Imperial Rome
2nd Century B.C.E.
Cut stone and fresco

Common domestic architecture of a home
2 brothers owned the house and made their money as merchants
Large reception area, the atrium with impluvium to catch water, cubicula surround radiate around the atrium
Peristyle garden in rear with fountain and statues, was the private area of the home
Exterior lacks windows, and light came in through the atrium and garden

Plan, Atrium, Frescoes !!!

Alexander Mosaic from House of Faun, Pompeii
Republican Rome
100 B.C.E. Mosaic
Shows Battle of Issus where king of Persians Darius orders his troops to retreat as they are being dominated by the Greeks under Alexander the Great
Turning point in Persian War
Dynamism shown as proceeding troops contrast with the in motion chariot that is being turned around 
Modeling present as mosaic has both light and dark pieces that create mass through the use of shadow 
Detailed naturalism still present despite being made of over a million pieces of glass and stone 
Believed to be a copy of a Greek wall painting
Alexander Mosaic from House of Faun, Pompeii

Republican Rome
100 B.C.E. Mosaic

Shows Battle of Issus where king of Persians Darius orders his troops to retreat as they are being dominated by the Greeks under Alexander the Great
Turning point in Persian War
Dynamism shown as proceeding troops contrast with the in motion chariot that is being turned around
Modeling present as mosaic has both light and dark pieces that create mass through the use of shadow
Detailed naturalism still present despite being made of over a million pieces of glass and stone
Believed to be a copy of a Greek wall painting

Seated Boxer
Hellenistic Greek
100 B.C.E. Bronze
Lost Wax casting with hollow inside and detailed incised in the metal
Muscular powerful body, engages human emotion as we feel sympathy towards the long hard life he has lived, appears old
Pose shows him slouched down as if broken, looking up
Shows beating he has taken with broken nose, multiple gashes on his face, and his cauliflower ear
Interest in emotion
Seated Boxer

Hellenistic Greek
100 B.C.E. Bronze

Lost Wax casting with hollow inside and detailed incised in the metal
Muscular powerful body, engages human emotion as we feel sympathy towards the long hard life he has lived, appears old
Pose shows him slouched down as if broken, looking up
Shows beating he has taken with broken nose, multiple gashes on his face, and his cauliflower ear
Interest in emotion

Head of a Roman patrician
Republican Rome 75-50 B.C.E. 
Marble
Veristic portrait, exaggeration of naturalism
Shows very old patrician with large heavy wrinkles symbolizing his long life
Strength and simplicity 
Realism that doesnt create beauty, contrasting with Greek ideals
Looks out with experience and wisdom, traits needed to be a patrician
Traits exaggerated to enhance adherence to Republican roman values
Head of a Roman patrician

Republican Rome 75-50 B.C.E.
Marble

Veristic portrait, exaggeration of naturalism
Shows very old patrician with large heavy wrinkles symbolizing his long life
Strength and simplicity
Realism that doesnt create beauty, contrasting with Greek ideals
Looks out with experience and wisdom, traits needed to be a patrician
Traits exaggerated to enhance adherence to Republican roman values

Augustus of Prima Porta 
Imperial Rome, Early first century C.E. 
Marble
Found in his wife Livias home
Augustus establishes the Roman Empire
Idealized view of him to make him seem god-like, younger, more beautiful, stronger, more athletic, etc
Design similar to Doryphoros, idealized beauty as Augustus intends to make peaceful golden age of Rome just as there was a golden age of Greece
Contrapposto pose present shows Greek influence
Barefoot indicates he is on sacred ground
Cupid at his ankle shows lineage to founder of Rome Aeneas and his divine descent from Venus
Breast plate features multiple gods showing his divine right to rule, gods approve, shows return of Roman standards from the Parthians
Breast plate is warrior but robe is civic leader
Augustus of Prima Porta

Imperial Rome, Early first century C.E.
Marble

Found in his wife Livias home
Augustus establishes the Roman Empire
Idealized view of him to make him seem god-like, younger, more beautiful, stronger, more athletic, etc
Design similar to Doryphoros, idealized beauty as Augustus intends to make peaceful golden age of Rome just as there was a golden age of Greece
Contrapposto pose present shows Greek influence
Barefoot indicates he is on sacred ground
Cupid at his ankle shows lineage to founder of Rome Aeneas and his divine descent from Venus
Breast plate features multiple gods showing his divine right to rule, gods approve, shows return of Roman standards from the Parthians
Breast plate is warrior but robe is civic leader

Colosseum (Flavian Ampitheater)
Imperial Rome, 70-80 C.E. 
Stone and Concrete
Commisioned by Vespasian part of the Flavian dynasty
Could hold 50k spectators 
76 entrances to the stadium similar to modern stadiums
Division of facade with tuscan on bottom, ionic in middle, corinthian on top
Very top has squared windows and held flagstaffs that anchored a canvas that formed a roof like structure providing shade to people 
Interplay of barrel, groin vaults, and arches
Used for spectacular events like gladiator battles
Concrete allowed for larger more complex structures
Look at overhead view too
Colosseum (Flavian Ampitheater)

Imperial Rome, 70-80 C.E.
Stone and Concrete

Commisioned by Vespasian part of the Flavian dynasty
Could hold 50k spectators
76 entrances to the stadium similar to modern stadiums
Division of facade with tuscan on bottom, ionic in middle, corinthian on top
Very top has squared windows and held flagstaffs that anchored a canvas that formed a roof like structure providing shade to people
Interplay of barrel, groin vaults, and arches
Used for spectacular events like gladiator battles
Concrete allowed for larger more complex structures

Look at overhead view too

Treasury and Temple of Petra Jordan
400 B.C.E. -100 C.E. , Cut Rock, Petra Jordan
Petra was the central city of the Nabataeans, a nomadic group
City was built along a caravan route
Buried their dead in tombs cut out of the sandstone cliffs
500 Royal tombs in the rock, but no human remains found, burial practices
Treasury and Temple of Petra Jordan

400 B.C.E. -100 C.E. , Cut Rock, Petra Jordan

Petra was the central city of the Nabataeans, a nomadic group
City was built along a caravan route
Buried their dead in tombs cut out of the sandstone cliffs
500 Royal tombs in the rock, but no human remains found, burial practices

Forum of Trajan, 
Rome, Apollodorus of Damascus
106-122 C.E.
Brick and concrete
Trajan expanded the Empire to its largest size 
Largest imperial forum in Roman history
Built with the booty from the War against the Dacians
Large central plaza flanked by multiple buildings
Administrative, commercial, political, and social center of Trajan's empire
Part of complex containing other buildings 
Forum contained an Equestrian sculpture of the emperor
Forum of Trajan,

Rome, Apollodorus of Damascus
106-122 C.E.
Brick and concrete

Trajan expanded the Empire to its largest size
Largest imperial forum in Roman history
Built with the booty from the War against the Dacians
Large central plaza flanked by multiple buildings
Administrative, commercial, political, and social center of Trajan’s empire
Part of complex containing other buildings
Forum contained an Equestrian sculpture of the emperor

Markets of Trajan (Forum of Trajan)
106-112 C.E. 
Brick and concrete
Had 150 shops
Multilevel mall, in a semicircular shape
Main space used groin vaults, each individual shop featured a barrel vault
Markets of Trajan (Forum of Trajan)
106-112 C.E.
Brick and concrete

Had 150 shops
Multilevel mall, in a semicircular shape
Main space used groin vaults, each individual shop featured a barrel vault

Basilica Ulpia (Forum of Trajan)
106-112 C.E.
Brick and concrete
385 ft. by 128 ft., two apses, doulbe colonnaded aisle, 
Nave very spacious and wide
Second floor held galleries or clerestory windows providing light
Timber roof
Held the law courts and official offices
Heavily influences future architecture and basilica churches
Basilica Ulpia (Forum of Trajan)
106-112 C.E.
Brick and concrete

385 ft. by 128 ft., two apses, doulbe colonnaded aisle,
Nave very spacious and wide
Second floor held galleries or clerestory windows providing light
Timber roof
Held the law courts and official offices
Heavily influences future architecture and basilica churches

Column of Trajan
113 C.E.
Marble
Base serves as burial chamber for Trajan
Stood in the Forum of Trajan
128 ft high, 625 ft. narrative cycle wrapping the column showing Trajans victory over the Dacians
150 episodes, continuous narrative as figures displayed multiple times in different parts of their life within the same pictorial space
Nude statue topped the column as an ultimate symbol of is power and triumph
Two libraries flanked the column, with the Basilica Ulpia behind it
Column of Trajan
113 C.E.
Marble

Base serves as burial chamber for Trajan
Stood in the Forum of Trajan
128 ft high, 625 ft. narrative cycle wrapping the column showing Trajans victory over the Dacians
150 episodes, continuous narrative as figures displayed multiple times in different parts of their life within the same pictorial space
Nude statue topped the column as an ultimate symbol of is power and triumph
Two libraries flanked the column, with the Basilica Ulpia behind it

Pantheon
Imperial Rome, 118-125 C.E. 
Concrete with stone facing
Commisioned by Hadrian
Temple used to worship all Roman gods
Colonnaded porch with corinthian columns, monoliths as they are one whole piece not cut like the Greeks, imported from Egypt
Facade has two pediments 
Square panels on the floor along with the square coffering contrast against the roundness of the wall
Dome with coffering 
Width exactly the same as height as if two spheres came together to construct the building, symbolizes the two spheres of life, earth and heaven where the gods lived
Walls very thick to support the weight of the dome
Open, uninterrupted space
Oculus allows from light to come in, acts as a sundial as a circle of light moved across the structure throughout the day
Inside has seven niches housing statues of gods with corinthian columns in between them
Possibly the most influential structure in history
Interior View as well
Pantheon

Imperial Rome, 118-125 C.E.
Concrete with stone facing

Commisioned by Hadrian
Temple used to worship all Roman gods
Colonnaded porch with corinthian columns, monoliths as they are one whole piece not cut like the Greeks, imported from Egypt
Facade has two pediments
Square panels on the floor along with the square coffering contrast against the roundness of the wall
Dome with coffering
Width exactly the same as height as if two spheres came together to construct the building, symbolizes the two spheres of life, earth and heaven where the gods lived
Walls very thick to support the weight of the dome
Open, uninterrupted space
Oculus allows from light to come in, acts as a sundial as a circle of light moved across the structure throughout the day
Inside has seven niches housing statues of gods with corinthian columns in between them
Possibly the most influential structure in history

Interior View as well

Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
Late Imperial Rome
250 C.E.
Marble
Very crowded surface with many figures surrounding each other
Heavy relief carving with contrast between figures and shadow created by the deep spaces between them
Figures lack individuality
Romans appear noble and serious while the barbarians look uncivilized with wild expressions
Confusion of battle shown by the multitude of people and their varying poses
Roman army appears triumphant over bearded barbarians lying beneath them
Figures get smaller at the bottom 
Youthful general at top without weapons, no helmet showing he is invinicible and doesn't need protection 
Empire not stable during this time and is instable as barbarians begin to raid Rome
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus

Late Imperial Rome
250 C.E.
Marble

Very crowded surface with many figures surrounding each other
Heavy relief carving with contrast between figures and shadow created by the deep spaces between them
Figures lack individuality
Romans appear noble and serious while the barbarians look uncivilized with wild expressions
Confusion of battle shown by the multitude of people and their varying poses
Roman army appears triumphant over bearded barbarians lying beneath them
Figures get smaller at the bottom
Youthful general at top without weapons, no helmet showing he is invinicible and doesn’t need protection
Empire not stable during this time and is instable as barbarians begin to raid Rome

Catacomb of Priscilla
Late Antique Europe, 200-400 C.E
Tufa and frescoes
Wealthy women Priscilla donated land and at first just for her family, but later for the entire Christian community
Over 10 miles long holding of narrow passage ways with niches in the walls where bodies would be placed
Richer people purchased larger niches which could house a sarcophagus
Greek Chapel:
Named as there are greek inscription in this room
3 niches for sarcophagi
Decorated with the pompeiian first style that tried to recreate marble and brick paneling
Frescoes of the acts that Christ performed throughout his life
Catacomb of Priscilla

Late Antique Europe, 200-400 C.E
Tufa and frescoes

Wealthy women Priscilla donated land and at first just for her family, but later for the entire Christian community
Over 10 miles long holding of narrow passage ways with niches in the walls where bodies would be placed
Richer people purchased larger niches which could house a sarcophagus

Greek Chapel:
Named as there are greek inscription in this room
3 niches for sarcophagi
Decorated with the pompeiian first style that tried to recreate marble and brick paneling
Frescoes of the acts that Christ performed throughout his life

Good Shepherd:
Portrait of Christ as good shepherd, pastoral motif with greek origins
Symoblizes that christ rescues members of his flock who have sinned and are stray
Stories of Jonah's life surround Christ, most important the whale regurgitates him, prefiguring resurrection of Christ
Cross shaped composition
Good Shepherd:
Portrait of Christ as good shepherd, pastoral motif with greek origins
Symoblizes that christ rescues members of his flock who have sinned and are stray
Stories of Jonah’s life surround Christ, most important the whale regurgitates him, prefiguring resurrection of Christ
Cross shaped composition
Orant Figure:
Fresco above a tomb niche on an arched wall
Stands with arms out in prayer, figure is dark and compact against the light background 
Left shows teacher with children
Right shows mother and child referring to Mary and Jesus
Orant Figure:
Fresco above a tomb niche on an arched wall
Stands with arms out in prayer, figure is dark and compact against the light background
Left shows teacher with children
Right shows mother and child referring to Mary and Jesus
Santa Sabina
Rome, Italy 422-432 B.C.E.
Brick/Stone, Wood Roof
Three aisled basilican church
Long, tall, broad nave, axial plan
Spolia: tall columns taken from Temple of Juno in Rome, erected at this site, statement of Christian triumph over paganism
Arches/Corithian columns have a rhythm that leads eye to end with an apse and the altar
Arches have repeating motifs of a chalice and bread plates symbolizing the Eucharist
Clerestory windows made of gypsum that provide lots of light to shine on to the decorations inside
Flat timber roof, coffered ceiling, only thin walls needed to support light weight roof
Bare exterior, lavishly decorated interior,
Men in nave, women in aisle
Very influential in future christian churches
Santa Sabina

Rome, Italy 422-432 B.C.E.
Brick/Stone, Wood Roof

Three aisled basilican church
Long, tall, broad nave, axial plan
Spolia: tall columns taken from Temple of Juno in Rome, erected at this site, statement of Christian triumph over paganism
Arches/Corithian columns have a rhythm that leads eye to end with an apse and the altar
Arches have repeating motifs of a chalice and bread plates symbolizing the Eucharist
Clerestory windows made of gypsum that provide lots of light to shine on to the decorations inside
Flat timber roof, coffered ceiling, only thin walls needed to support light weight roof
Bare exterior, lavishly decorated interior,
Men in nave, women in aisle
Very influential in future christian churches

Santa Sabina Plan
Rome, Italy 422-432 B.C.E.
Brick/Stone, Wood Roof
Three aisled basilican church
Long, tall, broad nave, axial plan
Spolia: tall columns taken from Temple of Juno in Rome, erected at this site, statement of Christian triumph over paganism
Arches/Corithian columns have a rhythm that leads eye to end with an apse and the altar
Arches have repeating motifs of a chalice and bread plates symbolizing the Eucharist
Clerestory windows made of gypsum that provide lots of light to shine on to the decorations inside
Flat timber roof, coffered ceiling, only thin walls needed to support light weight roof
Bare exterior, lavishly decorated interior,
Men in nave, women in aisle
Very influential in future christian churches
Santa Sabina Plan

Rome, Italy 422-432 B.C.E.
Brick/Stone, Wood Roof

Three aisled basilican church
Long, tall, broad nave, axial plan
Spolia: tall columns taken from Temple of Juno in Rome, erected at this site, statement of Christian triumph over paganism
Arches/Corithian columns have a rhythm that leads eye to end with an apse and the altar
Arches have repeating motifs of a chalice and bread plates symbolizing the Eucharist
Clerestory windows made of gypsum that provide lots of light to shine on to the decorations inside
Flat timber roof, coffered ceiling, only thin walls needed to support light weight roof
Bare exterior, lavishly decorated interior,
Men in nave, women in aisle
Very influential in future christian churches

Santa Sabina Interior
Rome, Italy 422-432 B.C.E.
Brick/Stone, Wood Roof
Three aisled basilican church
Long, tall, broad nave, axial plan
Spolia: tall columns taken from Temple of Juno in Rome, erected at this site, statement of Christian triumph over paganism
Arches/Corithian columns have a rhythm that leads eye to end with an apse and the altar
Arches have repeating motifs of a chalice and bread plates symbolizing the Eucharist
Clerestory windows made of gypsum that provide lots of light to shine on to the decorations inside
Flat timber roof, coffered ceiling, only thin walls needed to support light weight roof
Bare exterior, lavishly decorated interior,
Men in nave, women in aisle
Very influential in future christian churches
Santa Sabina Interior

Rome, Italy 422-432 B.C.E.
Brick/Stone, Wood Roof

Three aisled basilican church
Long, tall, broad nave, axial plan
Spolia: tall columns taken from Temple of Juno in Rome, erected at this site, statement of Christian triumph over paganism
Arches/Corithian columns have a rhythm that leads eye to end with an apse and the altar
Arches have repeating motifs of a chalice and bread plates symbolizing the Eucharist
Clerestory windows made of gypsum that provide lots of light to shine on to the decorations inside
Flat timber roof, coffered ceiling, only thin walls needed to support light weight roof
Bare exterior, lavishly decorated interior,
Men in nave, women in aisle
Very influential in future christian churches

Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel from Vienna Genesis
Early Byzantine, 6th century C.E., illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, silver on purple vellum)
Manuscript of the first book of the bible with greek words on top with illustrations of the scenes on the bottom
Artist shows classical influence with contrapposto, foreshortening, shadowing, and perspective
Dyed and purple and originally written with silver showing roman imperial influence
Rebecca Eliezer at the Well (Left):
Rebecca emerges from city of Nahor with jar on shoulder to go down to stream
Queches thirst of local camel driver and his camels
Colonnaded road leads to spring
Roman water goddess personifies spring
Jacob Wrestling the Angel from Vienna Genesis:
Artist tries to fit a very long scene onto a narrow pictorial space
Jacob leading his family across a bridge
Once crossed Jacob becomes separated and starts fighting with an Angel who touches his hip joint as he asks for his blessing
Angel then blesses him allowing the family to go on with their journey
No longer called Jacob but now called Israel as part of transformation after being blessed
Colonnaded bridge and roman arches present further showing classical influence
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel from Vienna Genesis

Early Byzantine, 6th century C.E., illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, silver on purple vellum)

Manuscript of the first book of the bible with greek words on top with illustrations of the scenes on the bottom
Artist shows classical influence with contrapposto, foreshortening, shadowing, and perspective
Dyed and purple and originally written with silver showing roman imperial influence

Rebecca Eliezer at the Well (Left):
Rebecca emerges from city of Nahor with jar on shoulder to go down to stream
Queches thirst of local camel driver and his camels
Colonnaded road leads to spring
Roman water goddess personifies spring

Jacob Wrestling the Angel from Vienna Genesis:
Artist tries to fit a very long scene onto a narrow pictorial space
Jacob leading his family across a bridge
Once crossed Jacob becomes separated and starts fighting with an Angel who touches his hip joint as he asks for his blessing
Angel then blesses him allowing the family to go on with their journey
No longer called Jacob but now called Israel as part of transformation after being blessed
Colonnaded bridge and roman arches present further showing classical influence

San Vitale
Ravenna Italy, Early Byzantine, 6th century, brick marble, stone veneer, mosaic
8 sided, centrally planned church
Plain exterior with bricks used from previous Roman structures
Many windows to allow tremendous amount of light to illuminate the mosaics inside
Interior with thin unique columns and open arched spaces
Interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure
Martyrium for St. Vitalis
San Vitale

Ravenna Italy, Early Byzantine, 6th century, brick marble, stone veneer, mosaic

8 sided, centrally planned church
Plain exterior with bricks used from previous Roman structures
Many windows to allow tremendous amount of light to illuminate the mosaics inside
Interior with thin unique columns and open arched spaces
Interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure
Martyrium for St. Vitalis

San Vitale Interior
Ravenna Italy, Early Byzantine, 6th century, brick marble, stone veneer, mosaic
8 sided, centrally planned church
Plain exterior with bricks used from previous Roman structures
Many windows to allow tremendous amount of light to illuminate the mosaics inside
Interior with thin unique columns and open arched spaces
Interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure
Martyrium for St. Vitalis
San Vitale Interior

Ravenna Italy, Early Byzantine, 6th century, brick marble, stone veneer, mosaic

8 sided, centrally planned church
Plain exterior with bricks used from previous Roman structures
Many windows to allow tremendous amount of light to illuminate the mosaics inside
Interior with thin unique columns and open arched spaces
Interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure
Martyrium for St. Vitalis

Justinian Panel San Vitale
Justinian shows his power away from the center of the empire
Wears purple and gold, colors of imperial rule
Surrouned by religious figures, his court, and military, symbolizing he had authority over all aspects of life
Holds a bread bowl symbolizing Eucharist
Halo shows divine authority
Flat figures, not concerend with reality
Gold background common to Byzantine art
Justinian Panel San Vitale
Justinian shows his power away from the center of the empire
Wears purple and gold, colors of imperial rule
Surrouned by religious figures, his court, and military, symbolizing he had authority over all aspects of life
Holds a bread bowl symbolizing Eucharist
Halo shows divine authority
Flat figures, not concerend with reality
Gold background common to Byzantine art
Theodora Panel San Vitale
Theodora ruled as co equal to Justinian and was very powerful
Halo shows divine authority
Holds a chalice for wine of the Eucharist
Elaborate decorative motifs used for dresses
3 Magi shown on bottom of Theodoras dress comparing the figures
Theodora Panel San Vitale
Theodora ruled as co equal to Justinian and was very powerful
Halo shows divine authority
Holds a chalice for wine of the Eucharist
Elaborate decorative motifs used for dresses
3 Magi shown on bottom of Theodoras dress comparing the figures
San Vitale Plan
Ravenna Italy, Early Byzantine, 6th century, brick marble, stone veneer, mosaic
8 sided, centrally planned church
Plain exterior with bricks used from previous Roman structures
Many windows to allow tremendous amount of light to illuminate the mosaics inside
Interior with thin unique columns and open arched spaces
Interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure
Martyrium for St. Vitalis
San Vitale Plan

Ravenna Italy, Early Byzantine, 6th century, brick marble, stone veneer, mosaic

8 sided, centrally planned church
Plain exterior with bricks used from previous Roman structures
Many windows to allow tremendous amount of light to illuminate the mosaics inside
Interior with thin unique columns and open arched spaces
Interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure
Martyrium for St. Vitalis

Hagia Sophia
Constantinople Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 523-537 C.E., Brick/Ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer 
Commisioned by Justinian showing his power after the Nike Revolt of 532
Combo of centrally planned church and axial planned basilican church
Exterior is plan yet massive 
Central dome made with no supports beneath it done by using pendentives supported by large piers
Half domes to each side of the main dome helps spread out the weight
40 windows placed at bottom of domes making it seem like they are floating
Large gold mosaics once covered the walls
Marble brought from across the empire
Minarets added during the islamic period when building made into a mosque
Hagia Sophia

Constantinople Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 523-537 C.E., Brick/Ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer

Commisioned by Justinian showing his power after the Nike Revolt of 532
Combo of centrally planned church and axial planned basilican church
Exterior is plan yet massive
Central dome made with no supports beneath it done by using pendentives supported by large piers
Half domes to each side of the main dome helps spread out the weight
40 windows placed at bottom of domes making it seem like they are floating
Large gold mosaics once covered the walls
Marble brought from across the empire
Minarets added during the islamic period when building made into a mosque

Hagia Sophia Interior
Constantinople Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 523-537 C.E., Brick/Ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer 
Commisioned by Justinian showing his power after the Nike Revolt of 532
Combo of centrally planned church and axial planned basilican church
Exterior is plan yet massive 
Central dome made with no supports beneath it done by using pendentives supported by large piers
Half domes to each side of the main dome helps spread out the weight
40 windows placed at bottom of domes making it seem like they are floating
Large gold mosaics once covered the walls
Marble brought from across the empire
Minarets added during the islamic period when building made into a mosque
Hagia Sophia Interior

Constantinople Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 523-537 C.E., Brick/Ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer

Commisioned by Justinian showing his power after the Nike Revolt of 532
Combo of centrally planned church and axial planned basilican church
Exterior is plan yet massive
Central dome made with no supports beneath it done by using pendentives supported by large piers
Half domes to each side of the main dome helps spread out the weight
40 windows placed at bottom of domes making it seem like they are floating
Large gold mosaics once covered the walls
Marble brought from across the empire
Minarets added during the islamic period when building made into a mosque

Hagia Sophia Plan
Constantinople Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 523-537 C.E., Brick/Ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer 
Commisioned by Justinian showing his power after the Nike Revolt of 532
Combo of centrally planned church and axial planned basilican church
Exterior is plan yet massive 
Central dome made with no supports beneath it done by using pendentives supported by large piers
Half domes to each side of the main dome helps spread out the weight
40 windows placed at bottom of domes making it seem like they are floating
Large gold mosaics once covered the walls
Marble brought from across the empire
Minarets added during the islamic period when building made into a mosque
Hagia Sophia Plan

Constantinople Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus 523-537 C.E., Brick/Ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer

Commisioned by Justinian showing his power after the Nike Revolt of 532
Combo of centrally planned church and axial planned basilican church
Exterior is plan yet massive
Central dome made with no supports beneath it done by using pendentives supported by large piers
Half domes to each side of the main dome helps spread out the weight
40 windows placed at bottom of domes making it seem like they are floating
Large gold mosaics once covered the walls
Marble brought from across the empire
Minarets added during the islamic period when building made into a mosque

Merovingian Looped Fibula
Early Medieval Europe, mid 6th century, silver gilt worked in filigree, inlays of garnets/other stones
Fibulas were pins used to fasten garments, showed off the prestige of the wearer
Cloisonne technique used by laying numerous metal strips and filling in the spaces with precious gems
Zoomorphic elements, fish shown in middle referencing god, abstract stylized bird
Small portable objects common as art forms of the time as most tribes were nomadic barbarians
Merovingian Looped Fibula

Early Medieval Europe, mid 6th century, silver gilt worked in filigree, inlays of garnets/other stones

Fibulas were pins used to fasten garments, showed off the prestige of the wearer
Cloisonne technique used by laying numerous metal strips and filling in the spaces with precious gems
Zoomorphic elements, fish shown in middle referencing god, abstract stylized bird
Small portable objects common as art forms of the time as most tribes were nomadic barbarians

Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George
Early Byzantine, 6th/Early 7th century, Monastery of St. Catherine Mt. Sinai, Encaustic on wood
Icon placed in a sacred monastery subject to many pilgrimages as it was in the holy land
Mary shown as Theotokos, mother of god
Mary looks past the viewer as if seeing into the future
Christ child looks away as if anticipating his crucifixion
Saints Theodore/George flank them and engage with the viewer directly, very rigid/stiff poses
Angles look up into the heavens done with classical style as noted by the quick brushwork
Descending hand of god seen giving a blessing
Spatial ambiguity present
HIerarchal structure moving eyes upward towards the hand of god as if ascending
Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George
Early Byzantine, 6th/Early 7th century, Monastery of St. Catherine Mt. Sinai, Encaustic on wood
Icon placed in a sacred monastery subject to many pilgrimages as it was in the holy land
Mary shown as Theotokos, mother of god
Mary looks past the viewer as if seeing into the future
Christ child looks away as if anticipating his crucifixion
Saints Theodore/George flank them and engage with the viewer directly, very rigid/stiff poses
Angles look up into the heavens done with classical style as noted by the quick brushwork
Descending hand of god seen giving a blessing
Spatial ambiguity present
HIerarchal structure moving eyes upward towards the hand of god as if ascending
Lindisfarne Gosepls: St. Matthew Cross Carpet Page
Hiberno Saxon, 700 C.E. Illuminated Manuscript
Written by Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Unusual because it was done by one person instead of a group of people
Written in Latin, English added in 970, oldest surviving manuscript of the bible in English
Latin- half-uncial
English- Anglo-Saxon miniscule
130 calf skins used to make it
Colophon at end tells who created it and how it was created
St. Matthews Cross Page:
Cross shown on page with horror vacui decoration
Dog headed snakes mix with birds with long beaks
Elongated figures form many
Lindisfarne Gosepls: St. Matthew Cross Carpet Page

Hiberno Saxon, 700 C.E. Illuminated Manuscript

Written by Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Unusual because it was done by one person instead of a group of people
Written in Latin, English added in 970, oldest surviving manuscript of the bible in English
Latin- half-uncial
English- Anglo-Saxon miniscule
130 calf skins used to make it
Colophon at end tells who created it and how it was created

St. Matthews Cross Page:
Cross shown on page with horror vacui decoration
Dog headed snakes mix with birds with long beaks
Elongated figures form many “S” shapes
Symmetrical energized arrangement
Black background has the patterning stand out
Mixture of traditional celtic imagery with christian theology
Stable, expansive cross contrasts with the highly energetic patterning around it and helps stabilize the pictorial space

Lindisfarne Gosepls: St. Luke Portrait page
Hiberno Saxon, 700 C.E. Illuminated Manuscript
Written by Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Unusual because it was done by one person instead of a group of people
Written in Latin, English added in 970, oldest surviving manuscript of the bible in English
Latin- half-uncial
English- Anglo-Saxon miniscule
130 calf skins used to make it
Colophon at end tells who created it and how it was created
St Luke Portrait Page:
Traditional symbol of St. Luke the calf is shown above him
St. Luke identified with greek words Hagios Lucas
Wears a purple and red robe characteristic of late roman citizen/philosopher, shows roman influence
Heavily bearded St. Luke shows how wise of an author he was despite the young age he is depicted as
Sits with legs crossed and holding a scroll and writing utencil
Lindisfarne Gosepls: St. Luke Portrait page

Hiberno Saxon, 700 C.E. Illuminated Manuscript

Written by Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Unusual because it was done by one person instead of a group of people
Written in Latin, English added in 970, oldest surviving manuscript of the bible in English
Latin- half-uncial
English- Anglo-Saxon miniscule
130 calf skins used to make it
Colophon at end tells who created it and how it was created

St Luke Portrait Page:
Traditional symbol of St. Luke the calf is shown above him
St. Luke identified with greek words Hagios Lucas
Wears a purple and red robe characteristic of late roman citizen/philosopher, shows roman influence
Heavily bearded St. Luke shows how wise of an author he was despite the young age he is depicted as
Sits with legs crossed and holding a scroll and writing utencil

Lindisfarne Gosepls: St. Luke Incipit page
Hiberno Saxon, 700 C.E. Illuminated Manuscript
Written by Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Unusual because it was done by one person instead of a group of people
Written in Latin, English added in 970, oldest surviving manuscript of the bible in English
Latin- half-uncial
English- Anglo-Saxon miniscule
130 calf skins used to make it
Colophon at end tells who created it and how it was created
St. Luke's Incipit Page:
Opening words of St. Lukes Gospel appear on the riaght
Numerous celtic spiral ornaments, step patterns appear in the enlarged
Lindisfarne Gosepls: St. Luke Incipit page

Hiberno Saxon, 700 C.E. Illuminated Manuscript

Written by Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Unusual because it was done by one person instead of a group of people
Written in Latin, English added in 970, oldest surviving manuscript of the bible in English
Latin- half-uncial
English- Anglo-Saxon miniscule
130 calf skins used to make it
Colophon at end tells who created it and how it was created

St. Luke’s Incipit Page:
Opening words of St. Lukes Gospel appear on the riaght
Numerous celtic spiral ornaments, step patterns appear in the enlarged “O”
Lower right corner show the natural detail of a cat who has eaten a brids

Taj Mahal 
Agra, India, Sonte masonry, marble with inlay of precious stones, 1632-1653
English
Taj Mahal

Agra, India, Sonte masonry, marble with inlay of precious stones, 1632-1653

English “Crown Palace”
Named for Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan, as she died giving birth to her 14th kid
Built to serve as her tomb, placed centrally under the dome
Shah Jahan placed assymetrically next to her after his death
Symmetrical harmony of design
Typical islamic feature of one large arch being flanked by two smaller arches
Arcuated niches fill the sides of the facade and
Onion-shaped dome rises smoothly from the square facade
Smaller domes flanking the central dome lessen its severity
Pointed arches bring the eye upward toward the climatic dome and the minarets help to enhance the soaring theme
Arcuated niches fill the sides of the facade and intricate floral/geometric patterns are found on the facade
Portions of the the Quran are also found
Grounds are a funerary garden meant to mimic the gardens found in heaven according to Islamic tradition
Minarets focuse view towards structure and act as a frame for it
Such large size to showcase the grandeur of Shah Jahan and his kingdom of the Mughal empire

Taj Mahal Interior
Agra, India, Sonte masonry, marble with inlay of precious stones, 1632-1653
English
Taj Mahal Interior

Agra, India, Sonte masonry, marble with inlay of precious stones, 1632-1653

English “Crown Palace”
Named for Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan, as she died giving birth to her 14th kid
Built to serve as her tomb, placed centrally under the dome
Shah Jahan placed assymetrically next to her after his death
Symmetrical harmony of design
Typical islamic feature of one large arch being flanked by two smaller arches
Onion-shaped dome rises smoothly from the square facade
Smaller domes flanking the central dome lessen its severity
Intricate floral/geometric patterns are found on the facade
Grounds are a funerary garden meant to mimic the gardens found in heaven according to Islamic tradition
Minarets focuse view towards structure and act as a frame for it
Such large size to showcase the grandeur of Shah Jahan and his kingdom

Mosque of Selim II 
Sinan (architect),Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575, Brick and Stone
Very thin tall minarets
Numerous windows make for brilliantly lit interior
Decorative display of mosaics and tile work for interior
Inspired by Hagia Sophia, though this is a completely central plan
Octagonal interior contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors 
Hospital, school, library, etc. all part of the complex
Sinan was chief court architect for Suleiman the Magnificent
Transitions from a square ground plan to round dome done with insertion of smaller domes that act as squiches
8 Large piers support the dome
Mosque of Selim II

Sinan (architect),Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575, Brick and Stone

Very thin tall minarets
Numerous windows make for brilliantly lit interior
Decorative display of mosaics and tile work for interior
Inspired by Hagia Sophia, though this is a completely central plan
Octagonal interior contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors
Hospital, school, library, etc. all part of the complex
Sinan was chief court architect for Suleiman the Magnificent
Transitions from a square ground plan to round dome done with insertion of smaller domes that act as squiches
8 Large piers support the dome

Mosque of Selim II Interior
Sinan (architect),Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575, Brick and Stone
Very thin tall minarets
Numerous windows make for brilliantly lit interior
Decorative display of mosaics and tile work for interior
Inspired by Hagia Sophia, though this is a completely central plan
Octagonal interior contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors 
Hospital, school, library, etc. all part of the complex
Sinan was chief court architect for Suleiman the Magnificent
Transitions from a square ground plan to round dome done with insertion of smaller domes that act as squiches
8 Large piers support the dome
Mosque of Selim II Interior

Sinan (architect),Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575, Brick and Stone

Very thin tall minarets
Numerous windows make for brilliantly lit interior
Decorative display of mosaics and tile work for interior
Inspired by Hagia Sophia, though this is a completely central plan
Octagonal interior contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors
Hospital, school, library, etc. all part of the complex
Sinan was chief court architect for Suleiman the Magnificent
Transitions from a square ground plan to round dome done with insertion of smaller domes that act as squiches
8 Large piers support the dome

Mosque of Selim II Plan
Sinan (architect),Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575, Brick and Stone
Very thin tall minarets
Numerous windows make for brilliantly lit interior
Decorative display of mosaics and tile work for interior
Inspired by Hagia Sophia, though this is a completely central plan
Octagonal interior contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors 
Hospital, school, library, etc. all part of the complex
Sinan was chief court architect for Suleiman the Magnificent
Transitions from a square ground plan to round dome done with insertion of smaller domes that act as squiches
8 Large piers support the dome
Mosque of Selim II Plan

Sinan (architect),Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575, Brick and Stone

Very thin tall minarets
Numerous windows make for brilliantly lit interior
Decorative display of mosaics and tile work for interior
Inspired by Hagia Sophia, though this is a completely central plan
Octagonal interior contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors
Hospital, school, library, etc. all part of the complex
Sinan was chief court architect for Suleiman the Magnificent
Transitions from a square ground plan to round dome done with insertion of smaller domes that act as squiches
8 Large piers support the dome

Great Mosque
Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786
Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture 
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches 
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures 
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church
Great Mosque

Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786

Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church

Great Mosque (Cordoba)
Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786
Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture 
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches 
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures 
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church
Great Mosque (Cordoba)

Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786

Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church

Great Mosque (Cordoba)
Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786
Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture 
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches 
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures 
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church
Great Mosque (Cordoba)

Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786

Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church

Great Mosque Arches (Cordoba)
Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786
Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture 
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches 
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures 
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church
Hypostyle hall used for prayer
Great Mosque Arches (Cordoba)

Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786

Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church
Hypostyle hall used for prayer

Great Mosque Plan (Cordoba)
Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786
Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture 
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches 
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures 
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church
Great Mosque Plan (Cordoba)

Cordoba Spain, Umayyad 785-786

Double-arched columns articulatd in alternating bands of color on each voussoir
Light, open, airy interior
Horseshoe-shaped arches have a tradition in Visigothic Spain and Roman architecture
Hypostyle mosque with no central focus or congregational worship
Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting
Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches
Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures
Relatively short columns made ceilings low, doubling of arches enhances interior space influenced by previous Roman aqueducts
Kufic calligraphy on the walls
Built on site of a church, after Christian reconquest center of the mosque was used for a church

Great Mosque Isfahan Iran (Masjid-e Jameh)
Large central rectangular courtyard surrounded by two story arcade
Each side of courtyard has centrally placed iwan, possibly first mosque to use this feature
One iwan is an entry to hte private space used by the sultan and his advisers
Has a dome adorned with tiles
The qibla iwan is the largest and most decorative, its size indicates it is facing the direction of Mecca
Great Mosque Isfahan Iran (Masjid-e Jameh)

Large central rectangular courtyard surrounded by two story arcade
Each side of courtyard has centrally placed iwan, possibly first mosque to use this feature
One iwan is an entry to hte private space used by the sultan and his advisers
Has a dome adorned with tiles
The qibla iwan is the largest and most decorative, its size indicates it is facing the direction of Mecca

Great Mosque Isfahan Mihrab
Large central rectangular courtyard surrounded by two story arcade
Each side of courtyard has centrally placed iwan, possibly first mosque to use this feature
One iwan is an entry to hte private space used by the sultan and his advisers
Has a dome adorned with tiles
The qibla iwan is the largest and most decorative, its size indicates it is facing the direction of Meccaa
Great Mosque Isfahan Mihrab

Large central rectangular courtyard surrounded by two story arcade
Each side of courtyard has centrally placed iwan, possibly first mosque to use this feature
One iwan is an entry to hte private space used by the sultan and his advisers
Has a dome adorned with tiles
The qibla iwan is the largest and most decorative, its size indicates it is facing the direction of Meccaa

Great Mosque Isfahan Iwan
Large central rectangular courtyard surrounded by two story arcade
Each side of courtyard has centrally placed iwan, possibly first mosque to use this feature
One iwan is an entry to hte private space used by the sultan and his advisers
Has a dome adorned with tiles
The qibla iwan is the largest and most decorative, its size indicates it is facing the direction of Mecca
Great Mosque Isfahan Iwan

Large central rectangular courtyard surrounded by two story arcade
Each side of courtyard has centrally placed iwan, possibly first mosque to use this feature
One iwan is an entry to hte private space used by the sultan and his advisers
Has a dome adorned with tiles
The qibla iwan is the largest and most decorative, its size indicates it is facing the direction of Mecca

Pyxis of al-Mughira
Umayyad 968 C.E., Ivory
Calligraphic inscription in Arabic identifies the owneras al-Mughira, son of a caliph, asks for Allah's blessing, tell the function of the Pyxis
Used as a container for expensive aromatics
Gift for the caliphs younger son at the time
Horror Vacui present as the entire space is filled with patterning
Vegetal/Geometric motifs
8 medallion scenes showing the pleasure activities of the royal court
Muslim Spain
Pyxis of al-Mughira

Umayyad 968 C.E., Ivory

Calligraphic inscription in Arabic identifies the owneras al-Mughira, son of a caliph, asks for Allah’s blessing, tell the function of the Pyxis
Used as a container for expensive aromatics
Gift for the caliphs younger son at the time
Horror Vacui present as the entire space is filled with patterning
Vegetal/Geometric motifs
8 medallion scenes showing the pleasure activities of the royal court
Muslim Spain

The Kaaba
631-632, granite masonry covered with silk curtain/gold thread, Mecca Saudi Arabia
Mecca spiritual center of Islam
Said to have been built by Ibrahim and Ishamel for God (Allah)
Existing structure incases the blackstone in the eastern corner, only part of original structure left
Has been repaired/remodeled many times since its construction due to conflict
Cube shape covered in precious textiles called the kiswa
Destination for those on pilgrimage back to Mecca, perform Hajj, walk around the structure 7 times counterclockwise
Today the door into the structure is made of solid gold
The Kaaba
631-632, granite masonry covered with silk curtain/gold thread, Mecca Saudi Arabia
Mecca spiritual center of Islam
Said to have been built by Ibrahim and Ishamel for God (Allah)
Existing structure incases the blackstone in the eastern corner, only part of original structure left
Has been repaired/remodeled many times since its construction due to conflict
Cube shape covered in precious textiles called the kiswa
Destination for those on pilgrimage back to Mecca, perform Hajj, walk around the structure 7 times counterclockwise
Today the door into the structure is made of solid gold
Jowo Rinopche
Jokhang Temple, Tibet, 641
Inside the Jokhang temple which is Tibet's earliest and greatest Buddhist temple, founded in 647 by the first ruler of a unified Tibet
Statue thought to have been blessed by the Buddha himself, believed to have been crafted in India during his lifetime
Depiction of Buddha Sakyamuni, the historical buddha as a young man around age of 12
Disappeared in 1960's during the Cultural Revolution
1983 lower part found in rubbish heap, restored in 2003
Jowo Rinopche

Jokhang Temple, Tibet, 641

Inside the Jokhang temple which is Tibet’s earliest and greatest Buddhist temple, founded in 647 by the first ruler of a unified Tibet
Statue thought to have been blessed by the Buddha himself, believed to have been crafted in India during his lifetime
Depiction of Buddha Sakyamuni, the historical buddha as a young man around age of 12
Disappeared in 1960’s during the Cultural Revolution
1983 lower part found in rubbish heap, restored in 2003

Buddha 
Bamiyan, Afghanistan, 400-800 C.E. destroyed in 2001, cut rock with polychrome paint
Bamiyan is a city at the western end of the silk road, trading/religious center
Two huge Buddhas 175 ft tall and 115 ft tall
First colossal buddhas made
Niche is shaped like a halo or mandorla around his body
Small Buddha: Sakyamuni, historical buddha
Larger Buddha: Vairocana, universal Buddha
Originally covered in pigment with gold
Cavle galleries weave through the cliff face, some have wall paintings and images of the seated buddha
Pilgrims can walk through the galleries into passages that lead to the level of the Buddha's shoulders
Models for later large scale rock images of the buddha in China
Destroyed by the Taliban in an act of iconoclasm in 2001
Buddha

Bamiyan, Afghanistan, 400-800 C.E. destroyed in 2001, cut rock with polychrome paint

Bamiyan is a city at the western end of the silk road, trading/religious center
Two huge Buddhas 175 ft tall and 115 ft tall
First colossal buddhas made
Niche is shaped like a halo or mandorla around his body
Small Buddha: Sakyamuni, historical buddha
Larger Buddha: Vairocana, universal Buddha
Originally covered in pigment with gold
Cavle galleries weave through the cliff face, some have wall paintings and images of the seated buddha
Pilgrims can walk through the galleries into passages that lead to the level of the Buddha’s shoulders
Models for later large scale rock images of the buddha in China
Destroyed by the Taliban in an act of iconoclasm in 2001

Dome of the Rock
691-692, stone masonry/wood roof decorated with ceramic tile, mosaics, aluminum/bronze dome
Domed wooden octagon
Influenced by previous centrally planned buildings/churches
Columns taken form Roman monuments
Sacred rock where Adam was buried, Abraham nearly sacrificed Issac, Muhammad ascended to heaven, 
Rock enclosed by two ambulatories 
Meant to rival Christian church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, but its dome was inspired by that Church
Mosaics use vegetative forms instead of iconography
Mosaic Arabic calligraphy encourages Muslims to embrace Allah as only god, shows that Christian trinity is polytheistc belief
Oldest surviving Quran verses, first use of Quran verses in architecture
Pilgrimage site for the faithful
Constructed by Abd al-Malilk, caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty
Dome of the Rock

691-692, stone masonry/wood roof decorated with ceramic tile, mosaics, aluminum/bronze dome

Domed wooden octagon
Influenced by previous centrally planned buildings/churches
Columns taken form Roman monuments
Sacred rock where Adam was buried, Abraham nearly sacrificed Issac, Muhammad ascended to heaven,
Rock enclosed by two ambulatories
Meant to rival Christian church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, but its dome was inspired by that Church
Mosaics use vegetative forms instead of iconography
Mosaic Arabic calligraphy encourages Muslims to embrace Allah as only god, shows that Christian trinity is polytheistc belief
Oldest surviving Quran verses, first use of Quran verses in architecture
Pilgrimage site for the faithful
Constructed by Abd al-Malilk, caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty

Know interior as well
Folio from a Qur'an
North Africa, Abbasid, 8-9 century, ink on gold parchment
Arabic meant to be read from right to left like Hebrew
Kufic Script: Strong uprights and long horizontals
Clarity in the text as many readers read the book at once
Consonants are scripted, vowels indicated by dots or markings around the other letters
Qurans were compiled and codified in the mid 7th century, but the earlies surviving Quran was from the 9th century like this one
Folio from a Qur’an

North Africa, Abbasid, 8-9 century, ink on gold parchment

Arabic meant to be read from right to left like Hebrew
Kufic Script: Strong uprights and long horizontals
Clarity in the text as many readers read the book at once
Consonants are scripted, vowels indicated by dots or markings around the other letters
Qurans were compiled and codified in the mid 7th century, but the earlies surviving Quran was from the 9th century like this one

Basin (Baptistere de St. Louis)
Muhammad ibn al-Zain, 1320-1340, brass inlaid with gold/silver
Artist signed 6 times showing how proud he was of creating this work
Created by Mamluks during their rule of Egypt
Originally used for washing ones hands before official ceremonies
Later used as a bowl for holding water of French baptisms
Side of bowl has 4 figures in medallions that apear to be hunting or going into battle
Top bowl shows figures alternating between hunting and fighting as they march towards a ruler on either side of the bowl
Bottom of bowl shows aquatic animals like fish, eels, etc.
Basin (Baptistere de St. Louis)

Muhammad ibn al-Zain, 1320-1340, brass inlaid with gold/silver

Artist signed 6 times showing how proud he was of creating this work
Created by Mamluks during their rule of Egypt
Originally used for washing ones hands before official ceremonies
Later used as a bowl for holding water of French baptisms
Side of bowl has 4 figures in medallions that apear to be hunting or going into battle
Top bowl shows figures alternating between hunting and fighting as they march towards a ruler on either side of the bowl
Bottom of bowl shows aquatic animals like fish, eels, etc.

Bahram Gur Fights the Karg Folio from Great Il'Khanid Shanama
Islamic/Persian, Il'Khanid,1330-1340, ink/opaque watercolor, gold/silver on paper
Whole book has 258 illustrated pages
large painted surface area, calligraphy no longer as prevalent
Large areas of flat color
Spatial recession indicated by overlapping planes
Atmospheric perspective seen with light blue background Bahram bur was ancient Iranian king from the Sassanians dynasty
Representts the ideal king as he wears a crown and golden halo
Karg is a unicorn he fought on his way to India
From the Book of Kings
Bahram Gur wears a garment of European fabric
Chinese landscape conventions can be seen in background
Bahram Gur Fights the Karg Folio from Great Il’Khanid Shanama
Islamic/Persian, Il’Khanid,1330-1340, ink/opaque watercolor, gold/silver on paper

Whole book has 258 illustrated pages
large painted surface area, calligraphy no longer as prevalent
Large areas of flat color
Spatial recession indicated by overlapping planes
Atmospheric perspective seen with light blue background Bahram bur was ancient Iranian king from the Sassanians dynasty
Representts the ideal king as he wears a crown and golden halo
Karg is a unicorn he fought on his way to India
From the Book of Kings
Bahram Gur wears a garment of European fabric
Chinese landscape conventions can be seen in background

Court of Gayumars , foli from Shanama
Sultan Muhammad, 1522-1525, ink/opaque watercolor, gold/silver on paper
Shanama is the Book of Kings, a Persian epic poem by Firdawsi telling the ancient history of Perisa
Whole book has 258 illustrated pages
This page shows the first king, Gayumars, enthroned before his community
Left shows son Siyamak, Right shows grandson Hushang
Court appears in semicircle below, wearing court attire (leopard skins)
Harmony between man and landscape 
Minute details presents but dont overcrowd the scene
Animals became tame upon the kings presence
Court of Gayumars , foli from Shanama

Sultan Muhammad, 1522-1525, ink/opaque watercolor, gold/silver on paper

Shanama is the Book of Kings, a Persian epic poem by Firdawsi telling the ancient history of Perisa
Whole book has 258 illustrated pages
This page shows the first king, Gayumars, enthroned before his community
Left shows son Siyamak, Right shows grandson Hushang
Court appears in semicircle below, wearing court attire (leopard skins)
Harmony between man and landscape
Minute details presents but dont overcrowd the scene

Animals became tame upon the kings presence

Ardabil Carpet
Maqsud of Kashan, 1539-1540 Silk/Wook
Oldest dated islamic carpet in existence
Part of a matching pair put in the funerary mosque of Shayik Safial-Din, 
Used as a prayer carpet, covered in geometric patterns,vegetative/floral forms 
Medallion in center represents the inside of the dome that was above it, and it had 16 pendentives
Masque lamps hang from two of the pendentives, one smaller and closer, while the other one is larger and farther away from the center
Corner squinches have pendants completing the feeling of looking into a dome
Wool carpet, woven by ten people, (probably men as women didnt weave in this period), importance of location and size of product shows men were the only ones who could be trusted to produce it
Ardabil Carpet

Maqsud of Kashan, 1539-1540 Silk/Wook

Oldest dated islamic carpet in existence
Part of a matching pair put in the funerary mosque of Shayik Safial-Din,
Used as a prayer carpet, covered in geometric patterns,vegetative/floral forms
Medallion in center represents the inside of the dome that was above it, and it had 16 pendentives
Masque lamps hang from two of the pendentives, one smaller and closer, while the other one is larger and farther away from the center
Corner squinches have pendants completing the feeling of looking into a dome
Wool carpet, woven by ten people, (probably men as women didnt weave in this period), importance of location and size of product shows men were the only ones who could be trusted to produce it

Church of Sainte Foy Exterior 
Conques, France, Romanesque, 1050-1130, stone
Church built along the pilgrimage site to the Santiago de Compostela 
Church built to handle large number of people coming to view the relics housed there, has wide transept, large ambulatory and many radiating chapels
Massive heavy unornamented interior walls
No clerestory as barrel vaults were too heavy and required too much butressing so no room, but light provided by windows over side aisles and galleries
Barrel vaults fill the nave, reinforced by various transverse arches
Cross like ground plan
Church of Sainte Foy Exterior

Conques, France, Romanesque, 1050-1130, stone

Church built along the pilgrimage site to the Santiago de Compostela
Church built to handle large number of people coming to view the relics housed there, has wide transept, large ambulatory and many radiating chapels
Massive heavy unornamented interior walls
No clerestory as barrel vaults were too heavy and required too much butressing so no room, but light provided by windows over side aisles and galleries
Barrel vaults fill the nave, reinforced by various transverse arches
Cross like ground plan

Church of Sainte Foy The Last Judgement
Largest Romanesque tympanum 
Christ as a strict judge, dividing the world between those going to heaven verss those going to hell
Christs welcoming right hand, cast down left hand
Dividing line runs vertically through the cross in the middle of the composition
Archangel Michael and devil at christs feet, weighing the souls
Hell with damned on right, saved on left, people enter the church on the right and exit saved on the left
Subject of typanum reminds pilgrims of the whole point behind their pilgrimage (salvation)
124 figures richly painted, densely packed together
Saved move towards Christ, Mary/ St. Peter in the lead
Paradise on lower left portrayed as heavenly Jerusalem
In left triangle, arches of Conques Abbey with dangling chaines
Sainte Foy interceded for those enslaved by Muslims in Spain, she appears keeling before a giant hand of Christ
Right lower level, devil presides over a chaotic tangle of tortured condemned sinners
Church of Sainte Foy The Last Judgement

Largest Romanesque tympanum
Christ as a strict judge, dividing the world between those going to heaven verss those going to hell
Christs welcoming right hand, cast down left hand
Dividing line runs vertically through the cross in the middle of the composition
Archangel Michael and devil at christs feet, weighing the souls
Hell with damned on right, saved on left, people enter the church on the right and exit saved on the left
Subject of typanum reminds pilgrims of the whole point behind their pilgrimage (salvation)
124 figures richly painted, densely packed together
Saved move towards Christ, Mary/ St. Peter in the lead
Paradise on lower left portrayed as heavenly Jerusalem
In left triangle, arches of Conques Abbey with dangling chaines
Sainte Foy interceded for those enslaved by Muslims in Spain, she appears keeling before a giant hand of Christ
Right lower level, devil presides over a chaotic tangle of tortured condemned sinners

Church of Sainte Foy
Conques, France, Romanesque, 1050-1130, stone
Church built along the pilgrimage site to the Santiago de Compostela 
Church built to handle large number of people coming to view the relics housed there, has wide transept, large ambulatory and many radiating chapels
Massive heavy unornamented interior walls
No clerestory as barrel vaults were too heavy and required too much butressing so no room, but light provided by windows over side aisles and galleries
Barrel vaults fill the nave, reinforced by various transverse arches
Cross like ground plan
Church of Sainte Foy

Conques, France, Romanesque, 1050-1130, stone

Church built along the pilgrimage site to the Santiago de Compostela
Church built to handle large number of people coming to view the relics housed there, has wide transept, large ambulatory and many radiating chapels
Massive heavy unornamented interior walls
No clerestory as barrel vaults were too heavy and required too much butressing so no room, but light provided by windows over side aisles and galleries
Barrel vaults fill the nave, reinforced by various transverse arches
Cross like ground plan

Reliquary of Saint Foy
9th century C.E., gold silver, gemstones, enamel over wood
Reliquary of a young girl martyred in the early fourth century; she refused to sacrificeto the Roman gods in a pagan ritual
Relics of her body stolen fora nearby town and enthroned in the Conques in 866
One of the earliest large scale sculpture in the Middle Ages
Jewels, gems, crown added over the years by the faithful
Childs skull is housed in the rather masculine looking enlarged head
Reliquary of Saint Foy

9th century C.E., gold silver, gemstones, enamel over wood

Reliquary of a young girl martyred in the early fourth century; she refused to sacrificeto the Roman gods in a pagan ritual
Relics of her body stolen fora nearby town and enthroned in the Conques in 866
One of the earliest large scale sculpture in the Middle Ages
Jewels, gems, crown added over the years by the faithful
Childs skull is housed in the rather masculine looking enlarged head

Bayeux Tapestry
Romanesque, English/Norman, 1066-1080, Embroidery on linen
Not actually a tapestry, its a embroidery
Commisioned by Bishop Odo, half brother of William the Conqueror
Tells story of William's conquest of England at Battle of Hastings in 1066
Probably designed by a man, executed by a woman of the court
Imaginative creatures on both the upper and lower registers
Borders used to comment on main scens or show scenes of everyday life
Color used in a non-natural manner, different parts of horse are colored variously
Neutral background
Flatness of figures, no shadowing
Influence of Column of Trajan similarly showing how Trajan conquered the Dacians
75 scenes with over 600 people
230 feeet long, continues tradition of narrative in medieval art
Bayeux Tapestry

Romanesque, English/Norman, 1066-1080, Embroidery on linen

Not actually a tapestry, its a embroidery
Commisioned by Bishop Odo, half brother of William the Conqueror
Tells story of William’s conquest of England at Battle of Hastings in 1066
Probably designed by a man, executed by a woman of the court
Imaginative creatures on both the upper and lower registers
Borders used to comment on main scens or show scenes of everyday life
Color used in a non-natural manner, different parts of horse are colored variously
Neutral background
Flatness of figures, no shadowing
Influence of Column of Trajan similarly showing how Trajan conquered the Dacians
75 scenes with over 600 people
230 feeet long, continues tradition of narrative in medieval art

Chartres Cathedral
Started in 1145; fire in 1194 forced reconstruction of everything except the facade
Dedicated to Mary, Cult of Mary very important in Gothic
Mary's tunic worn at Jesus's birth most sacred relic, escaped the fire and was seen as signal to rebuild the cathedral
Right spire is 1160, left spire late gothic 1507, more elaborate 
Importance of church reflected in speed of construction, only 26 years
Enlarged chevet accomodated elaborate church ceremonies
Tall vertical nature of the interior pulls viewers eye up towards heaven
Dark mysterious interior increases spiritual feeling
Stained glass enlivens the interior
Chartres Cathedral

Started in 1145; fire in 1194 forced reconstruction of everything except the facade
Dedicated to Mary, Cult of Mary very important in Gothic
Mary’s tunic worn at Jesus’s birth most sacred relic, escaped the fire and was seen as signal to rebuild the cathedral
Right spire is 1160, left spire late gothic 1507, more elaborate
Importance of church reflected in speed of construction, only 26 years
Enlarged chevet accomodated elaborate church ceremonies
Tall vertical nature of the interior pulls viewers eye up towards heaven
Dark mysterious interior increases spiritual feeling
Stained glass enlivens the interior

Chartres Cathedral
Started in 1145; fire in 1194 forced reconstruction of everything except the facade
Dedicated to Mary, Cult of Mary very important in Gothic
Mary's tunic worn at Jesus's birth most sacred relic, escaped the fire and was seen as signal to rebuild the cathedral
Right spire is 1160, left spire late gothic 1507, more elaborate 
Importance of church reflected in speed of construction, only 26 years
Enlarged chevet accomodated elaborate church ceremonies
Tall vertical nature of the interior pulls viewers eye up towards heaven
Dark mysterious interior increases spiritual feeling
Stained glass enlivens the interior
Rose Window
Chartres Cathedral

Started in 1145; fire in 1194 forced reconstruction of everything except the facade
Dedicated to Mary, Cult of Mary very important in Gothic
Mary’s tunic worn at Jesus’s birth most sacred relic, escaped the fire and was seen as signal to rebuild the cathedral
Right spire is 1160, left spire late gothic 1507, more elaborate
Importance of church reflected in speed of construction, only 26 years
Enlarged chevet accomodated elaborate church ceremonies
Tall vertical nature of the interior pulls viewers eye up towards heaven
Dark mysterious interior increases spiritual feeling
Stained glass enlivens the interior
Rose Window

Chartres Cathedral Great Portal of West Facade
Royal portal because jamb figures depict Old Testament kings/queens, connection between french and biblical royal
Portals used by church hierarchy not common folk
Jamb statues in front of wall, almost fully rounded different from Romanesque figures that are flat
Jamb figures very long and linear, anatomical inaccurate
Upright, rigid, elongated figures reflect vertical columns behind, vertical nature of building
Rich courtly dress and vertical folds
Humanized individualized faces
Central typanum- Christ as Judge of the World (Last Judgement)
Left Typanum- Christs Ascenion
Right Tympanum- Christ on Virgins Lap
Rose Window
Chartres Cathedral Great Portal of West Facade

Royal portal because jamb figures depict Old Testament kings/queens, connection between french and biblical royal
Portals used by church hierarchy not common folk
Jamb statues in front of wall, almost fully rounded different from Romanesque figures that are flat
Jamb figures very long and linear, anatomical inaccurate
Upright, rigid, elongated figures reflect vertical columns behind, vertical nature of building
Rich courtly dress and vertical folds
Humanized individualized faces
Central typanum- Christ as Judge of the World (Last Judgement)
Left Typanum- Christs Ascenion
Right Tympanum- Christ on Virgins Lap
Rose Window

Chartres Cathedral Interior
High Gothic Style after the fire of 1194 burned it down
Nave Arcade
Triforium (small banded arcade)
Clerestory (Large stained glass lancets allow lots of light on to the nave)
Sexpartite rib vaults, new innovation of gothic allow for the clerestory, put all weight on the composite piers and flying butresses over the aisles 
Pointed arches futher opened the nave and allowed it to be taller 
Large chevet for elaborate ceremonies 
Large rose window allows for even more light
Chartres Cathedral Interior

High Gothic Style after the fire of 1194 burned it down
Nave Arcade
Triforium (small banded arcade)
Clerestory (Large stained glass lancets allow lots of light on to the nave)
Sexpartite rib vaults, new innovation of gothic allow for the clerestory, put all weight on the composite piers and flying butresses over the aisles
Pointed arches futher opened the nave and allowed it to be taller
Large chevet for elaborate ceremonies
Large rose window allows for even more light

Chartres Cathedral Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere Window
Mary crowned as Queen of Heaven with Christ child on her lap
Light as a manifestation of the divine, shades color patterns across the grey stone of the cathedral 
Part of a lancet window 
Undamaged by the fire of 1194, reset with framing angles on either side of the main scene after reconstruction
Bar tracery as bars go across the window to provide support
Chartres Cathedral Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere Window

Mary crowned as Queen of Heaven with Christ child on her lap
Light as a manifestation of the divine, shades color patterns across the grey stone of the cathedral
Part of a lancet window
Undamaged by the fire of 1194, reset with framing angles on either side of the main scene after reconstruction
Bar tracery as bars go across the window to provide support

Chatres Cathedral Plan
Chatres Cathedral Plan
Dedication page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bible Moralisees
Scenes from the Apocalypse:
Eight medallion format derives from stained glass windows
Two vertical columns of four painted scenes
Each scene has text with summary of the event depicted
Blance of Castile and King Louis IX:
Moralized bible
Top left: Blanche of Castile, mother and regent to king
Top right: teenage King Louis IX
Bottom: Older monk dicatates what his younger apprentice is painting
Luminosity of stained glass windows, strong black outlining forms
minimal modeling
Dedication page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bible Moralisees

Scenes from the Apocalypse:
Eight medallion format derives from stained glass windows
Two vertical columns of four painted scenes
Each scene has text with summary of the event depicted

Blance of Castile and King Louis IX:
Moralized bible
Top left: Blanche of Castile, mother and regent to king
Top right: teenage King Louis IX
Bottom: Older monk dicatates what his younger apprentice is painting
Luminosity of stained glass windows, strong black outlining forms
minimal modeling

Rottgen Pieta
1300-1325, Painted wood , Germany
Used for private devotion
Christ emaciated, drained of all blood, tissue, and muscle
Horror of crucifixion manifest
Humanizing religious themes
Grape like drops of Christs blood at reference to the mystical vineyard
Rottgen Pieta

1300-1325, Painted wood , Germany

Used for private devotion
Christ emaciated, drained of all blood, tissue, and muscle
Horror of crucifixion manifest
Humanizing religious themes
Grape like drops of Christs blood at reference to the mystical vineyard

Arena Chapel Exterior
Padua Italy, Architect unknown, Chapel 1303, Brick
Called Arena chapel as it was built over an ancient Roman arena
Scrovegni was wealthy man who commisioned it
Built to counter act the sin Scrovegni's father recieved as he was a banker
Arena Chapel Exterior

Padua Italy, Architect unknown, Chapel 1303, Brick

Called Arena chapel as it was built over an ancient Roman arena
Scrovegni was wealthy man who commisioned it
Built to counter act the sin Scrovegni’s father recieved as he was a banker

Arena Chapel interior, Frescoes, Giotto
Frescoes divided into 3 different sections from top to bottom: Pre-Christ (LIfe of Joachim, Anna, and daughter Mary), Life of Christ, Passion (Ends of his life/death)
Christ often shown in profile similar to how Roman emperors were depicted on coins
Arena Chapel interior, Frescoes, Giotto

Frescoes divided into 3 different sections from top to bottom: Pre-Christ (LIfe of Joachim, Anna, and daughter Mary), Life of Christ, Passion (Ends of his life/death)
Christ often shown in profile similar to how Roman emperors were depicted on coins

Lamentation
Giotto, Fresco, 1305, Maniera Greca
Shows the scene of Jesus's followers mourning his death, including Mary, St. John, Mary Magdalene
Mary holds Jesus head, Magdalene holds Jesus feet
Left shows the old testament scene of Jonah being swallowed by the wahle and returning to life, parrallels with New Testament scene of Christ dying and coming back to life
Stage created for figures as they picture space is very shallow
Diagonal cliff brings attention to Christ's head and at other end is the tree of life 
Use of light and shadow to create mass and weight in the figures
Heavy emotions are present
Sadness emphasized by the grieving figures and angels above
Figures have halos around them showing their divinity
Space constructed with triangles symbolizing the holy trinity
Lamentation
Giotto, Fresco, 1305, Maniera Greca
Shows the scene of Jesus’s followers mourning his death, including Mary, St. John, Mary Magdalene
Mary holds Jesus head, Magdalene holds Jesus feet
Left shows the old testament scene of Jonah being swallowed by the wahle and returning to life, parrallels with New Testament scene of Christ dying and coming back to life
Stage created for figures as they picture space is very shallow
Diagonal cliff brings attention to Christ’s head and at other end is the tree of life
Use of light and shadow to create mass and weight in the figures
Heavy emotions are present
Sadness emphasized by the grieving figures and angels above
Figures have halos around them showing their divinity
Space constructed with triangles symbolizing the holy trinity
Remember the border around it and what it is depicting
Golden Haggadah
Late Medieval Spain, Illuminated Manuscript, Pigment on Vellum
Illustrates the stroy of the Jewish exodus from Egypt under Moses and the following celebration
Meant to be read on the first two nights of Passover
Used to tell the story of the Jewish escape as a reminder of Gods mercy
Narrative from the Book of Genesis and Exodus
This type of Haggadah used primarily for private worship
The most lavishly decorated manuscripts in Jewish tradition
Illustrated by two Christians, written by a Jewish scribe in Hebrew
Similar to French gothic manuscripts with the handling of space, architecture, figure style, facial expression, medium
Done in Barcelona reigon
Book read right to left as this was common for hebrew text
Thought to break the commandment of no graven images but it was used for educational purposes so it was allowed
Golden Haggadah

Late Medieval Spain, Illuminated Manuscript, Pigment on Vellum

Illustrates the stroy of the Jewish exodus from Egypt under Moses and the following celebration
Meant to be read on the first two nights of Passover
Used to tell the story of the Jewish escape as a reminder of Gods mercy
Narrative from the Book of Genesis and Exodus
This type of Haggadah used primarily for private worship
The most lavishly decorated manuscripts in Jewish tradition
Illustrated by two Christians, written by a Jewish scribe in Hebrew
Similar to French gothic manuscripts with the handling of space, architecture, figure style, facial expression, medium
Done in Barcelona reigon
Book read right to left as this was common for hebrew text
Thought to break the commandment of no graven images but it was used for educational purposes so it was allowed

Alhambra
1354-1391
Palace of the Narid sultans in Southern Spain
Light airy interior, fortress like exterior
Built on a hill overlooking Granada
Contains palaces, gardens, water pools, fountains, courtyards
Small low bubbling fountains in each room helps cool temperatures during the summer
Alhambra
1354-1391
Palace of the Narid sultans in Southern Spain
Light airy interior, fortress like exterior
Built on a hill overlooking Granada
Contains palaces, gardens, water pools, fountains, courtyards
Small low bubbling fountains in each room helps cool temperatures during the summer
Court of the Lions
Thin columns support heavy roofs, gives feeling of weightlessness
Intricately patterned with geometric tessalations, sculpted ceilings and walls
Central fountain supported by protective lions, animal imagery allowed, not people
Parts of walls are chiseled through to allow light to pass through them to create patterns
Court of the Lions

Thin columns support heavy roofs, gives feeling of weightlessness
Intricately patterned with geometric tessalations, sculpted ceilings and walls
Central fountain supported by protective lions, animal imagery allowed, not people
Parts of walls are chiseled through to allow light to pass through them to create patterns

Hall of Sisters Alhambra
Sixteen windows at top of hall, light dissolves into honeycomb patterns shining from the ceiling
Abstract geometric patterns and forms
5000 Muqarnas refract light
Sophisticated and refined interior
Used a reception or music room
Hall of Sisters Alhambra

Sixteen windows at top of hall, light dissolves into honeycomb patterns shining from the ceiling
Abstract geometric patterns and forms
5000 Muqarnas refract light
Sophisticated and refined interior
Used a reception or music room

Plan of the Alhambra
Plan of the Alhambra
Anunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)

Robert Campin, Oil on Wood, 1427-1432

Left panel shows the donors who were of the middle class kneeling before the holy scene in front of them, wife was added later as the donor got married
Center panel shows the Annunciation taking place in a typical Flemish house hold meant to bring the viewer closer to the divine
Right shows Joseph as a carpenter in his workshop
Figures are humanized and their surroundings make them appear even more human-like
Close attention to detail in all aspects of the work
Oil allowed the painter to show texture and varying degrees of shine
Perspective is not mathematically correct as the ground line is too steep and figures too large for the space

Symbols:
Basin in background along with towel/water/lilies shows Mary’s purity
Flowers have 3 buds for the holy trinity, unopened bud is the unborn Christ
Mary blocks fireplace, entrance to hell
Figure with cross entering from the window is the holy spirit and is heading straight for mary, is the human version of god

Pazzi Chapel
Florence Italy, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1429-1461, Mansonry
Rectangular chapel attached to the Church of Santa Croce
Two barrel vaults on either side of a central dome with an oculus 
Interior has restrained color palette with muted tones but also has vibrantly glazed terra-cotta tiles
It was the chapter house for the Fransican monks at the time
Perfectly symmetrical, 3 corinthian columns on either side of the facade
Pazzi Chapel

Florence Italy, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1429-1461, Mansonry

Rectangular chapel attached to the Church of Santa Croce
Two barrel vaults on either side of a central dome with an oculus
Interior has restrained color palette with muted tones but also has vibrantly glazed terra-cotta tiles
It was the chapter house for the Fransican monks at the time
Perfectly symmetrical, 3 corinthian columns on either side of the facade

Pazzi Chapel Interior
Florence Italy, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1429-1461, Mansonry
Rectangular chapel attached to the Church of Santa Croce
Two barrel vaults on either side of a central dome with an oculus 
Interior has restrained color palette with muted tones but also has vibrantly glazed terra-cotta tiles
It was the chapter house for the Fransican monks at the time
Perfectly symmetrical, 3 corinthian columns on either side of the facade
Pazzi Chapel Interior

Florence Italy, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1429-1461, Mansonry

Rectangular chapel attached to the Church of Santa Croce
Two barrel vaults on either side of a central dome with an oculus
Interior has restrained color palette with muted tones but also has vibrantly glazed terra-cotta tiles
It was the chapter house for the Fransican monks at the time
Perfectly symmetrical, 3 corinthian columns on either side of the facade

Arnolfini Portrait
Jan Van Eyck, Oil on Wood, 1434
Origianally thought to be a wedding portrait
Symbols of Wedding:
Custom of burning candle on first night of wedding
Shoes off indicates they are on holy ground
Prayerful promising pose as the man holds the woman and protects her
Dog symbolizes the females fidelity
Two witnesses of the event are seen through a mirror in the back of the room
Wife pulls up dress making it seem like she is pregnant, but she actually is not
Statue of St. Margaret patron on childbirth is on the bedpost
Man appears near window symbolzing his role as a busniessman working in the outside world
Woman further inside symbolizing her duties in the household
Oranges on window sill symbol of wealth
Great attention to detail enabled by the use of oil 
Use of properties of light that van eyck specialized in using, figures have shading on their faces/bodies to create depth and volume
Arnolfini Portrait

Jan Van Eyck, Oil on Wood, 1434

Origianally thought to be a wedding portrait
Symbols of Wedding:
Custom of burning candle on first night of wedding
Shoes off indicates they are on holy ground
Prayerful promising pose as the man holds the woman and protects her
Dog symbolizes the females fidelity
Two witnesses of the event are seen through a mirror in the back of the room
Wife pulls up dress making it seem like she is pregnant, but she actually is not
Statue of St. Margaret patron on childbirth is on the bedpost
Man appears near window symbolzing his role as a busniessman working in the outside world
Woman further inside symbolizing her duties in the household
Oranges on window sill symbol of wealth
Great attention to detail enabled by the use of oil
Use of properties of light that van eyck specialized in using, figures have shading on their faces/bodies to create depth and volume

David
Donatello, Bronze, 1440-1460
First free standing nude sculpture since classical antiquity
Return to the love of the body and bodily features
Exaggerated contrapposto shown giving dynamism and life size work probably for the Medici 
Young david with androgynous erotic features
Looks down suggesting humility and no confidence in himself
Head of Goliath at his feet
Laurel on hat shows he was a poet
Shows Florentine dominance over Milan in a recent war
David

Donatello, Bronze, 1440-1460

First free standing nude sculpture since classical antiquity
Return to the love of the body and bodily features
Exaggerated contrapposto shown giving dynamism and life size work probably for the Medici
Young david with androgynous erotic features
Looks down suggesting humility and no confidence in himself
Head of Goliath at his feet
Laurel on hat shows he was a poet
Shows Florentine dominance over Milan in a recent war

Palazzo Rucellai
Florence Italy, Leon Battista Alberti, 1450, Stone masonry
Comissioned by the Giovanni Ruccelai to compete the the Palazzo Medici recently constructed
Tripartite design taken from the colesseum with tuscan, ionic, and corinthian pilasters
Pilasters rise veritcally dividing the space into square shapes
Detailed entablature with a frieze divides each story
Frieze contains symbols of the Ruccelai family such as the billowing sails
Large cornice caps the building
Beveled masonry joints used instead of rusticated masonry seen in past buildings
Windows are square on first floor, then they have mullions on the 2nd/3rd floors
Use of humanistic values in its construction
Palazzo Rucellai

Florence Italy, Leon Battista Alberti, 1450, Stone masonry

Comissioned by the Giovanni Ruccelai to compete the the Palazzo Medici recently constructed
Tripartite design taken from the colesseum with tuscan, ionic, and corinthian pilasters
Pilasters rise veritcally dividing the space into square shapes
Detailed entablature with a frieze divides each story
Frieze contains symbols of the Ruccelai family such as the billowing sails
Large cornice caps the building
Beveled masonry joints used instead of rusticated masonry seen in past buildings
Windows are square on first floor, then they have mullions on the 2nd/3rd floors
Use of humanistic values in its construction

Madonna and Child with Two Angels
Fra Filippo Lippi, Tempera on Wood, 1465
Mary seen as young, human, beautiful woman/mother
Landscape done with atmospheric perspective inspired by Flemish painting
Rock formations indicate a church, city near the virgins head is Heavenly Jerusalem
Mary has a head dress of pearls commonly used as symbols in the depiction of the immaculate conception
Halos reduced to thin lines circling the virgin, and christs head
Angels very human like and playful
Shown as if looking through a window in a home
Humanization of a sacred theme
Madonna and Child with Two Angels

Fra Filippo Lippi, Tempera on Wood, 1465

Mary seen as young, human, beautiful woman/mother
Landscape done with atmospheric perspective inspired by Flemish painting
Rock formations indicate a church, city near the virgins head is Heavenly Jerusalem
Mary has a head dress of pearls commonly used as symbols in the depiction of the immaculate conception
Halos reduced to thin lines circling the virgin, and christs head
Angels very human like and playful
Shown as if looking through a window in a home
Humanization of a sacred theme

Birth of Venus
Sandro Boticelli, Tempera on Canvas, 1484-1486
Student of Fra Fillipo Lippi
Venus emerges fully grown from the sea on a shell
Roses are scattered in front of her as they were made at the same time as she was` showing that love can be painful
Left shows Zephyr (the west wind) and Chloris (a nymph) 
Right shows handmaiden rushing to cloth venus,
Figures float upwards towards the heavens and arent anchored to the ground
Clear, crisp figures with pale colors 
Simple unrealistic landscape composed solely of v-shaped waves
Commisioned by the medici
Venus born as her father Cronos cast his genitals into the sea from which she is born and fully grown
Birth of Venus
Sandro Boticelli, Tempera on Canvas, 1484-1486
Student of Fra Fillipo Lippi
Venus emerges fully grown from the sea on a shell
Roses are scattered in front of her as they were made at the same time as she was` showing that love can be painful
Left shows Zephyr (the west wind) and Chloris (a nymph)
Right shows handmaiden rushing to cloth venus,
Figures float upwards towards the heavens and arent anchored to the ground
Clear, crisp figures with pale colors
Simple unrealistic landscape composed solely of v-shaped waves
Commisioned by the medici
Venus born as her father Cronos cast his genitals into the sea from which she is born and fully grown
Last Supper
Da Vinci, Oil on Tempera, Santa Maria dell Grazie Milan, 1484-1498
Commisioned by the Sforza of Milan for the refectory/dining hall of a dominican abbey
Friars could eat in relation to the biblical meal presented
Linear perspective present with orthogonals from the ceiling and floor leading to a point behind Christ's head
Apostles grouped in 3, Jesus is alone but before a group of 3 windows representing the holy trinity
Combination of many types of paint to achieve a chiaroscuro effect, but this caused the paint to eventually peel off the wall so it has been restored many times
Moment where Jesus announces one of his apostles will betray him 
Reaches towards a piece of bread and glass of wine telling his apostles to take the each for they are his body and blood
Halos no longer present during the High Renaissance 
Very dramatic as each apostle responds differently to the situation presented
Last Supper

Da Vinci, Oil on Tempera, Santa Maria dell Grazie Milan, 1484-1498

Commisioned by the Sforza of Milan for the refectory/dining hall of a dominican abbey
Friars could eat in relation to the biblical meal presented
Linear perspective present with orthogonals from the ceiling and floor leading to a point behind Christ’s head
Apostles grouped in 3, Jesus is alone but before a group of 3 windows representing the holy trinity
Combination of many types of paint to achieve a chiaroscuro effect, but this caused the paint to eventually peel off the wall so it has been restored many times
Moment where Jesus announces one of his apostles will betray him
Reaches towards a piece of bread and glass of wine telling his apostles to take the each for they are his body and blood
Halos no longer present during the High Renaissance
Very dramatic as each apostle responds differently to the situation presented

Adam and Eve
Albrect Durer, Engraving, 1504
Shows how Durer has mastered the use of engraving as he expertly displayed detail and many different textures
Heavily influenced by classical sculpture as they figures exemplify the ideal aesthetic of humans before the fall of man
Contrapposto pose present
Four humors present each represented by an animal, choleric cat, sanguine rabbit, melancholic elk, phlegmatic ox; all in balance before the fall of man
Snake represents Satan as it tries to have Eve take the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, has 4 thorns in its head representing the crown of thorns Christ wore on his way to his crucifixion
Parrot represents cleverness 
Picture space centered around Tree of Knowledge 
Plaque the adam holds shows that Durer made it in 15041
Adam and Eve
Albrect Durer, Engraving, 1504
Shows how Durer has mastered the use of engraving as he expertly displayed detail and many different textures
Heavily influenced by classical sculpture as they figures exemplify the ideal aesthetic of humans before the fall of man
Contrapposto pose present
Four humors present each represented by an animal, choleric cat, sanguine rabbit, melancholic elk, phlegmatic ox; all in balance before the fall of man
Snake represents Satan as it tries to have Eve take the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, has 4 thorns in its head representing the crown of thorns Christ wore on his way to his crucifixion
Parrot represents cleverness
Picture space centered around Tree of Knowledge
Plaque the adam holds shows that Durer made it in 15041
Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541
Sistine chapel erected in 1472 painted by Botticelli, Perugino, Ghirlandaio, and Michelangelo
Used as the place where new popes were to be elected
Michelangelo chose complicated arrangements of figures for the ceiling that illustrated the first chapters of Genesis along with Old testament figures
300 figures on ceiling, all in different poses
Michelangelos obession with the male nude in motion is preeminent
Varying expressions amongst the figures
Painted cornices frame each group of figures is an organized manner
Many figues displayed such as Ignudi dont have a narrative purpose, but are placed to increase artistic expression
Acorns heavily present as they are a symbol on the crest of the buildings patron, Pope Julius II
Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541

Sistine chapel erected in 1472 painted by Botticelli, Perugino, Ghirlandaio, and Michelangelo
Used as the place where new popes were to be elected
Michelangelo chose complicated arrangements of figures for the ceiling that illustrated the first chapters of Genesis along with Old testament figures
300 figures on ceiling, all in different poses
Michelangelos obession with the male nude in motion is preeminent
Varying expressions amongst the figures
Painted cornices frame each group of figures is an organized manner
Many figues displayed such as Ignudi dont have a narrative purpose, but are placed to increase artistic expression
Acorns heavily present as they are a symbol on the crest of the buildings patron, Pope Julius II

Delphic Sibyl
Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541
One of the five sibyls (prophetess) on the ceiling 
She is a Greco-Roman figure whom Christians felt foretold the coming of Jesus Christ
Wears a Greek style turban
Turns head as if listening to something
Expression seems sorrowful
Contrapposto of body present despite being seated, dynamism as if she is about to get up
Holds the scroll containing her prophecy
Combo of Christian beliefs and pagan mythological imagery
Delphic Sibyl

Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541

One of the five sibyls (prophetess) on the ceiling
She is a Greco-Roman figure whom Christians felt foretold the coming of Jesus Christ
Wears a Greek style turban
Turns head as if listening to something
Expression seems sorrowful
Contrapposto of body present despite being seated, dynamism as if she is about to get up
Holds the scroll containing her prophecy
Combo of Christian beliefs and pagan mythological imagery

The Flood Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541
Story details Noah and his family escape of the rising flood waters as told in Genesis 7
Few remaining survivors cling to mountain tops 
Man carrying drowned son to safety will eventually drown too
Over 60 figures making for a crowded composition
Sculptural intensity of the figure style 
Ark in background is the only true safe haven
The Flood Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541

Story details Noah and his family escape of the rising flood waters as told in Genesis 7
Few remaining survivors cling to mountain tops
Man carrying drowned son to safety will eventually drown too
Over 60 figures making for a crowded composition
Sculptural intensity of the figure style
Ark in background is the only true safe haven

Sistine Chapel Exterior
Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541
Sistine Chapel Exterior

Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy, Ceiling frescoes 1508-1512, Altar frescoes, 1536-1541

Altar Fresco, Last Judgement
Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy,Altar frescoes, 1536-1541
Unlike the ceiling this is one large open space undivided, without cornices
Mannerist influence present with elongation/distortions of figures, and crowded groups
4 bands include:
Bottom- Dead rising from the mouth of hell
2- Ascending elect, descending sinners, trumpeting angels
3- Ones rising to heaven surround Jesus
Top- Angels carry the Cross and column used for Christs death
Christ is in the center in a complex pose defiantly gesturing with his right hand
Spiraling compostion goes against the high renaissance period and reflects the disunity of the Christian community caused by the reformation
Altar Fresco, Last Judgement

Michelangelo, Vatican City, Italy,Altar frescoes, 1536-1541

Unlike the ceiling this is one large open space undivided, without cornices
Mannerist influence present with elongation/distortions of figures, and crowded groups
4 bands include:
Bottom- Dead rising from the mouth of hell
2- Ascending elect, descending sinners, trumpeting angels
3- Ones rising to heaven surround Jesus
Top- Angels carry the Cross and column used for Christs death
Christ is in the center in a complex pose defiantly gesturing with his right hand
Spiraling compostion goes against the high renaissance period and reflects the disunity of the Christian community caused by the reformation

School of Athens
Raphael, 1509-1511, Fresco, Vatican Apartments
Comisioned by Pope Julius II to decorate his library, Philosophy cause books would be around it
One of the 4 frescoes, this representing Philosophy, the other Theology, Poetry, and Law; the subjects of the books in the papal library
Congregation of all the great Greek philosophers 
Open clear light uniformly spread throughout the composition
Nobility/Monumentality of forms parallels to the greatness of the figures shown
Figures shown making philisophical hand gestures
Center sees Plato pointing up and Aristotle pointing down
Bramante, the popes architect displayed in bottom right as Euclid
Raphael in the corner at the far right 
Michelangelo shown in foreground as Heraclitus as he is isolated from the groups
Figures are grouped together and compostion shows influence of Da Vinci's Last Supper
Two rows of figures, with their heads forming two perfectly straight horizontal lines
Orthogonals present meeting at a vanishing point between the heads of the central figures (linear perspective)
Members of each field (math, science,etc.) placed together
School of Athens

Raphael, 1509-1511, Fresco, Vatican Apartments

Comisioned by Pope Julius II to decorate his library, Philosophy cause books would be around it
One of the 4 frescoes, this representing Philosophy, the other Theology, Poetry, and Law; the subjects of the books in the papal library
Congregation of all the great Greek philosophers
Open clear light uniformly spread throughout the composition
Nobility/Monumentality of forms parallels to the greatness of the figures shown
Figures shown making philisophical hand gestures
Center sees Plato pointing up and Aristotle pointing down
Bramante, the popes architect displayed in bottom right as Euclid
Raphael in the corner at the far right
Michelangelo shown in foreground as Heraclitus as he is isolated from the groups
Figures are grouped together and compostion shows influence of Da Vinci’s Last Supper
Two rows of figures, with their heads forming two perfectly straight horizontal lines
Orthogonals present meeting at a vanishing point between the heads of the central figures (linear perspective)
Members of each field (math, science,etc.) placed together

Isenheim Altarpiece Closed
Put in a monastery next to a hospital that specialized in treating people for St. Anthony's fire, disease caused by eating fungus 
Explains St. Anthony's presence in the altar piece
Crucifixion shown in the middle at night which is uncommon
Christ's body shown is dead and decomposing, skin is ripping from his sockets
Hands facing upwards and fingers extended emphasizing the agony
Mary shown dressed as a nun in hands of St. John the evangelist
St. John the baptist shown pointing at Christs body
Lamb beneath the cross with crucifix in neck blood spilling out into a chalice symbolizing the blood of Christ
Predella shows lamentation and once again pain and suffering is emphasized in Christ
He would be amputated when the triptych opened
St. Sebastian on left, St. Anthony on right 
Matthias Grunewald, 1512-1516, Oil on Wood
Isenheim Altarpiece Closed

Put in a monastery next to a hospital that specialized in treating people for St. Anthony’s fire, disease caused by eating fungus
Explains St. Anthony’s presence in the altar piece
Crucifixion shown in the middle at night which is uncommon
Christ’s body shown is dead and decomposing, skin is ripping from his sockets
Hands facing upwards and fingers extended emphasizing the agony
Mary shown dressed as a nun in hands of St. John the evangelist
St. John the baptist shown pointing at Christs body
Lamb beneath the cross with crucifix in neck blood spilling out into a chalice symbolizing the blood of Christ
Predella shows lamentation and once again pain and suffering is emphasized in Christ
He would be amputated when the triptych opened
St. Sebastian on left, St. Anthony on right

Matthias Grunewald, 1512-1516, Oil on Wood

Isenheim Altarpiece Open
Matthias Grunewald, 1512-1516, Oil on Wood
Annunciation on the left
Mary holding baby Christ in center
Christ's spirit rising from the dead and his rags change to glorious robes showing that ones hardships in life will vanish in the next world
Isenheim Altarpiece Open

Matthias Grunewald, 1512-1516, Oil on Wood

Annunciation on the left
Mary holding baby Christ in center
Christ’s spirit rising from the dead and his rags change to glorious robes showing that ones hardships in life will vanish in the next world

Venus of Urbino
Titian, Oil on Wood 1522
Possibly not Venus but a courtesan or a prostitute dealing with the upper class
Sensuous detail present, light skin color shows a beautiful woman 
Complex spatial environment with figure flaced forward in the picture plain evident by the servants behind her and further an open window showing landscape
Roses contribute to the floral motif carried throughout the painting
Dog symbolizes fidelity and faithfulness
Soft application of color through process of glazing or applying many layers of paint contributes to the sensuality 
Servants in back shown searching inside a Cassoni or crate that holds clothing 
Figure looks directly at viewer showing confidence
Influenced future female nudes with reclining pose for hundreds of years
Proportions of body are slightly obscured, torso too long, feet too small
Use of chiaroscuro to make mass/volume in figure
Venus of Urbino

Titian, Oil on Wood 1522

Possibly not Venus but a courtesan or a prostitute dealing with the upper class
Sensuous detail present, light skin color shows a beautiful woman
Complex spatial environment with figure flaced forward in the picture plain evident by the servants behind her and further an open window showing landscape
Roses contribute to the floral motif carried throughout the painting
Dog symbolizes fidelity and faithfulness
Soft application of color through process of glazing or applying many layers of paint contributes to the sensuality
Servants in back shown searching inside a Cassoni or crate that holds clothing
Figure looks directly at viewer showing confidence
Influenced future female nudes with reclining pose for hundreds of years
Proportions of body are slightly obscured, torso too long, feet too small
Use of chiaroscuro to make mass/volume in figure

Entombment of Christ
Jacopo Pontormo,1525-1528, Oil on Wood
Circular composition with grouping of hands
Elongation of bodies (key to mannerism)
High keyed colors meant to counteract against the darkness of the chapel it was placed in
No ground line for many of the figures such as Mary who appears to be floating, Where is she sitting?
Some androgynous features present
No weeping just intense emotional expressions on the figures faces
Linear bodies that twist around each other make the elongations more clear
Anti-classical construction of composition, no central figure, no pyramidal structure, no balance, etc.
Called Entombment but there is no tomb and there are no symbols common to depiction of similar events to indicate what particular event is occurring
Emotions appear artificial and aren't human like as if faces are masks
Entombment of Christ

Jacopo Pontormo,1525-1528, Oil on Wood

Circular composition with grouping of hands
Elongation of bodies (key to mannerism)
High keyed colors meant to counteract against the darkness of the chapel it was placed in
No ground line for many of the figures such as Mary who appears to be floating, Where is she sitting?
Some androgynous features present
No weeping just intense emotional expressions on the figures faces
Linear bodies that twist around each other make the elongations more clear
Anti-classical construction of composition, no central figure, no pyramidal structure, no balance, etc.
Called Entombment but there is no tomb and there are no symbols common to depiction of similar events to indicate what particular event is occurring
Emotions appear artificial and aren’t human like as if faces are masks

Allegory of Law and Grace
Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1530, Woodcut
Done as propaganda for the Protestant Reformation done in contact with Martin Luther
Shows Luther ideal that one achieves salvation through gods grace
Left: Last Judgment
Moses holds the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments present represent the old law (Catholicism)
Law of Moses is not enough to live a good life
Skeleton chases a figure into hell
Right: Figure bathed in Christs blood
Shows that faith alone is all one needs to achieve salvation
Allegory of Law and Grace

Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1530, Woodcut

Done as propaganda for the Protestant Reformation done in contact with Martin Luther
Shows Luther ideal that one achieves salvation through gods grace

Left: Last Judgment
Moses holds the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments present represent the old law (Catholicism)
Law of Moses is not enough to live a good life
Skeleton chases a figure into hell

Right: Figure bathed in Christs blood
Shows that faith alone is all one needs to achieve salvation

Frontspiece of the Codex Mendoza
Viceroyality of New Spain, 1541-1542, Ink/Color on paper
Named after Antonio Mendoza, the viceroy of New Spain
Used as a history of the Aztecs for the Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire
Created 20 years after Spanish 
conquest
The codex held information regarding all aspects of Aztec life
Shows the daily life of Aztec rulers in Mexico
Uses pictograms created by Aztec artists that were annotated by the Spanish
Scene depicts the founding of Tenochtitlan and the conquest of the Colhuacan/Tenayucan (Native groups) at the bottom
Enemy temples are on fire while the Aztec warriors carry clubs/shields 
Small representation the Great Temple above the central eagle
Skulls represent the sacrificial victims of the Aztecs
Eagle landing on cactus at the intersection of two waterways show the division of Tenochtitlan into 4 quarters
Aztecs told by chief god to look for place to settle with a cactus growing from a rock with an eagle resting on it, found this at Lake Texcoco
Current Mexican flag has an eagle perched on a cactus resting on rock similar to that of this work
Frontspiece of the Codex Mendoza

Viceroyality of New Spain, 1541-1542, Ink/Color on paper

Named after Antonio Mendoza, the viceroy of New Spain
Used as a history of the Aztecs for the Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire
Created 20 years after Spanish
conquest
The codex held information regarding all aspects of Aztec life
Shows the daily life of Aztec rulers in Mexico
Uses pictograms created by Aztec artists that were annotated by the Spanish
Scene depicts the founding of Tenochtitlan and the conquest of the Colhuacan/Tenayucan (Native groups) at the bottom
Enemy temples are on fire while the Aztec warriors carry clubs/shields
Small representation the Great Temple above the central eagle
Skulls represent the sacrificial victims of the Aztecs
Eagle landing on cactus at the intersection of two waterways show the division of Tenochtitlan into 4 quarters
Aztecs told by chief god to look for place to settle with a cactus growing from a rock with an eagle resting on it, found this at Lake Texcoco
Current Mexican flag has an eagle perched on a cactus resting on rock similar to that of this work

Il Gesu Church
Rome, 1574-1584, Brick/Marble, Done by Giacomo Della Porta
Baroque
Principal church of the Jesuit church
Engaged column grouping put emphasis on doorway
Tympana and pediment put over a central door
Crescendo of forms moving to the center
Two stories separated by a cornice, but brought together by the scrolls at the edges
Framed niche with window acts as a unifying central element
One large space, no aisles, used for grand ceremonies
Il Gesu Church

Rome, 1574-1584, Brick/Marble, Done by Giacomo Della Porta

Baroque
Principal church of the Jesuit church
Engaged column grouping put emphasis on doorway
Tympana and pediment put over a central door
Crescendo of forms moving to the center
Two stories separated by a cornice, but brought together by the scrolls at the edges
Framed niche with window acts as a unifying central element
One large space, no aisles, used for grand ceremonies

Triumph in the name of Jesus from Il Gesu Church
On ceiling of the nave of Il Gesu church
Monogram of Jesus's
Triumph in the name of Jesus from Il Gesu Church

On ceiling of the nave of Il Gesu church
Monogram of Jesus’s “IHI” in a brilliantly lit sea of golden color
Figures tumbling below the name, some carved in stucco enhancing the 3-D effect
Some cast long shadows across the vaulted ceiling
Figures that are painted still maintain the 3-D illusion
As if ceiling were opening up to the sky and the figures are spiraling around the name of JEsus
Di soot in su, view from below looking up; visual illusion of space with trump l’oiel
Damned are cast into hell while the saved rise to heaven, a last judgement
Dramatic emotionalism

Hunters in the Snow
Pieter Brugel the Elder,1565,Oil on Wood
Impasto
One of a series of paintings representing the months, this being November/December
Alpine landscape covered with snow, winter scene
Strong diagonals lead the the eye deeper into the painting
Figures are not indivduals, peasant types/common people
Landscape has high horizon line, Northern Europen tradition/landscape
Many details, constant motion, nothing is static
Hunters have very little success in winter hunt, dogs are skinny and hand their heads
Hunters in the Snow

Pieter Brugel the Elder,1565,Oil on Wood

Impasto
One of a series of paintings representing the months, this being November/December
Alpine landscape covered with snow, winter scene
Strong diagonals lead the the eye deeper into the painting
Figures are not indivduals, peasant types/common people
Landscape has high horizon line, Northern Europen tradition/landscape
Many details, constant motion, nothing is static
Hunters have very little success in winter hunt, dogs are skinny and hand their heads

Calling of St. Matthew
Caravaggio, Baroque, 1597-1601, Rome, Oil on Canvas
Baroque
One of three paintings illustrating the life of St. Matthew in a chapel dedicated to him
Light comes in from two sources on the right creating a tenebroso effect (dramatic dark/light of a space)
Diagonal shaft of light points directly to St. Matthew who points to himself as if unsure that Christ would would select a tax collector
Shows a precise moment in time
Chirst's hand gesture similar to Adams on Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Creation of Adam)
Figures dressed in latest Baroque fashion
Figures take space in a narrow stage
Slight halo around head of Christ suggests the holyness of the scene
Figures shown with great detail, normal human beings
Calling of St. Matthew

Caravaggio, Baroque, 1597-1601, Rome, Oil on Canvas

Baroque
One of three paintings illustrating the life of St. Matthew in a chapel dedicated to him
Light comes in from two sources on the right creating a tenebroso effect (dramatic dark/light of a space)
Diagonal shaft of light points directly to St. Matthew who points to himself as if unsure that Christ would would select a tax collector
Shows a precise moment in time
Chirst’s hand gesture similar to Adams on Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Creation of Adam)
Figures dressed in latest Baroque fashion
Figures take space in a narrow stage
Slight halo around head of Christ suggests the holyness of the scene
Figures shown with great detail, normal human beings

Henri IV Recieves Portrait Marie de Medici
Peter Paul Rubens, 1621-1625, Oil on Canvas
Baroque
Part of cycle of 21 paintings telling the life of Marie de Medici, Queen of France, Wife of Henri IV
Henri IV is awed by the beauty of his future wife
Portrait is held by Cupid and Hymen (Love and Marriage)
Jupiter and Juno look down at the scene symbolic of marital harmony, identifiable by the eagle with the lightning bolt and the peacock
Royalty considered demi-gods, approal of mythological mods in concert with their beliefs about themselves
Common for portraits to be exchanged before a marriage
Personification of France stands behind Henri, urges him to marry her for the goodness of French politics
She wears a masculine war helmt with manly legs
Putti at bottom holding a war helmet showing that Henri has chosen love over war
Diagonals bring viewers attention to the portrait then up to Jupiter and below to the awe struck Henri
Henri IV Recieves Portrait Marie de Medici

Peter Paul Rubens, 1621-1625, Oil on Canvas

Baroque
Part of cycle of 21 paintings telling the life of Marie de Medici, Queen of France, Wife of Henri IV
Henri IV is awed by the beauty of his future wife
Portrait is held by Cupid and Hymen (Love and Marriage)
Jupiter and Juno look down at the scene symbolic of marital harmony, identifiable by the eagle with the lightning bolt and the peacock
Royalty considered demi-gods, approal of mythological mods in concert with their beliefs about themselves
Common for portraits to be exchanged before a marriage
Personification of France stands behind Henri, urges him to marry her for the goodness of French politics
She wears a masculine war helmt with manly legs
Putti at bottom holding a war helmet showing that Henri has chosen love over war
Diagonals bring viewers attention to the portrait then up to Jupiter and below to the awe struck Henri

Self-Portrait with Saskia
Rembrandt, 1636, Etching
Baroque
Only etching showing Rembrandt with his wife together
30 yr old Rembrandt shown with his new wife
Not wearing contemporary dress, but a traditional one Images of Saskia abundant in Rembrandt's works as she was a great inspiration to him
Wears a large hat which casts a dark shadow over his eyes, adding a sense of mystery to the serious expression he is showing
Marital harmony represented
Wife and mother of four
Rembrandt shows himself drawing, the most basic artistic skill that he has mastered
Rembrandt made etching popular and master of the skill by showing he has the skill to vary the degree of bitting that occurs against the metal plate
Rembrandt is more bitten making him darker and seem closer to the viewer and put mor eemphasis on himself
Self-Portrait with Saskia

Rembrandt, 1636, Etching

Baroque
Only etching showing Rembrandt with his wife together
30 yr old Rembrandt shown with his new wife
Not wearing contemporary dress, but a traditional one Images of Saskia abundant in Rembrandt’s works as she was a great inspiration to him
Wears a large hat which casts a dark shadow over his eyes, adding a sense of mystery to the serious expression he is showing
Marital harmony represented
Wife and mother of four
Rembrandt shows himself drawing, the most basic artistic skill that he has mastered
Rembrandt made etching popular and master of the skill by showing he has the skill to vary the degree of bitting that occurs against the metal plate
Rembrandt is more bitten making him darker and seem closer to the viewer and put mor eemphasis on himself

San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane
Rome, Borromini, 1638-1646, Stone/Stucco
Commisioned by the Trinitarian order during time of the counter reformation
Called this because it is on a square in Rome with four fountains, very small site
Alternating convex and concave patterns with UNDULATING volumes in ground plan and facade 
Exaggeration of geometric shapes (strechted out oval)
Repetition of forms in the dome (hexagon, square, octagon, cross, exaggerate the depth of the space)
Facade is higher than the rest of the building as it was completed after the structure was constructed
Interior side chapels merge into the central space
Hidden windows are placed beneath the dome providing unknown source of light common to Baroque architecture
Repitition of the oval form in both the facade and the interior (exterior and interior have same general form)
Alternation between concave and convex spaces
Interior dome oval shape and coffered
Walls treated sculpturally
Borromini worked in shades of white, unique as he avoided the color of many other Baroque buildings
San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane

Rome, Borromini, 1638-1646, Stone/Stucco

Commisioned by the Trinitarian order during time of the counter reformation
Called this because it is on a square in Rome with four fountains, very small site
Alternating convex and concave patterns with UNDULATING volumes in ground plan and facade
Exaggeration of geometric shapes (strechted out oval)
Repetition of forms in the dome (hexagon, square, octagon, cross, exaggerate the depth of the space)
Facade is higher than the rest of the building as it was completed after the structure was constructed
Interior side chapels merge into the central space
Hidden windows are placed beneath the dome providing unknown source of light common to Baroque architecture
Repitition of the oval form in both the facade and the interior (exterior and interior have same general form)
Alternation between concave and convex spaces
Interior dome oval shape and coffered
Walls treated sculpturally
Borromini worked in shades of white, unique as he avoided the color of many other Baroque buildings

Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Santa Maria Vittoria, Rome, Bernini, 1647-1652, Marble
Counter-Reformation, effort to convert the viewer,etc., involves the viewer
Sculptural interpretation of St. Teresa's diary involving her visions of god
Involves angel descending with an arrow and plunging it through her
Natural light from chapel directed onto sculpture from window above the work
Marble handled in a tactile way to show textures 
Skin is glossy, feathers are rough, drapery animated/fluid, clouds cut roughly like rock
Carved from a single block of marble
Figures appear to be floating in space as god's rays of light illuminate the scene
Teresa's pose is erotic and very emotional as if sexual exhaustion, consistent with the spiritual events taking place in her diary
Stagelike setting with patrons (Cornaro family) sitting in theater boxes flanking the work and commenting on the scene
Ecstasy of St. Teresa

Santa Maria Vittoria, Rome, Bernini, 1647-1652, Marble

Counter-Reformation, effort to convert the viewer,etc., involves the viewer
Sculptural interpretation of St. Teresa’s diary involving her visions of god
Involves angel descending with an arrow and plunging it through her
Natural light from chapel directed onto sculpture from window above the work
Marble handled in a tactile way to show textures
Skin is glossy, feathers are rough, drapery animated/fluid, clouds cut roughly like rock
Carved from a single block of marble
Figures appear to be floating in space as god’s rays of light illuminate the scene
Teresa’s pose is erotic and very emotional as if sexual exhaustion, consistent with the spiritual events taking place in her diary
Stagelike setting with patrons (Cornaro family) sitting in theater boxes flanking the work and commenting on the scene

Cornaro Chapel
Cornaro Chapel
Santa Maria Vittoria
Santa Maria Vittoria
Angel with Arquebus, Asiel Timor Dei
Master of Calamarca (La Paz School), 17th century, Oil on Canvas
Angel depicted with arquebus (form of rifle) instead of traditional sword
Military pose from European artwork or military exercise
Part of a series of works showing drummers, buglers, regular infantry, etc.
Drapery of 17th century Spanish aristocrat, lavish rich costume
Mannerist influence with the stillness of the figure in a dance-like pose
Angle appears in an androgynous stance
Gold embroidered fabric favored by indigenous peoples of New Spain
Has a relationship with pre-columbian winged warriors in art
Angel with Arquebus, Asiel Timor Dei

Master of Calamarca (La Paz School), 17th century, Oil on Canvas

Angel depicted with arquebus (form of rifle) instead of traditional sword
Military pose from European artwork or military exercise
Part of a series of works showing drummers, buglers, regular infantry, etc.
Drapery of 17th century Spanish aristocrat, lavish rich costume
Mannerist influence with the stillness of the figure in a dance-like pose
Angle appears in an androgynous stance
Gold embroidered fabric favored by indigenous peoples of New Spain
Has a relationship with pre-columbian winged warriors in art

Las Meninas
Diego Velazquez, 1656, Oil on Canvas
Group portrait of artist in his studio as his painting a member of the royal family 
Steps back from his canvas and looks at the viewer, acknowledging your presence and showing you his mastery 
Velazquez wears a cross from the Royal order of Santiago, elevating him to knighthood
Infanta Margharita of Spain is central with her Meninas or servants, along with her dog, a dwarf, and a midget
Behind are two people in half shadow who serve as chaperones
In back hallway is Jose Nieto head of the Queens tapestry works 
King and Queen present in the mirror but it is unsure where they are, possibly the canvas, in front of the figures, reflecting a painting on the wall?
Alternating darks and lights draw the eye deeper into the canvas
Painting originally hung in Phillip IV's sutyd
Las Meninas

Diego Velazquez, 1656, Oil on Canvas

Group portrait of artist in his studio as his painting a member of the royal family
Steps back from his canvas and looks at the viewer, acknowledging your presence and showing you his mastery
Velazquez wears a cross from the Royal order of Santiago, elevating him to knighthood
Infanta Margharita of Spain is central with her Meninas or servants, along with her dog, a dwarf, and a midget
Behind are two people in half shadow who serve as chaperones
In back hallway is Jose Nieto head of the Queens tapestry works
King and Queen present in the mirror but it is unsure where they are, possibly the canvas, in front of the figures, reflecting a painting on the wall?
Alternating darks and lights draw the eye deeper into the canvas
Painting originally hung in Phillip IV’s sutyd

Woman Holding a Balance
Johannes Vermeer,1664, Oil on Canvas
One of a few Vermeer works still in existence
Artists now painting for merchant class instead of for church
Balance of worldyness and spirituality in front and behind her
Usually portrayed intimate scenes from a dutch home
Viewer looks into private intimate world 
Figure seems unaware of our presence
Light enters from the left window, highlights textures/surfaces of women's garment, wood table, marble floor, jewlery, painting, etc. 
Capture of a single moment in time, ver still, as if frozen
Last Judgement behind her, a time of
Woman Holding a Balance

Johannes Vermeer,1664, Oil on Canvas

One of a few Vermeer works still in existence
Artists now painting for merchant class instead of for church
Balance of worldyness and spirituality in front and behind her
Usually portrayed intimate scenes from a dutch home
Viewer looks into private intimate world
Figure seems unaware of our presence
Light enters from the left window, highlights textures/surfaces of women’s garment, wood table, marble floor, jewlery, painting, etc.
Capture of a single moment in time, ver still, as if frozen
Last Judgement behind her, a time of “weighing” souls
Balance serves as an allegory
Balance has nothing in it though a pearl and coin are below waiting to be measured
Geometric lines focus attention onto the scale
Woman dressed in fine high class clothing
Balance between the material world and the religious pious world

Palace at Versaille 
Versaille France, Louis and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Masonry, stone, wood, iron (Architecture), Marble/Bronze (Sculpture), 1669
Commisioned by Louis XIV for his new palace, formerly a hunting lodge
Center of the building was Louis's bedroom/audience chamber from which all the other rooms radiate from (Known as Sun King)
Inside bedroom lavish ceremonies of lever (awkening) and coucher (sleep) would be performed daily
Built on the east/west axis so sun would rise and set in alignment with his home
Correspond to his political and economic ambitions of keeping provincial rulers away from their native lands
Building was centered in a vast garden/town complex 
Subdued exterior of the facade as Louis was fascinated with Greek/Roman structures, used columns, arches
Palace at Versaille

Versaille France, Louis and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Masonry, stone, wood, iron (Architecture), Marble/Bronze (Sculpture), 1669

Commisioned by Louis XIV for his new palace, formerly a hunting lodge
Center of the building was Louis’s bedroom/audience chamber from which all the other rooms radiate from (Known as Sun King)
Inside bedroom lavish ceremonies of lever (awkening) and coucher (sleep) would be performed daily
Built on the east/west axis so sun would rise and set in alignment with his home
Correspond to his political and economic ambitions of keeping provincial rulers away from their native lands
Building was centered in a vast garden/town complex
Subdued exterior of the facade as Louis was fascinated with Greek/Roman structures, used columns, arches

Palace at Versaille Garden 
Meant to radiate out from the palace illustrating his power
Statues of mythological figures and Roman rulers present from his fascination with antiquital times/ art
Garden becomes less elaborate the farther one goes from the palace
Only fountains near the palace on all the time, others would be turned on for the king as he walked by
Palace at Versaille Garden

Meant to radiate out from the palace illustrating his power
Statues of mythological figures and Roman rulers present from his fascination with antiquital times/ art
Garden becomes less elaborate the farther one goes from the palace
Only fountains near the palace on all the time, others would be turned on for the king as he walked by

Courtyard of Palace at Versaille
Courtyard of Palace at Versaille
Hall of Mirrors
240 feet long barrel vaulted room with a painted ceiling
Light enters thorugh a wall of windows on one side and reflects of a wall full of mirrors on the other side, these were the largest panes of the glass that could be made at the time
Reflected light would illuminate the entire room so Louis could see everything that was taking place
Celing paintings illustrate civil and military achievements of Louis XIV
Other paintings throughout the palace illustrate that his rule would bring peace/harmony to France
Most rooms/salons dedicated to Louis's intellectual and leisure interests
Hall of Mirrors

240 feet long barrel vaulted room with a painted ceiling
Light enters thorugh a wall of windows on one side and reflects of a wall full of mirrors on the other side, these were the largest panes of the glass that could be made at the time
Reflected light would illuminate the entire room so Louis could see everything that was taking place
Celing paintings illustrate civil and military achievements of Louis XIV
Other paintings throughout the palace illustrate that his rule would bring peace/harmony to France
Most rooms/salons dedicated to Louis’s intellectual and leisure interests

Screen with Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene
Circle of the Gonzalez Family,1697-1701, Tempera and Resin on Wodd
Screen commisioned by Jose Sarmiento de Valladares, Viceroy of New Spain
Displayed in Viceregal Palace in Mexico City
Biombo inspired by Japanese folding screens
Only known example of an art work combining biombos (screen) and enconchados (shell inlay)
Two faces of the screen, one is hunting, the other a war scene
Hunting scene suited to an intimate space for small receptions
War scene more suited for a grander room with political importance
War scene depicts the contemporary even of the Great Turkish War, used a Dutch print of the scene for inspiration
Illustrates a scene of Hapsburg power
Asserts the power of the Viceroy in the New World
Screen with Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene

Circle of the Gonzalez Family,1697-1701, Tempera and Resin on Wodd

Screen commisioned by Jose Sarmiento de Valladares, Viceroy of New Spain
Displayed in Viceregal Palace in Mexico City
Biombo inspired by Japanese folding screens
Only known example of an art work combining biombos (screen) and enconchados (shell inlay)
Two faces of the screen, one is hunting, the other a war scene
Hunting scene suited to an intimate space for small receptions
War scene more suited for a grander room with political importance
War scene depicts the contemporary even of the Great Turkish War, used a Dutch print of the scene for inspiration
Illustrates a scene of Hapsburg power
Asserts the power of the Viceroy in the New World

Virgin of Guadalupe
Miguel Gonzalez, 1698,Oil on Canvas on wood, inlaid with mother of pearl
Painting describes an even in which Mary appeared to the Natives on a hilll called Tepeyac, 
Mary ordered Native convert Juan Diego in 1531 to have the local archbishop build a sanctuary on that site
Mary made the hilltop flower and Juan Diego brought the flowers to the achbishop
Virgin of Guadalupe the most revered symbol in Mexico, a patroness of New Spain
Symbol of Mexico, bird on a cactus growing from a rock in bottom center
Guadalupe always portrays Mary standing on a crescent moon surrounded by sun rays 
Surrounded by four roundels depiciting the apparition to Juan Diego when the image of the Virgin appears on his tunic
Ornamentation on Virgin's robe made of enconchados (shell inlay), this shows the ifluence of Asian art
Highly sought after image as many were made for export in New Spain
Virgin of Guadalupe

Miguel Gonzalez, 1698,Oil on Canvas on wood, inlaid with mother of pearl

Painting describes an even in which Mary appeared to the Natives on a hilll called Tepeyac,
Mary ordered Native convert Juan Diego in 1531 to have the local archbishop build a sanctuary on that site
Mary made the hilltop flower and Juan Diego brought the flowers to the achbishop
Virgin of Guadalupe the most revered symbol in Mexico, a patroness of New Spain
Symbol of Mexico, bird on a cactus growing from a rock in bottom center
Guadalupe always portrays Mary standing on a crescent moon surrounded by sun rays
Surrounded by four roundels depiciting the apparition to Juan Diego when the image of the Virgin appears on his tunic
Ornamentation on Virgin’s robe made of enconchados (shell inlay), this shows the ifluence of Asian art
Highly sought after image as many were made for export in New Spain

Fruit and Insects
Rachel Ruysch,1711, Oil on Wood
Not a depicition of real flowers but a depiction of the perfect bouquet of flowers all in bloom at the same time
Assymetrical arrangement
Probably used illustrations in botany books at the time as a basis for the forms
Her father was a professor of anatomy and botany, also an amateur painter
Still lifes common at the time
Fruit and Insects

Rachel Ruysch,1711, Oil on Wood

Not a depicition of real flowers but a depiction of the perfect bouquet of flowers all in bloom at the same time
Assymetrical arrangement
Probably used illustrations in botany books at the time as a basis for the forms
Her father was a professor of anatomy and botany, also an amateur painter
Still lifes common at the time

Spainard and Indian Produce a Mestizo
Juan Juarez, 1715, Oil on Canvas
Panel from a series of Casta paintings (paintings displaying lineages)
Spanish social hierarchy with Eropean ancestry at top
Spanish blood linked to civilizing forces
Figures wearing lavish costumes
Africans/Indians rendered with respect showing harmony between the mixing classes
Indians would be portrayed with European facial characteristics, Slim nose, curly hair, etc.
Commisioned by colonists to be sent to Europe to show how the caste system of the New world works
Viewed not as art but illustrations of ethnic groups
Spainard and Indian Produce a Mestizo

Juan Juarez, 1715, Oil on Canvas

Panel from a series of Casta paintings (paintings displaying lineages)
Spanish social hierarchy with Eropean ancestry at top
Spanish blood linked to civilizing forces
Figures wearing lavish costumes
Africans/Indians rendered with respect showing harmony between the mixing classes
Indians would be portrayed with European facial characteristics, Slim nose, curly hair, etc.
Commisioned by colonists to be sent to Europe to show how the caste system of the New world works
Viewed not as art but illustrations of ethnic groups

Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
Cabrera, 1750, Oil on canvas 
Sor Juana de la Cruz was a child prodigy in literature 
Creole woman who became a nun in 1669
Feminist culture still survived in Mexican convents where privileged nuns livd in comfort with servants and households
Literary figure, published books that were widely read, also wrote poetry and theatrical pieces
Maintained a great library
Instrumental in giving girls an education in a patriarchal world
Waring the habit of the religious order of the Hermits of St. Jerome including the escudo (framed painting worn belox the neck in spanish society) 
Seated in her library surrounded by symbols of her faith and learning
Portrait derives from an earlier self portrait she made
Done 55 years after her death for her admirers to worship
Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

Cabrera, 1750, Oil on canvas

Sor Juana de la Cruz was a child prodigy in literature
Creole woman who became a nun in 1669
Feminist culture still survived in Mexican convents where privileged nuns livd in comfort with servants and households
Literary figure, published books that were widely read, also wrote poetry and theatrical pieces
Maintained a great library
Instrumental in giving girls an education in a patriarchal world
Waring the habit of the religious order of the Hermits of St. Jerome including the escudo (framed painting worn belox the neck in spanish society)
Seated in her library surrounded by symbols of her faith and learning
Portrait derives from an earlier self portrait she made
Done 55 years after her death for her admirers to worship

The Tete a Tete from Marriage a la Mode
William Hogarth, 1743, Oil on Canvas
Neoclassical/Realism
One of 6 paintings from a series called Mariage a la Mode
Highly satiric paintings about the English aristocracy and about those who try to buy into it
Here it shows shortly after a marriage, each partner has pursued their individual interests without each other
Husband has been out all night with another woman, shown as the dog sniffes the bonnet suspiciously
Hands in pockets with solemn expression showing he has no money
Broken sword symbol of a fight and probably lost, could be sexual inadequacy
Wife has been playing cards, indicated by the steward's expression that she has lost a fortune
Holds 9 unpaid bills in his hands contributing to the chaos
Knocked over chair with violin shows violin player left hurriedly 
Pious figures shown on back wall contrast with the curtained illustration of an erotic nude female
The Tete a Tete from Marriage a la Mode

William Hogarth, 1743, Oil on Canvas

Neoclassical/Realism
One of 6 paintings from a series called Mariage a la Mode
Highly satiric paintings about the English aristocracy and about those who try to buy into it
Here it shows shortly after a marriage, each partner has pursued their individual interests without each other
Husband has been out all night with another woman, shown as the dog sniffes the bonnet suspiciously
Hands in pockets with solemn expression showing he has no money
Broken sword symbol of a fight and probably lost, could be sexual inadequacy
Wife has been playing cards, indicated by the steward’s expression that she has lost a fortune
Holds 9 unpaid bills in his hands contributing to the chaos
Knocked over chair with violin shows violin player left hurriedly
Pious figures shown on back wall contrast with the curtained illustration of an erotic nude female

Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrey 
Joseph Wright of Derby,1763-1765, Oil on Canvas
Realism
Influenced by the meeting of a provincial group of intellectuals known as the Lunar Society who met to discuss scientific discoveries, during the Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment
Orrey is an early form of a planetarium which imitated the motion of the solar system
Unknown source of light at center represents the sun
Mixed group of the middle class shown, men, children, woman
Mixed expressions as some are curious, some fascinated, some thinking
Philosopher is based loosely on a portrait of Issac Newton 
Stops lecture to clarify for note taker on the left
Each face represents a phase of the moon based on the amount of light/shadow being cast on them, completes the celestial theme 
Part of a series of candle-lit aintings inspired by Caravaggios use of TENEBRISM
Ordinary lecture takes the qualities of a grand history of painting
REALISM
Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrey

Joseph Wright of Derby,1763-1765, Oil on Canvas

Realism
Influenced by the meeting of a provincial group of intellectuals known as the Lunar Society who met to discuss scientific discoveries, during the Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment
Orrey is an early form of a planetarium which imitated the motion of the solar system
Unknown source of light at center represents the sun
Mixed group of the middle class shown, men, children, woman
Mixed expressions as some are curious, some fascinated, some thinking
Philosopher is based loosely on a portrait of Issac Newton
Stops lecture to clarify for note taker on the left
Each face represents a phase of the moon based on the amount of light/shadow being cast on them, completes the celestial theme
Part of a series of candle-lit aintings inspired by Caravaggios use of TENEBRISM
Ordinary lecture takes the qualities of a grand history of painting
REALISM

The Swing
Fragonard, Oil on Canvas, 1767
Rococo cause light airyness/playfullness of scene
Light floral motif present throughout the entire painting
Figures are small in a dominant garden, out a Watteau like environment
Atmospheric perspective used to create depth (bigger clearer in front, smaller blurry in back)
Patron in front looking up the skirt of a young lady, who is flirtatiously kicking off her shoe towards the cupid statue
Unsuspecting bishop swings her from behind
Soft application of colors alone contribute to the sensuality of the work
The Swing

Fragonard, Oil on Canvas, 1767

Rococo cause light airyness/playfullness of scene
Light floral motif present throughout the entire painting
Figures are small in a dominant garden, out a Watteau like environment
Atmospheric perspective used to create depth (bigger clearer in front, smaller blurry in back)
Patron in front looking up the skirt of a young lady, who is flirtatiously kicking off her shoe towards the cupid statue
Unsuspecting bishop swings her from behind
Soft application of colors alone contribute to the sensuality of the work

Self Portrait
Elizabeth Vigee Le Brun,1790, Oil on Canvas
Naturalism
40 self-portraits in existence, very idealized
Looks at the viewer as she paints a portrait of Maire Antoinette, rendered very softly from memory as she was killed during the French Revolution
Subject looks admiringly at the painter, as if she is proud and respects her job
She looks directly at the viewer showing her confidence as a female painter
Reflects the ideals of women and the rights they want, she wears the colors of France
Slight Rococo touch in the soft application of color and use of light
Self Portrait

Elizabeth Vigee Le Brun,1790, Oil on Canvas

Naturalism
40 self-portraits in existence, very idealized
Looks at the viewer as she paints a portrait of Maire Antoinette, rendered very softly from memory as she was killed during the French Revolution
Subject looks admiringly at the painter, as if she is proud and respects her job
She looks directly at the viewer showing her confidence as a female painter
Reflects the ideals of women and the rights they want, she wears the colors of France
Slight Rococo touch in the soft application of color and use of light

Oath of Horatti
David, 1784, Oil on Canvas
Exemplum Virtutis
Story of 3 Roman Brother, Horatti, who go to battle 3 brothers from the Curiatti from neighboring city, pledge their fidelity to their father and to Rome
Female members from both of the families on the right experience sorrow and remorse as their sons/brothers go to war
Pits enlightenment virtues courage, patriotism against those of emotion/love
Shallow space so figures are put on a stage defined by the simple Roman architecture in the background
Rigidness and angularity of the forms on the right contrast with the fluidity and curvilinear forms of the women on the left
Male figures in front heavy modeling and rendered with a monumentality similar to that of Classical sculptures
Foreshadows what was to come as the French revolution got closer
Patriotism and sacrifice in Roman history used to show ideals of the French 
Perfect example of Neoclassism with geometric forms, classical aesthetic,etc. 
Painted under royal patronage displayed at the Salon of 1785
Oath of Horatti

David, 1784, Oil on Canvas

Exemplum Virtutis
Story of 3 Roman Brother, Horatti, who go to battle 3 brothers from the Curiatti from neighboring city, pledge their fidelity to their father and to Rome
Female members from both of the families on the right experience sorrow and remorse as their sons/brothers go to war
Pits enlightenment virtues courage, patriotism against those of emotion/love
Shallow space so figures are put on a stage defined by the simple Roman architecture in the background
Rigidness and angularity of the forms on the right contrast with the fluidity and curvilinear forms of the women on the left
Male figures in front heavy modeling and rendered with a monumentality similar to that of Classical sculptures
Foreshadows what was to come as the French revolution got closer
Patriotism and sacrifice in Roman history used to show ideals of the French
Perfect example of Neoclassism with geometric forms, classical aesthetic,etc.
Painted under royal patronage displayed at the Salon of 1785

Monticello
Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, 1768-1809, Brick, Glass, Stone, Wood
Little Mountain in Italian
Chief building on Jefferson's plantation
Symmetrical interior and exterior design
Brick building with stucco applied to the trim giving it the effect of marble
Tall French doors and windows to allow circulation of air during hot virginia summers
Appears to be a one story building with a dome but the balustrade hides the second floor
Inspired by Palladian villas in Italy Roman ruins in France
Octagonal dome
Saving space in his home, used narrow spiral staricases, beds in alcoves or in walls between rooms 
Interpretation of enlightenment belief in the perfectibility of human beings
Effort to create classical style of architecture for the entire nation
Building served as a visible expression of a country dedcated to liberty, use of Roman/Greek style cause he wanted to imitate the republic mixed with democracy
Monticello

Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, 1768-1809, Brick, Glass, Stone, Wood

Little Mountain in Italian
Chief building on Jefferson’s plantation
Symmetrical interior and exterior design
Brick building with stucco applied to the trim giving it the effect of marble
Tall French doors and windows to allow circulation of air during hot virginia summers
Appears to be a one story building with a dome but the balustrade hides the second floor
Inspired by Palladian villas in Italy Roman ruins in France
Octagonal dome
Saving space in his home, used narrow spiral staricases, beds in alcoves or in walls between rooms
Interpretation of enlightenment belief in the perfectibility of human beings
Effort to create classical style of architecture for the entire nation
Building served as a visible expression of a country dedcated to liberty, use of Roman/Greek style cause he wanted to imitate the republic mixed with democracy

Monticello plan
Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, 1768-1809, Brick, Glass, Stone, Wood
Little Mountain in Italian
Chief building on Jefferson's plantation
Symmetrical interior and exterior design
Brick building with stucco applied to the trim giving it the effect of marble
Tall French doors and windows to allow circulation of air during hot virginia summers
Appears to be a one story building with a dome but the balustrade hides the second floor
Inspired by Palladian villas in Italy Roman ruins in France
Octagonal dome
Saving space in his home, used narrow spiral staricases, beds in alcoves or in walls between rooms 
Interpretation of enlightenment belief in the perfectibility of human beings
Effort to create classical style of architecture for the entire nation
Building served as a visible expression of a country dedcated to liberty, use of Roman/Greek style cause he wanted to imitate the republic mixed with democracy
Monticello plan

Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, 1768-1809, Brick, Glass, Stone, Wood

Little Mountain in Italian
Chief building on Jefferson’s plantation
Symmetrical interior and exterior design
Brick building with stucco applied to the trim giving it the effect of marble
Tall French doors and windows to allow circulation of air during hot virginia summers
Appears to be a one story building with a dome but the balustrade hides the second floor
Inspired by Palladian villas in Italy Roman ruins in France
Octagonal dome
Saving space in his home, used narrow spiral staricases, beds in alcoves or in walls between rooms
Interpretation of enlightenment belief in the perfectibility of human beings
Effort to create classical style of architecture for the entire nation
Building served as a visible expression of a country dedcated to liberty, use of Roman/Greek style cause he wanted to imitate the republic mixed with democracy

George Washington
Houdon, 1788-1792, Marble
Washington dressed as an 18th century gentleman
Military associations minimized, epaulettes on shoulders and sword on the side
Naturalistic details like a missiong button on his jacket, tightly buttoned vest arond a protruding stomach
Seen as a man of vision and enlightenment
Badge of Cincinnatus on his belt, Washington left his duties as a farmer to fight for America just as Cincinnatus left his farm to command the Roman armies 
Plow behind him symbolizes his plantation
Washington leans on the Roman fasces, a group of rods bound together at the top and bottom
13 rods symbolize 13 colonies
Washington leans on the 13 colonies who give him support
George Washington

Houdon, 1788-1792, Marble

Washington dressed as an 18th century gentleman
Military associations minimized, epaulettes on shoulders and sword on the side
Naturalistic details like a missiong button on his jacket, tightly buttoned vest arond a protruding stomach
Seen as a man of vision and enlightenment
Badge of Cincinnatus on his belt, Washington left his duties as a farmer to fight for America just as Cincinnatus left his farm to command the Roman armies
Plow behind him symbolizes his plantation
Washington leans on the Roman fasces, a group of rods bound together at the top and bottom
13 rods symbolize 13 colonies
Washington leans on the 13 colonies who give him support

And theres nothing to be done
Francisco Goya, 1810-18323, Drypoint etching
Romantiscism
Part of the the Disasters of War 
80 works altogether
Published in 1853, 30 years after he died
Crucial commentary on French occupation of Spain 
Influenced by the Spain's constant warfare
Explores the themes of war,famine, and politics
This piece is very ironic and sardonic
Guns at very close range point towards victims assumedly spanish patriots being killed by French soldiers
Question of who exactly are being shot
And theres nothing to be done

Francisco Goya, 1810-18323, Drypoint etching

Romantiscism
Part of the the Disasters of War
80 works altogether
Published in 1853, 30 years after he died
Crucial commentary on French occupation of Spain
Influenced by the Spain’s constant warfare
Explores the themes of war,famine, and politics
This piece is very ironic and sardonic
Guns at very close range point towards victims assumedly spanish patriots being killed by French soldiers
Question of who exactly are being shot

La Grande Odalisque
Ingres, 1814, Oil on Canvas
Romanticism 
Raphael-like face
Turkish elements: Incense burner, peacock fan, tapestrylike turban, hashish pipe, 
Odalisque was a turkish concubine in a harem who served the Ottoman Sultan
Shows western perspective of a Harem
Inconsistent arrangement of limbs, rubbery arm, elongated back, placement of leg, one arm longer than other
Influenced by mannerist form of exaggerated body parts
Development of the female nude 
Sensuality very prominent
La Grande Odalisque

Ingres, 1814, Oil on Canvas

Romanticism
Raphael-like face
Turkish elements: Incense burner, peacock fan, tapestrylike turban, hashish pipe,
Odalisque was a turkish concubine in a harem who served the Ottoman Sultan
Shows western perspective of a Harem
Inconsistent arrangement of limbs, rubbery arm, elongated back, placement of leg, one arm longer than other
Influenced by mannerist form of exaggerated body parts
Development of the female nude
Sensuality very prominent

Liberty Leading the People
Delacroix, 1830, Oil on Canvas
July Revolution of 1830, Liberty with French tricolor marches over barricades to overthrow the governement soldiers
Red, white, blue echo throughout the painting
Strong pyramidical structure leading to the French flag
Child with pistols symbolizes the role of students in the revolt, middle class man recognizable by the top hat and carrying a rifle, lower class represented by man at extreme left with sword in hand and pistol at belt
Liberty wears a red Phrygian cap worn in the ancient world by freed slaves,
Notre Dame seen through the smoke on far right, french tricolor raised on its tower
Memorializes the overthrow of the French gov. in favor of the
Liberty Leading the People

Delacroix, 1830, Oil on Canvas

July Revolution of 1830, Liberty with French tricolor marches over barricades to overthrow the governement soldiers
Red, white, blue echo throughout the painting
Strong pyramidical structure leading to the French flag
Child with pistols symbolizes the role of students in the revolt, middle class man recognizable by the top hat and carrying a rifle, lower class represented by man at extreme left with sword in hand and pistol at belt
Liberty wears a red Phrygian cap worn in the ancient world by freed slaves,
Notre Dame seen through the smoke on far right, french tricolor raised on its tower
Memorializes the overthrow of the French gov. in favor of the “Citizen King” Louis Phillipe
Acquired French state in 1831 but not shown publicly for 25 years due to its revolutionary ideas
Balance of contemporary historical fact with poetic allegory

The Oxbow
Thomas Cole, 1836, Oil on canvas
Credited with the invention of the landscape painting in the U.S.
Founder of the Hudson River School
Shows an actual view of Massachusetts
Divides picture into two different contrasting landscapes, romantic on left, classical on right
Coles self portrait in forground amid a dense forest that is impenetrably thick with broken trees
Left landscape shows storms, element of the sublime
Right shows mans touch with cultivated fields and boats floating down the river
Painted as a reply to a British book claiming the Americans had destroyed the wilderness with industry
Painted for an exhibit and at the National Academy of Design
Manifest destiny as it Americans destiny to settle land
Transition from sublime to pastoral
The Oxbow

Thomas Cole, 1836, Oil on canvas

Credited with the invention of the landscape painting in the U.S.
Founder of the Hudson River School
Shows an actual view of Massachusetts
Divides picture into two different contrasting landscapes, romantic on left, classical on right
Coles self portrait in forground amid a dense forest that is impenetrably thick with broken trees
Left landscape shows storms, element of the sublime
Right shows mans touch with cultivated fields and boats floating down the river
Painted as a reply to a British book claiming the Americans had destroyed the wilderness with industry
Painted for an exhibit and at the National Academy of Design
Manifest destiny as it Americans destiny to settle land
Transition from sublime to pastoral

Slave Ship
Turner, 1840, Oil on Canvas
Shown at the Royal Academy in 1840 in context an excerpt from his poem
Slave Ship

Turner, 1840, Oil on Canvas

Shown at the Royal Academy in 1840 in context an excerpt from his poem “The Fallacies of Hope”
Based on the event where the a slave ship *The Zong* sailed to America full of slaves
Slaves werent insured for sickness so this forced captains to treat the slaves humanely
Captain would throw sick or dying slaves overboard into the sea
Inspired by a book accounting for the scandal by Thomas Clark
Emotional use of color
Fast brushwork
Recognizable forms like the ship, hands, and chains are reduced in size and pale compared to the turbulent landscape
Bloody sunset acts as a symbol of the scene taking place
Use of the sublime enhances the dramatic effect of the painting

Still Life in the Studio
Louis Daguerre, 1837, Daguerrotype
Sill life inspired by painted still lifes like Vanitas paintings
Variety of textures, fabrics, wicker,plaster, framed print, metal, wood, etc.
New art form inspired by older art forms
Dagerreotypes have shiny surfaces with great detail
Use of camera obscura
Still Life in the Studio

Louis Daguerre, 1837, Daguerrotype

Sill life inspired by painted still lifes like Vanitas paintings
Variety of textures, fabrics, wicker,plaster, framed print, metal, wood, etc.
New art form inspired by older art forms
Dagerreotypes have shiny surfaces with great detail
Use of camera obscura

Palace of Westminster Abbey (Houses of Parliament)
Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin, London, 1840-1870, Limestone, Masonry, Glass
Fire of 1834 burned down old structure, only westminister hall survived
Perpendicualr gothic inspired by the Chapel of Henry VII neighboring the structure
Competition held in 1835 for new Houses of Parliament after old one burned down
Rejection of Neoclassical cause associated with France/America
97 entrants, 91 Perpendicular Gothic, 6 Elizabethan style, these styles thought to be the native styles of England
Enormous structure with 1100 rooms, 100 staircases, 2 miles of corridors
Modern office building cloaked in Medieval clothing
Barry classical architect accounts for regularity of plan
Pugin Gothic architect accounts for Gothic architectural touches
Use of Gothic ornament is greater than an original gothic building
Big Ben placed next to it, symbolic of a village clock for all of England
Palace of Westminster Abbey (Houses of Parliament)

Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin, London, 1840-1870, Limestone, Masonry, Glass

Fire of 1834 burned down old structure, only westminister hall survived
Perpendicualr gothic inspired by the Chapel of Henry VII neighboring the structure
Competition held in 1835 for new Houses of Parliament after old one burned down
Rejection of Neoclassical cause associated with France/America
97 entrants, 91 Perpendicular Gothic, 6 Elizabethan style, these styles thought to be the native styles of England
Enormous structure with 1100 rooms, 100 staircases, 2 miles of corridors
Modern office building cloaked in Medieval clothing
Barry classical architect accounts for regularity of plan
Pugin Gothic architect accounts for Gothic architectural touches
Use of Gothic ornament is greater than an original gothic building
Big Ben placed next to it, symbolic of a village clock for all of England

Westminster Central Lobby 
Placed between the House of Commons and House of Lords
Meant to be a space where constituents can meet members of their parliament
Metal grills on doorways originally from House of Commons, marked the spot where women could be seated to watch Parliament, now symbols of the suffrage movement
Central octagonal spaces with statues of past Kings/Queens of England/Scotland
Four large mosaics over each doorway represent four saints of the different areas of the U.K.
St. George is England
St. Andrew is Scotland
St. David is Wales
St. Patrick is Ireland
Westminster Central Lobby

Placed between the House of Commons and House of Lords
Meant to be a space where constituents can meet members of their parliament
Metal grills on doorways originally from House of Commons, marked the spot where women could be seated to watch Parliament, now symbols of the suffrage movement
Central octagonal spaces with statues of past Kings/Queens of England/Scotland
Four large mosaics over each doorway represent four saints of the different areas of the U.K.
St. George is England
St. Andrew is Scotland
St. David is Wales
St. Patrick is Ireland

Westminster Hall
Last remaining piece of the medieval parliament building as the rest burned down
Westminster Hall

Last remaining piece of the medieval parliament building as the rest burned down

The Stone Breakers
Gustave Courbet, 1849, Oil on Canvas
Realism
Submitted to the Salon of 1850
Breaking stones down to rubble to be used for paving
Emphasis on the hardship of poverty
Figures born poor and will remain poor the rest of their lives 
Reaction to labor unrest of 1848, poor demanding better working conditions
Large size of painting usually for grand historical paintings, but here it elevates the commonplace into the realm of legend and history
Ripped, tattered clothes,
old man versus child, hardship for life
The Stone Breakers

Gustave Courbet, 1849, Oil on Canvas

Realism
Submitted to the Salon of 1850
Breaking stones down to rubble to be used for paving
Emphasis on the hardship of poverty
Figures born poor and will remain poor the rest of their lives
Reaction to labor unrest of 1848, poor demanding better working conditions
Large size of painting usually for grand historical paintings, but here it elevates the commonplace into the realm of legend and history
Ripped, tattered clothes,
old man versus child, hardship for life

Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art, 
Daumier,1862, Lithograph
Nadar famous for taking aerial photos of Paris 
Presents Nadar as a quacky photographer lost in the excitement to get a daring shot as he almost falls out of his balloon, in the process he loses his hat
Every building has word photographie on it
Mocks the claims that photography can be considered high art, irony implied in the title
Done after court decision of 1862 that determined photographs could be considered a piece of art
Satiric of photography
Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art,

Daumier,1862, Lithograph

Nadar famous for taking aerial photos of Paris
Presents Nadar as a quacky photographer lost in the excitement to get a daring shot as he almost falls out of his balloon, in the process he loses his hat
Every building has word photographie on it
Mocks the claims that photography can be considered high art, irony implied in the title
Done after court decision of 1862 that determined photographs could be considered a piece of art
Satiric of photography

Olympia
Edouard Manet, 1863, OIl on Canvas
Created a scandal at the Salon of 1865
Traditional subject of a reclining nude inspired by Titian's Venus of Urbino
Figure is cold and uninviting, no emotion present
Maid deliver flowers from an admirer
Olympia was a common name for prostitutes of the time
Her direct, uncaring, unnerving look of confidence startled viewers as she acknowledged that the viewer was there but still didnt care that she was naked
Simplified modeling, active brushwork
Stark contrast of colors
Mistress used Parisian men
Female nude no longer idealized and perfect like past, lips to thin, asymetrical face
Figure lacks modeling everywhere except hands, critics pointed this out saying that her hands were
Olympia

Edouard Manet, 1863, OIl on Canvas

Created a scandal at the Salon of 1865
Traditional subject of a reclining nude inspired by Titian’s Venus of Urbino
Figure is cold and uninviting, no emotion present
Maid deliver flowers from an admirer
Olympia was a common name for prostitutes of the time
Her direct, uncaring, unnerving look of confidence startled viewers as she acknowledged that the viewer was there but still didnt care that she was naked
Simplified modeling, active brushwork
Stark contrast of colors
Mistress used Parisian men
Female nude no longer idealized and perfect like past, lips to thin, asymetrical face
Figure lacks modeling everywhere except hands, critics pointed this out saying that her hands were “dirty” from the work she had been doing
Awkwardness in how toes emerge from underneath her slipper

The Saint Lazare Station
Claude Monet, 1877, Oil on Canvas
Shown at the Impressionist exhibition of 1877
One of a series of paintings depicting this train station
Famous for his paintings on te same subject with different lighting during different different times of day and times of the year
Originally meant to be hung next to each other for effect
Effects of steam, light, color, emphasized not about the machines or people
Subtle gradiations of light on the surface
Forms dissolve and dematerialze, color overwhelms form
Color creates form, no line
Light responsible for the tones of color
The Saint Lazare Station

Claude Monet, 1877, Oil on Canvas

Shown at the Impressionist exhibition of 1877
One of a series of paintings depicting this train station
Famous for his paintings on te same subject with different lighting during different different times of day and times of the year
Originally meant to be hung next to each other for effect
Effects of steam, light, color, emphasized not about the machines or people
Subtle gradiations of light on the surface
Forms dissolve and dematerialze, color overwhelms form
Color creates form, no line
Light responsible for the tones of color

The Coiffure
Mary Cassat, 1890-1891, Drypoint/Aquatint
Fascination of Japanese art since Matthew Perry opened Japan to the rest of the world
Cassatt's world filled with women, women as independent and not needing of men to complete themselves, women who enjoy company of other woman
No posing or acting, figure has natural quality
Decorative charm influenced by Japanese art
Japanese hair style, japanese point of view as figure is seen from back
Tenderness lacking in other impressionists present
Part of a series of ten print exhibited together
Contrasting sensuous curves of female form and chair with straight lines of furniture/wall/mirror
Pastel color scheme used
The Coiffure

Mary Cassat, 1890-1891, Drypoint/Aquatint

Fascination of Japanese art since Matthew Perry opened Japan to the rest of the world
Cassatt’s world filled with women, women as independent and not needing of men to complete themselves, women who enjoy company of other woman
No posing or acting, figure has natural quality
Decorative charm influenced by Japanese art
Japanese hair style, japanese point of view as figure is seen from back
Tenderness lacking in other impressionists present
Part of a series of ten print exhibited together
Contrasting sensuous curves of female form and chair with straight lines of furniture/wall/mirror
Pastel color scheme used

The Horse in Motion
Eadweard Muybridge, Albumen Print, 1878 
Photography now advanced enough that it can capture moments that the human eye cant
Camera snapped photos at evenly spaced points on a track giving the effect that the images happened in a sequence
Motion studies bridge the gap between still photography and movies
Used device called zoopraxiscope
Debate if all horses legs come off ground or not
The Horse in Motion

Eadweard Muybridge, Albumen Print, 1878

Photography now advanced enough that it can capture moments that the human eye cant
Camera snapped photos at evenly spaced points on a track giving the effect that the images happened in a sequence
Motion studies bridge the gap between still photography and movies
Used device called zoopraxiscope
Debate if all horses legs come off ground or not

The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel
Jose Velasco, 1882, Oil on Canvas
Primarily an academic landscape painter
Specialized in broad panoramas of the Valley of Mexico
Keen observer of nature; rocks, foliage, clouds, waterfalls depicted with great accuracy
Rejected the realist and romantic landscapes of courbet and turner, wanted a landscape of idealized beauty
Settled in Villa Guadalupe with an overview of the Valley of Mexico
Dramatic perspective, very large area depicted, big distance, small figures
Glorifies the beauty of the Mexican countryside
Hill of Tepayac where the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared
Shows effects of industrialization/urbanization with human development
The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel

Jose Velasco, 1882, Oil on Canvas

Primarily an academic landscape painter
Specialized in broad panoramas of the Valley of Mexico
Keen observer of nature; rocks, foliage, clouds, waterfalls depicted with great accuracy
Rejected the realist and romantic landscapes of courbet and turner, wanted a landscape of idealized beauty
Settled in Villa Guadalupe with an overview of the Valley of Mexico
Dramatic perspective, very large area depicted, big distance, small figures
Glorifies the beauty of the Mexican countryside
Hill of Tepayac where the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared
Shows effects of industrialization/urbanization with human development

The Bughers of Calais
Auguste Rodin,1884/1885, Bronze 
6 Burghers offer their lives to the English King in return for saving their city during the Hundred Years War, part of the siege of calais
English King insisted the burghers wear sackcloths and carry the key to the city
Drapery part of the ground showing that they are part of the city and will do anything to save it
Parallels between Paris besieged during the Franco-Prussian War 1870 and Calais besieged in 1347
Figures suffer from privation, weak and emaciated 
Each figure has a different emotion, some fearful, resigned, or alone
Central figure is eustache de St. Pierre who has large swollen hands and a noose around his neck, ready for execution
Details reduced to emphasize the overall impression
Meant to be a ground level so people can look at it up close
Rejected by town coucil of Calais as being shameful, they wanted a single allegorical figure
Shows the 6 men in a new innovative way of showing defeat and sorrow
Shows heroes sacrificing life for their city as they did instead of showing triumphant glorified figures there commisioners wanted to see 
At first at eye level amongst citizens so they would have the same morals, but put on pedestal by commisioners to be looked up upon
The Bughers of Calais

Auguste Rodin,1884/1885, Bronze

6 Burghers offer their lives to the English King in return for saving their city during the Hundred Years War, part of the siege of calais
English King insisted the burghers wear sackcloths and carry the key to the city
Drapery part of the ground showing that they are part of the city and will do anything to save it
Parallels between Paris besieged during the Franco-Prussian War 1870 and Calais besieged in 1347
Figures suffer from privation, weak and emaciated
Each figure has a different emotion, some fearful, resigned, or alone
Central figure is eustache de St. Pierre who has large swollen hands and a noose around his neck, ready for execution
Details reduced to emphasize the overall impression
Meant to be a ground level so people can look at it up close
Rejected by town coucil of Calais as being shameful, they wanted a single allegorical figure
Shows the 6 men in a new innovative way of showing defeat and sorrow
Shows heroes sacrificing life for their city as they did instead of showing triumphant glorified figures there commisioners wanted to see
At first at eye level amongst citizens so they would have the same morals, but put on pedestal by commisioners to be looked up upon

Starry Night
Van Gogh,1889, Oil on Canvas
Post Impressionism
Thick short emotional brushstrokes
Mountains of St. Remy in the distance that Van Gogh was able to see from his mental hospital, steepness is greatly exaggerated
Compostie landscape with Dutch church, Crescent moon, mediterranean cyprus tree
Strong left to right wavelike impulse in his owrk broken only by the tree and church steeple
Tree looks like green flames raching into the sky expolding with the powers of the stars over a placid village
Cyprus tree symbol of death and eternal life
Derived meaning and emotion of the work from the deep hues of color 
Transformed line with expressive color may layers
Rapid brush strokes invoked by the subconsious
Starry Night

Van Gogh,1889, Oil on Canvas

Post Impressionism
Thick short emotional brushstrokes
Mountains of St. Remy in the distance that Van Gogh was able to see from his mental hospital, steepness is greatly exaggerated
Compostie landscape with Dutch church, Crescent moon, mediterranean cyprus tree
Strong left to right wavelike impulse in his owrk broken only by the tree and church steeple
Tree looks like green flames raching into the sky expolding with the powers of the stars over a placid village
Cyprus tree symbol of death and eternal life
Derived meaning and emotion of the work from the deep hues of color
Transformed line with expressive color may layers
Rapid brush strokes invoked by the subconsious

The Scream
Edward Munch, 1893, Tempera and pastel on cardboard
Symbolism
Figure walking on a boardwalk, boats area at sea in the distance
Long thick brushstrokes swirl around the composition
Figure cries in horrifying scream, landscape echoes his emotions
Inspired by a peruvian mummy exhibit in Paris
Starved twisting figure with skull like head
Prefigured expressionist art
Art Nouveau swirling patterns
The Scream

Edward Munch, 1893, Tempera and pastel on cardboard

Symbolism
Figure walking on a boardwalk, boats area at sea in the distance
Long thick brushstrokes swirl around the composition
Figure cries in horrifying scream, landscape echoes his emotions
Inspired by a peruvian mummy exhibit in Paris
Starved twisting figure with skull like head
Prefigured expressionist art
Art Nouveau swirling patterns

Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?
Paul Gauguin, 1897/1898, Oil on Canvas
Painted during his stay in Tahiti
Suffered from poor health/poverty, obessesed with thought of death
Learned of the death of his daughter, deeply shaken, determined to commit suicide and have this painting be his last will and testament
story of life read from right to left
Right: birth, infant three adults
Center: mid-life, picking of fruits of the world
Left: death (figure derived from a peruvian mummy on exhibit in paris)
Figures in foreground represent Tahiti and Eden-like paradise, background figures anguished and dark
Blue idol represents the beyond/heaven
Most of the scene is flat unmodulated areas of color that conveys a sense of lushness and intensity
Rejection of classical influence
Non tradititional influences like, Egyptian figures, Japanese prints in solids fields of color with unusual angels
Tahitian imagery in polynesian idol
Gauguin thought of painting as a summation of his artistic/personal expression
Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?

Paul Gauguin, 1897/1898, Oil on Canvas

Painted during his stay in Tahiti
Suffered from poor health/poverty, obessesed with thought of death
Learned of the death of his daughter, deeply shaken, determined to commit suicide and have this painting be his last will and testament
story of life read from right to left
Right: birth, infant three adults
Center: mid-life, picking of fruits of the world
Left: death (figure derived from a peruvian mummy on exhibit in paris)
Figures in foreground represent Tahiti and Eden-like paradise, background figures anguished and dark
Blue idol represents the beyond/heaven
Most of the scene is flat unmodulated areas of color that conveys a sense of lushness and intensity
Rejection of classical influence
Non tradititional influences like, Egyptian figures, Japanese prints in solids fields of color with unusual angels
Tahitian imagery in polynesian idol
Gauguin thought of painting as a summation of his artistic/personal expression

Carson, Pirie, Scott, and Company Building
Louis Sullivan,1899-1903, Iron, steel, glass, terra cotta
*Form follows function*
Chicago school of architecture
Horizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of floor space
Limited steel structural elements allowed for maximum window area to admit light, also used to display products
Nonsupportive role of exterior, decorative
Cast iron decorative elements transform structure into beautiful place to by beautiful things
Exterior coated in decorative terra cotta tiles, original interior very ornamented around lobby and halls
Some historical touches in the round entrance arches and heavy cornice at top of building
tripartite design: bottom for easy public access and lots of lighting for a reception area; middle is endless amount of identical stories for offices based on need, same because they have the same purpose, top has heavy cornice to signify end of the builing
Carson, Pirie, Scott, and Company Building

Louis Sullivan,1899-1903, Iron, steel, glass, terra cotta

*Form follows function*
Chicago school of architecture
Horizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of floor space
Limited steel structural elements allowed for maximum window area to admit light, also used to display products
Nonsupportive role of exterior, decorative
Cast iron decorative elements transform structure into beautiful place to by beautiful things
Exterior coated in decorative terra cotta tiles, original interior very ornamented around lobby and halls
Some historical touches in the round entrance arches and heavy cornice at top of building
tripartite design: bottom for easy public access and lots of lighting for a reception area; middle is endless amount of identical stories for offices based on need, same because they have the same purpose, top has heavy cornice to signify end of the builing

Carson, Pirie, Scott, and Company Building Plan
Louis Sullivan,1899-1903, Iron, steel, glass, terra cotta
*Form follows function*
Chicago school of architecture
Horizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of floor space
Limited steel structural elements allowed for maximum window area to admit light, also used to display products
Nonsupportive role of exterior, decorative
Cast iron decorative elements transform structure into beautiful place to by beautiful things
Exterior coated in decorative terra cotta tiles, original interior very ornamented around lobby and halls
Some historical touches in the round entrance arches and heavy cornice at top of building
Carson, Pirie, Scott, and Company Building Plan

Louis Sullivan,1899-1903, Iron, steel, glass, terra cotta

*Form follows function*
Chicago school of architecture
Horizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of floor space
Limited steel structural elements allowed for maximum window area to admit light, also used to display products
Nonsupportive role of exterior, decorative
Cast iron decorative elements transform structure into beautiful place to by beautiful things
Exterior coated in decorative terra cotta tiles, original interior very ornamented around lobby and halls
Some historical touches in the round entrance arches and heavy cornice at top of building

Mont Sainte-Victorie
Paul Cezanne,1902-1904, Oil on Canvas
Post Impressionism
One of a series of 11 paintings done with this view
Contempt for flat painting, effort to make round firm objects from geometric constructions of undiluted color 
Intellectually order his picture plain with lines,planes, and colors found in nature
Used different tones/hues of color to create depth
Cool colors recede, warm colors advance
Landscape rarely includes humans
Interest in geometric forms and line, not the dappled effect of light sought after by Impressionists
Not a moment like impressionists, a solid, firmly constructed mountain/foreground
Invited to look at space but not enter
Mont Sainte-Victorie

Paul Cezanne,1902-1904, Oil on Canvas

Post Impressionism
One of a series of 11 paintings done with this view
Contempt for flat painting, effort to make round firm objects from geometric constructions of undiluted color
Intellectually order his picture plain with lines,planes, and colors found in nature
Used different tones/hues of color to create depth
Cool colors recede, warm colors advance
Landscape rarely includes humans
Interest in geometric forms and line, not the dappled effect of light sought after by Impressionists
Not a moment like impressionists, a solid, firmly constructed mountain/foreground
Invited to look at space but not enter

Les Demoiselles de Avignon
Pablo Picasso, 1907, Oil on Canvas
Cubism
First cubist work, influenced by later works of Cezanne
African masks on figures, tribal representation/influence
Represents 5 prostitutes in a bordello on Avignon street, each posing for a customer
Poses are not traditionally alluring but awkward, expressionless, and uninviting
3 on left more conservatively painted
two on right more radical, relfects a dichotomy in Picasso
Multiple views expressed at same time
no real depth
Influenced by Gauguin's privitism
Geometric/angular quailities
Multiple view points of a figure shown creating a piece of art that is intellectually challenging to understand
Les Demoiselles de Avignon

Pablo Picasso, 1907, Oil on Canvas

Cubism
First cubist work, influenced by later works of Cezanne
African masks on figures, tribal representation/influence
Represents 5 prostitutes in a bordello on Avignon street, each posing for a customer
Poses are not traditionally alluring but awkward, expressionless, and uninviting
3 on left more conservatively painted
two on right more radical, relfects a dichotomy in Picasso
Multiple views expressed at same time
no real depth
Influenced by Gauguin’s privitism
Geometric/angular quailities
Multiple view points of a figure shown creating a piece of art that is intellectually challenging to understand

The Steerage
Alfred Stieglitz, 1907, Photogravure
Photographed the world as he saw it, arranged little and allowed people/event to make their own compositions
Interested in the compositional possibilities of diagonals and lines acting as framing elements
Diagonals and framing effects of ladders, sails, steam pipes
Depicts the poorest passengers on a ship traveling from the US to Europe
Published in 1911 in Camera Work
Influenced by experimental European painting, compared to a cubist drawing by picasso
Cubist-like in arrangement of shapes and tonal values
Shows social division of society
Steerage was part of the ship reserved for passengers with the cheapest tickets 
Walkway serves as a division the poor people on bottom and middle/upper class people on top
The Steerage

Alfred Stieglitz, 1907, Photogravure

Photographed the world as he saw it, arranged little and allowed people/event to make their own compositions
Interested in the compositional possibilities of diagonals and lines acting as framing elements
Diagonals and framing effects of ladders, sails, steam pipes
Depicts the poorest passengers on a ship traveling from the US to Europe
Published in 1911 in Camera Work
Influenced by experimental European painting, compared to a cubist drawing by picasso
Cubist-like in arrangement of shapes and tonal values
Shows social division of society
Steerage was part of the ship reserved for passengers with the cheapest tickets
Walkway serves as a division the poor people on bottom and middle/upper class people on top

The Kiss
Gustav Klimt, 1907-1908, Oil on Canvas
Fin de Siecle/Art Nouveau 
Visual representation of fin de siecle culture by capturing the opulence of love and sexual powers
Little of the human form is actualy seen, two heads, four hands, two feet
Bodies are suggested under a sea of richly designed patterning
Male figure has large rectangular boxes, female figure has circular forms
Figures dissolve into flat elaborate patterning 
Suggests all consuming love, passion, eroticism
Spaced in an indeterminate location against a flattened background
Gold leaf background reminiscent of Byzantine mosaics
The Kiss

Gustav Klimt, 1907-1908, Oil on Canvas

Fin de Siecle/Art Nouveau
Visual representation of fin de siecle culture by capturing the opulence of love and sexual powers
Little of the human form is actualy seen, two heads, four hands, two feet
Bodies are suggested under a sea of richly designed patterning
Male figure has large rectangular boxes, female figure has circular forms
Figures dissolve into flat elaborate patterning
Suggests all consuming love, passion, eroticism
Spaced in an indeterminate location against a flattened background
Gold leaf background reminiscent of Byzantine mosaics

The Kiss
Constantin Brancusi,1916, limestone
Symbolic almost cubist rendering of the male and female bodies
Intertwined and enveloped figures
Two eyes become one, cyclops-like
Interlocked forms
Brancusi worked in Rodins studio and used his
The Kiss

Constantin Brancusi,1916, limestone

Symbolic almost cubist rendering of the male and female bodies
Intertwined and enveloped figures
Two eyes become one, cyclops-like
Interlocked forms
Brancusi worked in Rodins studio and used his “The Kiss” sculpture as inspiration
Fourth sculptural version of the same subject, done as a commision
First one of Brancusi’s earliest attempts at stone carving
Second shown at the armory show
Third used as a tombstone in Paris for a suicide victim
Possibly many other versions that are undocumented

The Portuguese
Georges Braque, 1911, Oil on Canvas
Analytic cubism, style developed in combination with Picasso
Rejected naturalistic and conventional painting
Fractured forms, breaking down of objects into smaller forms
Clear edged surfaces sit on the picture plane, not recessed in space
Almost monochrome
Not a portrait of a portuguese but on exploration of shapes
Only realistic elements are the stenciled letter and numbers, suggest a dance hall poster behind the guitarist, a cafe atmosphere
*2-D figures from multiple perspectives to convey a sense of totality is a uniquely modern way
Simplified natural forms into geometric shapes*
The Portuguese

Georges Braque, 1911, Oil on Canvas

Analytic cubism, style developed in combination with Picasso
Rejected naturalistic and conventional painting
Fractured forms, breaking down of objects into smaller forms
Clear edged surfaces sit on the picture plane, not recessed in space
Almost monochrome
Not a portrait of a portuguese but on exploration of shapes
Only realistic elements are the stenciled letter and numbers, suggest a dance hall poster behind the guitarist, a cafe atmosphere
*2-D figures from multiple perspectives to convey a sense of totality is a uniquely modern way
Simplified natural forms into geometric shapes*

Goldfish
Henri Matisse, 1912, Oil on Canvas
Fauvism
Still life painting
Violent contrasting colors
Thinly applied colors, white of canvas shows through
Energetic painterly brushwork
May have been influenced by decorative Asian art
Broad patches of color anticipate Color-field painting seen later in the century
Goldfish

Henri Matisse, 1912, Oil on Canvas

Fauvism
Still life painting
Violent contrasting colors
Thinly applied colors, white of canvas shows through
Energetic painterly brushwork
May have been influenced by decorative Asian art
Broad patches of color anticipate Color-field painting seen later in the century

Improvisation 28
Vassily Kandinsky, 1912, Oil on Canvas
Expressionism (Der Blaue Reiter)
Kandinsky infatuated with theosophy and history and was able to understand new scientific developments of the time
Movement toward abstraction, representational objects suggested rather than depicted
Title derived from musical compositions
Strongly articulated use of black line
Colors seem to shad around the line forms
Felt that sound and color were linked
Gave musical titles to his works
Kandinsky wanted the viewer to respond to a painting the way one would to an abstract musical composition
Converyed feelings with color juxtapostions, intersecting lines, these abstractions would ledad to a more enlightened society emphasizing spirituality
Improvisation 28

Vassily Kandinsky, 1912, Oil on Canvas

Expressionism (Der Blaue Reiter)
Kandinsky infatuated with theosophy and history and was able to understand new scientific developments of the time
Movement toward abstraction, representational objects suggested rather than depicted
Title derived from musical compositions
Strongly articulated use of black line
Colors seem to shad around the line forms
Felt that sound and color were linked
Gave musical titles to his works
Kandinsky wanted the viewer to respond to a painting the way one would to an abstract musical composition
Converyed feelings with color juxtapostions, intersecting lines, these abstractions would ledad to a more enlightened society emphasizing spirituality

Self-Portrait as a Soldier
Ernst Kircher, 1915, Oil on Canvas
Kirchner was an unwilling volunteer driver in tehe artillery in WWI rather than being drafted into the infantry
Declared unfit for service as he had lung problems, mental breakdowns, debate if this is fake or not so he could avoid service
Painted this work during a recuperation period
Drawn face, loss of right hand indicates his feeling that he has an inability to paint
Nude model represents what he used to paint but no longer can
Nightmarish quality
Expressive quality of horrified facial features and grim surroudings
Tilted persepective moves things close to the picture place
Self-Portrait as a Soldier

Ernst Kircher, 1915, Oil on Canvas

Kirchner was an unwilling volunteer driver in tehe artillery in WWI rather than being drafted into the infantry
Declared unfit for service as he had lung problems, mental breakdowns, debate if this is fake or not so he could avoid service
Painted this work during a recuperation period
Drawn face, loss of right hand indicates his feeling that he has an inability to paint
Nude model represents what he used to paint but no longer can
Nightmarish quality
Expressive quality of horrified facial features and grim surroudings
Tilted persepective moves things close to the picture place

Memorial Sheet for Karl Liebknecht
Kathe Kollwitz,1919-1920, woodcut
Themes of war/poverty dominate her works
theme of women grieving over dead children, her son died in WWI then she became a socialist
Karl Liebnecht among the founder of the Berlin Spartacus League that became the German Communist Party
Liebnecht shot to death in 1919 Communist uprising, Sparatacus Revolt
Human grief dominates
Stark black and white woodcut used to magnify the grief
Same design as a lamentation, many heads at top showing how many people mourned over him, middle
Memorial Sheet for Karl Liebknecht

Kathe Kollwitz,1919-1920, woodcut

Themes of war/poverty dominate her works
theme of women grieving over dead children, her son died in WWI then she became a socialist
Karl Liebnecht among the founder of the Berlin Spartacus League that became the German Communist Party
Liebnecht shot to death in 1919 Communist uprising, Sparatacus Revolt
Human grief dominates
Stark black and white woodcut used to magnify the grief
Same design as a lamentation, many heads at top showing how many people mourned over him, middle

Villa Savoye
Le Corbusier, Poissy Sur-Seine France, 1929, Steel/Reinforced Concrete
International Style
Villa Savoye

Le Corbusier, Poissy Sur-Seine France, 1929, Steel/Reinforced Concrete

International Style
“House should be a machine for living”
3 bedroom villa with servants quarters
Boxlike horizontal quality, abstraction of a house
Main part of house lifted off ground with thin freestanding posts(pilotis) to give floating effect
Turning circle on bottom floor is a car port so family members can enter house straight from car
All space is utilized, inflcuind roof which is used as a patio
No historical ornamentation
Subtle colors, white for exterior symbolized modern cleanliness, new,simple, healthy living
Open interior without many walls
Furniture built into the walls
Ribbon windows wind around the second floor allowing views of the landscape
Living spaces around an open courtyard type setting
Pierre and Emilie Savoye commisioned house as a country home

Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow
Piet Mondrian, 1930, Oil on Canvas
De Stijil
Only primary colors used, red yellow, blue and the neutral colors white and black
Sever geometry of form, only rights angles, gridlike
No shading of colors, pure unmodulated color
Assymetrical composition
Only perpendicular lines, diagonals forbidden
Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow

Piet Mondrian, 1930, Oil on Canvas

De Stijil
Only primary colors used, red yellow, blue and the neutral colors white and black
Sever geometry of form, only rights angles, gridlike
No shading of colors, pure unmodulated color
Assymetrical composition
Only perpendicular lines, diagonals forbidden

Results from the First Five Year Plan
Varvara Stepanova, 1932, Photomontage
Constructivism
Stepanova one of the main figures in the Russian avant-garde movement
Graphic art for political and propaganda purposes
Influenced by Cubism and futurism
Five Year Plan: Soviet practice of increasing agricultural and industrial output in five years, 1928-1932 
Emphasis on growth of heavy industry rather than commercial goods
Huge increases in electrical output, (dominant industrial symbol in work)
Double page spread in a book
Red dominates: Color of Communist Soviet Union
CCCP Russian abreviation for Soviet Union
Large portrait of Lenin dominates, although deceased, image used to evoke patriotism, thoughts and ideas of socialism still incorporated in government
Results from the First Five Year Plan

Varvara Stepanova, 1932, Photomontage

Constructivism
Stepanova one of the main figures in the Russian avant-garde movement
Graphic art for political and propaganda purposes
Influenced by Cubism and futurism
Five Year Plan: Soviet practice of increasing agricultural and industrial output in five years, 1928-1932
Emphasis on growth of heavy industry rather than commercial goods
Huge increases in electrical output, (dominant industrial symbol in work)
Double page spread in a book
Red dominates: Color of Communist Soviet Union
CCCP Russian abreviation for Soviet Union
Large portrait of Lenin dominates, although deceased, image used to evoke patriotism, thoughts and ideas of socialism still incorporated in government

Object (Le Dejeuner en Forrure)
Maret Opennheim, 1936, Fur Covered cup, saucer and spoon
Said to have ben done in response to Picasso's claim that anything looks good in fur
Comination of unlike objects, fur and tea set
Erotic overtones ????
An assemblage
Cominaed traditionally female genteel objects vs. masculintiy of sculpture done in hard surfaces in great scale and made vertically
Chosen by visitors of a Surrealist show in New York as the quintessential Surrealist piece
Fame came to her young as she was 22 when she produced this work, and this allowed her to grow as an artist
Object (Le Dejeuner en Forrure)

Maret Opennheim, 1936, Fur Covered cup, saucer and spoon

Said to have ben done in response to Picasso’s claim that anything looks good in fur
Comination of unlike objects, fur and tea set
Erotic overtones ????
An assemblage
Cominaed traditionally female genteel objects vs. masculintiy of sculpture done in hard surfaces in great scale and made vertically
Chosen by visitors of a Surrealist show in New York as the quintessential Surrealist piece
Fame came to her young as she was 22 when she produced this work, and this allowed her to grow as an artist

The Two Fridas
Frida Kahlo, 1939, Oil on Canvas
Surrealism
Juxtaposition of two self portraits
Left: Kahlo as a Spanish lady in white lace
Right: Kahlo dressed as a Mexican peasant, stiffness and provincial quality of Mexican folk art serves as direct inspiration
Her two hearts are twined together by veins that are cut by scissors at one end and lead to a portrait of her husband, artist Rivera, at other, painted at the time of their divorce
Barrne landscape, two figures sit agsint wildly active sky
Kahlo rejected the label of Surrealism for her artwork
Vein acts as umbilical cord, symbolically associating Rivera as a husband and son
Blood on her lap suggests many abortions/miscarriages also her surgeris related to her polio
Dual nature of her being with and without Diego
The Two Fridas

Frida Kahlo, 1939, Oil on Canvas

Surrealism
Juxtaposition of two self portraits
Left: Kahlo as a Spanish lady in white lace
Right: Kahlo dressed as a Mexican peasant, stiffness and provincial quality of Mexican folk art serves as direct inspiration
Her two hearts are twined together by veins that are cut by scissors at one end and lead to a portrait of her husband, artist Rivera, at other, painted at the time of their divorce
Barrne landscape, two figures sit agsint wildly active sky
Kahlo rejected the label of Surrealism for her artwork
Vein acts as umbilical cord, symbolically associating Rivera as a husband and son
Blood on her lap suggests many abortions/miscarriages also her surgeris related to her polio
Dual nature of her being with and without Diego

The Jungle
Wifredo Lam,1943, Gouache on paper mounted on canvas
Surrealism
Cuban born artist whose career took him to Europe and the United States
Interested in cuban culture, mix of hispanic and african
Influenced by african sculpture, cubist works, surrealist paintings
Intended to communicate a psychic state of mind
Addresses the history of slavery in colonial cuba
Crescent shaped faces suggest African masks
Rounded backs thin arms/legs, pronounced hands/feet
Meant to suggest sugarcane, which are grown in fields not jungles
Different than most other cuban artwork which was catered to tourists
Showed the reality of cuban life which many people thought was fun and joyful due to its location as a tourist place
The Jungle

Wifredo Lam,1943, Gouache on paper mounted on canvas

Surrealism
Cuban born artist whose career took him to Europe and the United States
Interested in cuban culture, mix of hispanic and african
Influenced by african sculpture, cubist works, surrealist paintings
Intended to communicate a psychic state of mind
Addresses the history of slavery in colonial cuba
Crescent shaped faces suggest African masks
Rounded backs thin arms/legs, pronounced hands/feet
Meant to suggest sugarcane, which are grown in fields not jungles
Different than most other cuban artwork which was catered to tourists
Showed the reality of cuban life which many people thought was fun and joyful due to its location as a tourist place

Fallingwater
Frank Lloyd Wright, Pennsylvania,1936-1939, Reinforced concrete, sandstone, steel, glass
Natural Architecture
Cantelevered porches extend over waterfall
Archiecture in harmony with site
Living room has glass curtarin wall around 3 of the 4 sides
Floor of living room made with stone from the area
Fireplace is in the center of the house with a outcropping of natural stones around it
Suppression of space devoted to hanging a painting
Effort to have architecture dominate
Irregular and complex design
Fallingwater

Frank Lloyd Wright, Pennsylvania,1936-1939, Reinforced concrete, sandstone, steel, glass

Natural Architecture
Cantelevered porches extend over waterfall
Archiecture in harmony with site
Living room has glass curtarin wall around 3 of the 4 sides
Floor of living room made with stone from the area
Fireplace is in the center of the house with a outcropping of natural stones around it
Suppression of space devoted to hanging a painting
Effort to have architecture dominate
Irregular and complex design

Falling water plan
Frank Lloyd Wright, Pennsylvania,1936-1939, Reinforced concrete, sandstone, steel, glass
Natural Architecture
Cantelevered porches extend over waterfall
Archiecture in harmony with site
Horizontallity stressed showing influence from his previous prarie houses
Living room has glass curtarin wall around 3 of the 4 sides
Floor of living room made with stone from the area
Fireplace is in the center of the house with a outcropping of natural stones around it
Suppression of space devoted to hanging a painting
Effort to have architecture dominate
Irregular and complex design
Falling water plan

Frank Lloyd Wright, Pennsylvania,1936-1939, Reinforced concrete, sandstone, steel, glass

Natural Architecture
Cantelevered porches extend over waterfall
Archiecture in harmony with site
Horizontallity stressed showing influence from his previous prarie houses
Living room has glass curtarin wall around 3 of the 4 sides
Floor of living room made with stone from the area
Fireplace is in the center of the house with a outcropping of natural stones around it
Suppression of space devoted to hanging a painting
Effort to have architecture dominate
Irregular and complex design

Migration of the Negro, Panel no. 49
Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941, Casein tempera on hardboard
Haarlem Renaissance
Series of 60 paintings depicting the migration of African Americas from the rural south to urban north after WWI
overall color unity in the series unites each piece
Forms hover in large spaces
Flat simple shapes
Unmodulated colors
Collective African American experience, not focused on an individual
Unity achieved by painting one color across many panels before going on to the next color
Angular forms
This scene involves a public restaurant in the north, segregation emphasized by the yellow poles that zig zag down the center
Tiltied table tops shows the surface of the table
Narrative painting in an era where abstraction was common
Whites look away and are preoccupied, trying not to acknowledge the AA's
THe AA's are very isolated amongst each other and in the scene
Migration of the Negro, Panel no. 49

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941, Casein tempera on hardboard

Haarlem Renaissance
Series of 60 paintings depicting the migration of African Americas from the rural south to urban north after WWI
overall color unity in the series unites each piece
Forms hover in large spaces
Flat simple shapes
Unmodulated colors
Collective African American experience, not focused on an individual
Unity achieved by painting one color across many panels before going on to the next color
Angular forms
This scene involves a public restaurant in the north, segregation emphasized by the yellow poles that zig zag down the center
Tiltied table tops shows the surface of the table
Narrative painting in an era where abstraction was common
Whites look away and are preoccupied, trying not to acknowledge the AA’s
THe AA’s are very isolated amongst each other and in the scene

Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Park
Diego Rivero, 1947/1948, Fresco
50 foot long fresco, 13ft tall
Originally in the lobby of the hotel Del Prado
After 1985 earthquake destabalized thet hotel it was placed in Alameda Park (Mexico City's first park, on grounds of an Aztec marketplace)
Three eras depicted: Conquest/Colonization by Spanish
Porfirio Diaz dictatorship
Revolution of 1910
Depicts a who's who of Mexican politics/culture
Sor Juana
Benito Juarez (5 time president)
General Santa Ana holding the keys of Mexico to General Winfield Scott
Emperor Maximillian and Empress Carlota
Jose Marti (father of Mexican independence)
General Diaz with medals asleep
Francisco Madero (Martyred President)
Artist in center at age 10 holidings hands with Caterina (death) dreaming of a perfect love (Kahlo who is behind him)
Horro Vacvui
Colorful painting
Revival of fresco painting
Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Park

Diego Rivero, 1947/1948, Fresco
50 foot long fresco, 13ft tall
Originally in the lobby of the hotel Del Prado
After 1985 earthquake destabalized thet hotel it was placed in Alameda Park (Mexico City’s first park, on grounds of an Aztec marketplace)
Three eras depicted: Conquest/Colonization by Spanish
Porfirio Diaz dictatorship
Revolution of 1910
Depicts a who’s who of Mexican politics/culture
Sor Juana
Benito Juarez (5 time president)
General Santa Ana holding the keys of Mexico to General Winfield Scott
Emperor Maximillian and Empress Carlota
Jose Marti (father of Mexican independence)
General Diaz with medals asleep
Francisco Madero (Martyred President)
Artist in center at age 10 holidings hands with Caterina (death) dreaming of a perfect love (Kahlo who is behind him)
Horro Vacvui
Colorful painting
Revival of fresco painting

Fountain 
Marcel Duchamp, 1950 (2nd verision), China with black paint
Dada
Ready made sculpture, a found object Duchamp believed to be a work of art
Entered in an unjuried show, work was refused
SIgned by
Fountain

Marcel Duchamp, 1950 (2nd verision), China with black paint

Dada
Ready made sculpture, a found object Duchamp believed to be a work of art
Entered in an unjuried show, work was refused
SIgned by “artist” R. Mutt as a pun after the Mutt and Jeff comic strip and Mott Iron Works
Title fountaina pun, fountains spout liquid, urinal meant to collect it
Added irony by placing it upside down

Woman I
William de Kooning, 1950-1952, Oil on Canvas
Abstract Expressionism
Ferocious woman with great fierce teeth and huge eyes
Large bulbous breasts are a satire on women who appear in magazine advertising, smile influenced by an ad of a woman selling Camel cigarettes
Slashing of paint onto canvas, very energetic
Jagged lines create overpowering image
Blank stare, frozen grin
Ambiguous environment, vagueness and sense of insecurity
Combination of stereotypes, ironic comment on the banal and artificial world of advertising
One of a series of 6 woman 
Thick and black lines dominate
Woman I

William de Kooning, 1950-1952, Oil on Canvas

Abstract Expressionism
Ferocious woman with great fierce teeth and huge eyes
Large bulbous breasts are a satire on women who appear in magazine advertising, smile influenced by an ad of a woman selling Camel cigarettes
Slashing of paint onto canvas, very energetic
Jagged lines create overpowering image
Blank stare, frozen grin
Ambiguous environment, vagueness and sense of insecurity
Combination of stereotypes, ironic comment on the banal and artificial world of advertising
One of a series of 6 woman
Thick and black lines dominate

Seagram Building
Mies van der Rohe, New York City,1954-1958, Steel frame with glass curtain wall and bronze 
International Style
Reflection of minimalist movement going on
Seagram Building

Mies van der Rohe, New York City,1954-1958, Steel frame with glass curtain wall and bronze

International Style
Reflection of minimalist movement going on
“Less is more” seen on building with great simplicity, geometry of design and elegance of construction
Set back from the street on a wide plaza balanced by reflecting pools
Broze veneer gives the skyscraper a monolithic look
INterplay of vertical and horizontal accents
Steel/glass skyscraper became model building after WWII

Marilyn Diptych
Andy Warhol, 1962, Oil, Acrylic, Silk screen enamel on Canvas
Pop art
Screen printing photographic images onto backgrounds of rectangular shapes
Repeated imagery drains the image of Monroe of meaning
50 images from a film still from a Movie, Niagara
Reproduction of many denies the concept of work of art
Left in color, represents life, right in black/white represents death,
Done 4 months after her death
Marilyns public face appears highlight by bold, artificial colors
Social characterisitics magnified, brilliance of blonde hiar, heavy applied lipstick, seductive expression
Marilyn Diptych, Warhol, 1962- made shortly after her death, capatilzed on media frenzy that death prompted over her, selected iconic public image, unsual colores and flat application contribute to mask like quality, like coke bottles the repetition shows how important she was in consumer culture, right side of work references the movie that she got her fame with its poor pigment registration
Marilyn Diptych
Andy Warhol, 1962, Oil, Acrylic, Silk screen enamel on Canvas
Pop art
Screen printing photographic images onto backgrounds of rectangular shapes
Repeated imagery drains the image of Monroe of meaning
50 images from a film still from a Movie, Niagara
Reproduction of many denies the concept of work of art
Left in color, represents life, right in black/white represents death,
Done 4 months after her death
Marilyns public face appears highlight by bold, artificial colors
Social characterisitics magnified, brilliance of blonde hiar, heavy applied lipstick, seductive expression

Marilyn Diptych, Warhol, 1962- made shortly after her death, capatilzed on media frenzy that death prompted over her, selected iconic public image, unsual colores and flat application contribute to mask like quality, like coke bottles the repetition shows how important she was in consumer culture, right side of work references the movie that she got her fame with its poor pigment registration

Narcissus Garden
Yayoi Kusama, 1966 (First time), installation of mirrored balls
Happening/Installation
Internationally renowned Japanese born artist
Got her start by showing large owrks of art featuring polka dots
Innovator of Happenings
Works in wide variety of media
Artist originally featured work as non-participant of Venice Biennale
1500 large mirrored, stainless steel balls placed on a lawn under a sign saying
Narcissus Garden

Yayoi Kusama, 1966 (First time), installation of mirrored balls

Happening/Installation
Internationally renowned Japanese born artist
Got her start by showing large owrks of art featuring polka dots
Innovator of Happenings
Works in wide variety of media
Artist originally featured work as non-participant of Venice Biennale
1500 large mirrored, stainless steel balls placed on a lawn under a sign saying “Your Narcissism for Sale”
Artist offered balls for sale $2 each, commentary on commercialism and vanity of current art world
Narcissus refers to ancient myth of Narcissus yougn man who stares at his own image in water for years until he becomes a flower
Installation later moved to water, floating ballas reflect natural environment, making stronger connection with the myth
Balls made with currents of water and wind, reflecting organically made ever changing view points
Installation has been to many places both in water and dry spaces

The Bay
Helen Frankenthaler, 1963, Acrylic on Canvas
Color field painting
Painted directly on unprimed canvas
Uses a run paint, sometimes thinned out
Uses landscape as a starting point, basis for imagery in works
Accentuates the 2-Dimensionality of a canvas
Worked in avant garde New York School
PPA, color-field painting diluted paint is poured onto unprimed canvas and soaks in, basic properties of art are emphasized, technique results in literal flatness unlike any other, appears spontaneous and accidental
The Bay

Helen Frankenthaler, 1963, Acrylic on Canvas

Color field painting
Painted directly on unprimed canvas
Uses a run paint, sometimes thinned out
Uses landscape as a starting point, basis for imagery in works
Accentuates the 2-Dimensionality of a canvas
Worked in avant garde New York School

PPA, color-field painting diluted paint is poured onto unprimed canvas and soaks in, basic properties of art are emphasized, technique results in literal flatness unlike any other, appears spontaneous and accidental

Lipstick on Caterpillar Tracks
Claes Oldenburg, 1969-1974, Steel, aluminum, cast resin, painted with polyurethane enamel, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut
Pop Art
First installed on Beinecke Plaza New Haven, 1969
Intended as a platfor m for public speakers, rallying point for anti vietnam era protests
Erected in secret
Tank shaped base with lipstick ascending, anti-war symbolism
Male/Female forms unite, themes of death,power,desire, and sensuality
Sculpture made of inexpensive perishable materials
Refurbished with steel, aluminum, fiberglass, reinstalled in 1974 at yale
First monumental sculpture by Oldenburg
Juxtaposition implied that the U.S. obsession with beauty and consumption both fueled and distracted from the ongoing violence in Vietnam.
Lipstick on Caterpillar Tracks

Claes Oldenburg, 1969-1974, Steel, aluminum, cast resin, painted with polyurethane enamel, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut

Pop Art
First installed on Beinecke Plaza New Haven, 1969
Intended as a platfor m for public speakers, rallying point for anti vietnam era protests
Erected in secret
Tank shaped base with lipstick ascending, anti-war symbolism
Male/Female forms unite, themes of death,power,desire, and sensuality
Sculpture made of inexpensive perishable materials
Refurbished with steel, aluminum, fiberglass, reinstalled in 1974 at yale
First monumental sculpture by Oldenburg
Juxtaposition implied that the U.S. obsession with beauty and consumption both fueled and distracted from the ongoing violence in Vietnam.

Spiral Jetty
Robert Smithson, 1970, Great Salt Lake Utah, Mud, Salt, rocks, water coil
Coil of rock in part of Great Salt Lake; located in extremely remote inaccessible area featuring abandoned mines/equipment
When waking on Jetty, twisting path changes view of the landscape at every angle
USed a tractor with native stone to create the jetty
Jetty supposed to be a pier in the water, transformed into a curl of rocks sitting silently in a vast empty wilderness
Coil is image common in North American earthworks such as Serpent Mound Ohio
Artist like the blood red color of water due to presence of bacteria that live in high salt concentration
Spiral Jetty

Robert Smithson, 1970, Great Salt Lake Utah, Mud, Salt, rocks, water coil

Coil of rock in part of Great Salt Lake; located in extremely remote inaccessible area featuring abandoned mines/equipment
When waking on Jetty, twisting path changes view of the landscape at every angle
USed a tractor with native stone to create the jetty
Jetty supposed to be a pier in the water, transformed into a curl of rocks sitting silently in a vast empty wilderness
Coil is image common in North American earthworks such as Serpent Mound Ohio
Artist like the blood red color of water due to presence of bacteria that live in high salt concentration

House in Newcastle County
Robert Venturi, John Rauch, Denise Brown, 1978-1983, Delaware
Postmodern Architecture
House designed for family of three
Wife musician hence music room with many instruments
Husband bird watcher henve large windows facing the woods
Post modern mix of historical styles
Venturi's comment on International style
House in Newcastle County

Robert Venturi, John Rauch, Denise Brown, 1978-1983, Delaware

Postmodern Architecture
House designed for family of three
Wife musician hence music room with many instruments
Husband bird watcher henve large windows facing the woods
Post modern mix of historical styles
Venturi’s comment on International style “Less is bore”
Amusingly cut out asymmetrical parody of a Neoclassical portico
Asserted against form should follow function and that a structure should have decorative forms of everyday life that enwrap its core

Interior view too
Chavin de Huantar Plan
900-200 B.C.E. Peru
Religious capital of the Chavin
temple was 60 meters tall adorned by a jaguar sculpture, a symbol of power/strength
Hidden entrance to the temple led to stone corridors
Chavin de Huantar Plan

900-200 B.C.E. Peru

Religious capital of the Chavin
temple was 60 meters tall adorned by a jaguar sculpture, a symbol of power/strength
Hidden entrance to the temple led to stone corridors

Chavin de Hunatar 
900-200 B.C.E. Peru
Religious capital of the Chavin
temple was 60 meters tall adorned by a jaguar sculpture, a symbol of power/strength
Hidden entrance to the temple led to stone corridors
Located o the ruins of a stairway at Chavin
Shows jaguars in a shallow relief
Chavin de Hunatar

900-200 B.C.E. Peru

Religious capital of the Chavin
temple was 60 meters tall adorned by a jaguar sculpture, a symbol of power/strength
Hidden entrance to the temple led to stone corridors
Located o the ruins of a stairway at Chavin
Shows jaguars in a shallow relief

Chavin de Huantar Lanzon Stela
Granite
insdie the Old temple of Chavin, large maze-like system of hallways
Center underground in the Lanzon
15 ft tall, blade shape
Depicts powerful figure part human (body) and part animal (claws/fangs)
Head of snakes and face of a jaguar
Eyebrows terminate in snakes
Flat relief, designs in a curvilinear patter
Served as a cult figure
Center of pilgrimage, few had access to this sacred stone
Modern scholars believe the stone acted as an oracle hence its importance in the pilgrimage
Chavin de Huantar Lanzon Stela

Granite

insdie the Old temple of Chavin, large maze-like system of hallways
Center underground in the Lanzon
15 ft tall, blade shape
Depicts powerful figure part human (body) and part animal (claws/fangs)
Head of snakes and face of a jaguar
Eyebrows terminate in snakes
Flat relief, designs in a curvilinear patter
Served as a cult figure
Center of pilgrimage, few had access to this sacred stone
Modern scholars believe the stone acted as an oracle hence its importance in the pilgrimage

Chavin de Huantar
Worn by males and females under the nose
held in place by the semi-circular section at the top
two snake heads extend on either side
makes the wearer into a supernatural being during ceremonies/rituals
Symbolized power and wealth of wearer as well as adherence to religion
Chavin de Huantar

Worn by males and females under the nose
held in place by the semi-circular section at the top
two snake heads extend on either side
makes the wearer into a supernatural being during ceremonies/rituals
Symbolized power and wealth of wearer as well as adherence to religion

Mesa Verde Cliff Dwelling
Montezuma County, Colorado, Anasazi, 450-1300 C.E., Sandstone
Pueblos built into the side of cliffs, housed about 250 people
Clans moved together for mutual support and defense
Top-ledge stores all supplies, cool/dry area out of way only accessible by ladder
Plaza in front of abode structure; kivas face the plaza
each family recevied one room in the dwelling
Farming done on plateau above the pueblo everything had to be imported into the structure including water.
Mesa Verde Cliff Dwelling

Montezuma County, Colorado, Anasazi, 450-1300 C.E., Sandstone

Pueblos built into the side of cliffs, housed about 250 people
Clans moved together for mutual support and defense
Top-ledge stores all supplies, cool/dry area out of way only accessible by ladder
Plaza in front of abode structure; kivas face the plaza
each family recevied one room in the dwelling
Farming done on plateau above the pueblo everything had to be imported into the structure including water.

Yaxchilan Stucture 40
City set on a high terrace, the plaza was surrounded by important buildings, flourished 300-800 C.E.
Built by Bird Jaguar IV, possibly his son who dedicated the structure to his father
Overlooks the main plaza of the town
Three doors lead to a central room decorated with stucco
Roof remains intact, large roof comb or ornamented stone tops of roofs
Corbel arch interior
Yaxchilan Stucture 40
City set on a high terrace, the plaza was surrounded by important buildings, flourished 300-800 C.E.
Built by Bird Jaguar IV, possibly his son who dedicated the structure to his father
Overlooks the main plaza of the town
Three doors lead to a central room decorated with stucco
Roof remains intact, large roof comb or ornamented stone tops of roofs
Corbel arch interior
Yaxchilan Lintel 25 Structure 23 
Lintel originally set above the central doorway of structure 23
Building dedicated to Lady Xoc
Lady Xoc at the bottom right invokes the vision serpent to commemorate her husbands rise to the throne
She holds a bowl with bloodletting ceremonial items, stinging spine and bloodstained paper
Vision serpent has two heads, one has warrior coming from mouth, other has Tlaloc, a war god
Inscription written as mirror image, extemely unusual in Mayan script, uncertain meaing, possibly indicating she has a vision from the other side of existence, and she is acting as a shaman
Yaxchilan Lintel 25 Structure 23

Lintel originally set above the central doorway of structure 23
Building dedicated to Lady Xoc
Lady Xoc at the bottom right invokes the vision serpent to commemorate her husbands rise to the throne
She holds a bowl with bloodletting ceremonial items, stinging spine and bloodstained paper
Vision serpent has two heads, one has warrior coming from mouth, other has Tlaloc, a war god
Inscription written as mirror image, extemely unusual in Mayan script, uncertain meaing, possibly indicating she has a vision from the other side of existence, and she is acting as a shaman

Structure 33 Yaxchilan
Restored temple structure
Remains of roof comb with perforations
3 central doorways lead to single large room
Corbel arch interior
Structure 33 Yaxchilan
Restored temple structure
Remains of roof comb with perforations
3 central doorways lead to single large room
Corbel arch interior
Great Serpent Mound
Southern Ohio, 1070, earthwork mound
Many mounds were enlarged/changed over years, not built at one moment
Effigy (model of a person) mounds popular in Mississpian culture
Influenced by comets, astrological phenomena, head pointed to summer solstice sunset
Rattlesnake as a symbol in Mississippian iconography, play a role interpreting this mound
Snakes associated with crop fertility
No burials or temples associated with the mound
Possible representation of Hailey's Comet
Great Serpent Mound

Southern Ohio, 1070, earthwork mound

Many mounds were enlarged/changed over years, not built at one moment
Effigy (model of a person) mounds popular in Mississpian culture
Influenced by comets, astrological phenomena, head pointed to summer solstice sunset
Rattlesnake as a symbol in Mississippian iconography, play a role interpreting this mound
Snakes associated with crop fertility
No burials or temples associated with the mound
Possible representation of Hailey’s Comet

Temple Mayor
Tenochtitlan laid on grid, city seen as center of world
Two temples on pyramid each with separate staircase
Left dedicated to Tlaloc god of rain, agriculture
Right dedicated to Huitzilpochtli, god of sun/war
Spring and autumn equinoxes: sun rises between the two
large braziers put on top where sacred fires burned 
Began in 1375, rebuilt 6 times, destroyed by Spanish in 1520
Temple Mayor

Tenochtitlan laid on grid, city seen as center of world
Two temples on pyramid each with separate staircase
Left dedicated to Tlaloc god of rain, agriculture
Right dedicated to Huitzilpochtli, god of sun/war
Spring and autumn equinoxes: sun rises between the two
large braziers put on top where sacred fires burned
Began in 1375, rebuilt 6 times, destroyed by Spanish in 1520

Coyolxauhqui Stone
Coyolxauhqui Stone
Calendar Stone
Basalt
Circular shape reflects the cyclic nature of time
palce where rituals took place on certain days
Aztecs felt they needed to feed the sun god human hearts/blood regularly
Tonge in center of stone coming from gods mouth used as sacrificial flint knife used to slash open enemies
Used as an altar to murder victims, then thrown down steps to Coyolxauhqui
Calendar Stone

Basalt

Circular shape reflects the cyclic nature of time
palce where rituals took place on certain days
Aztecs felt they needed to feed the sun god human hearts/blood regularly
Tonge in center of stone coming from gods mouth used as sacrificial flint knife used to slash open enemies
Used as an altar to murder victims, then thrown down steps to Coyolxauhqui

Olmec Style Mask
Jadeite
Found on site,actually much older work executed by Olmecs
Olmec works have characteristic frown on face, pugnacious visage, heavy lidded eyes, headgear suggested
Shows Aztecs collected/embraced art of other culture
Olmec Style Mask

Jadeite

Found on site,actually much older work executed by Olmecs
Olmec works have characteristic frown on face, pugnacious visage, heavy lidded eyes, headgear suggested
Shows Aztecs collected/embraced art of other culture

Ruler's headdress of Motecuhzoma II
Aztec, 1428-1520, Feathers and gold
400 long green feathers are tails of sacred quetzal birds, male birds produce only two such feathers each
400 symbolizes eternity
Only known feather headdress worldwide
Probably part of collection of artifacts given by montezuma to Cortez for Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor
Ruler’s headdress of Motecuhzoma II

Aztec, 1428-1520, Feathers and gold

400 long green feathers are tails of sacred quetzal birds, male birds produce only two such feathers each
400 symbolizes eternity
Only known feather headdress worldwide
Probably part of collection of artifacts given by montezuma to Cortez for Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor

City of Cusco plan, Peru
Historic capital of the Incas
Shape of Puma, royal animal
Modern plaza where Pumas belly would be
Head a fortress, heart a central square
City of Cusco plan, Peru
Historic capital of the Incas
Shape of Puma, royal animal
Modern plaza where Pumas belly would be
Head a fortress, heart a central square
Qorikancha, Santo Domingo Peru
Remains of the Incan temple of the Sun form the base of the newly built temple on top
Original exterior walls of temple decorated with gold to symbolize sunshine
Ashlar mansonry used, carefully cut/grooved beveled edges to fit perfectly together as if poored with concrete
Qorikancha means the golden enclosure and it was at one time the most important temple in the Incan Empire
Once was an observatory for priests to chart the skies
interior courtyard siad to be entirely covered in gold
Walls taper upward, example of Incan trapezoidal architecture
Qorikancha, Santo Domingo Peru

Remains of the Incan temple of the Sun form the base of the newly built temple on top
Original exterior walls of temple decorated with gold to symbolize sunshine
Ashlar mansonry used, carefully cut/grooved beveled edges to fit perfectly together as if poored with concrete
Qorikancha means the golden enclosure and it was at one time the most important temple in the Incan Empire
Once was an observatory for priests to chart the skies
interior courtyard siad to be entirely covered in gold
Walls taper upward, example of Incan trapezoidal architecture

Walls at Saqsa Waman
Complex outside the city of Cusco, peru at head of the Puma shaped plan of the city
Ashlar Masonry
Ramparts contain stones weighing up to 70 tons, brought from quarry 2 miles away
Walls at Saqsa Waman

Complex outside the city of Cusco, peru at head of the Puma shaped plan of the city
Ashlar Masonry
Ramparts contain stones weighing up to 70 tons, brought from quarry 2 miles away

Machu Picchu
1450-1540 granite, Peru
Original function as royal retreat for Inca
Used as an estate of the 15th century Incan rulers
So remote that it couldnt be used as administrative center
buildings built of stone and meant to fit in seamlessly with the surroundings
200 buildings most houses some temples, palaces, baths in trapezoidal shape
Large windows in houses for astronomical purposes
terrace farming
Machu Picchu

1450-1540 granite, Peru

Original function as royal retreat for Inca
Used as an estate of the 15th century Incan rulers
So remote that it couldnt be used as administrative center
buildings built of stone and meant to fit in seamlessly with the surroundings
200 buildings most houses some temples, palaces, baths in trapezoidal shape
Large windows in houses for astronomical purposes
terrace farming

look at obersavatory used for astronomy and had ashlar mansonry
Intihuatana Stone
Machu Picchu Peru granite 1450/1550
Intihuatana means
Intihuatana Stone

Machu Picchu Peru granite 1450/1550

Intihuatana means “hitching post of the sun” aligns with the sun at the spring/autumn equinoxes when sun directly over pillar making no shadows, during this time a ceremony would be held

All To'qapu
Inca 1450/1550 Camelid fiber, cotton
Rectangular shape, slit in center for head then tunic is folded in half and sides sewn for arms
Compistion of small geometric shapes called t'oqapu
each individual t'oqapu symbolic of a certain thing
Many many t'oqapu depicted
wearing this garment indicates status in society
possibly worn by incan ruler
shows incan preference for abstract designs that are standardized and express unity/order
All To’qapu

Inca 1450/1550 Camelid fiber, cotton

Rectangular shape, slit in center for head then tunic is folded in half and sides sewn for arms
Compistion of small geometric shapes called t’oqapu
each individual t’oqapu symbolic of a certain thing
Many many t’oqapu depicted
wearing this garment indicates status in society
possibly worn by incan ruler
shows incan preference for abstract designs that are standardized and express unity/order

Maize Cobs
Inca 1400-1533 Metal alloys
Maize was principal food source in the andes
Celebrated by having sculptures made out of sheet metal
Black maize common in Peru, oxidized silver reflects that
May have been par t of a garden of full sized metal sculptures 
May used to ensure success in the harvest
Repousse technique used
Maize Cobs

Inca 1400-1533 Metal alloys

Maize was principal food source in the andes
Celebrated by having sculptures made out of sheet metal
Black maize common in Peru, oxidized silver reflects that
May have been par t of a garden of full sized metal sculptures
May used to ensure success in the harvest
Repousse technique used

Bandolier Bag
1850, Lenape, Delaware
Bandolier bag large heavily beaded pouch with slit at top
bag held at hip level with strap across the chest
constructed of trade cloth, cotton, wool, velvet, or leather
beadwork not done in the americas before european influence
beads imported from Europe
Prestige object for women
Native american and european motifs
functional and beautiful
Bandolier Bag

1850, Lenape, Delaware

Bandolier bag large heavily beaded pouch with slit at top
bag held at hip level with strap across the chest
constructed of trade cloth, cotton, wool, velvet, or leather
beadwork not done in the americas before european influence
beads imported from Europe
Prestige object for women
Native american and european motifs
functional and beautiful

Transformation mask, Kwakiutl
Northern Canada, Late 19th century
Ritual mask worn by native tribes in the northwest 
Worn over the head as a part of a full body suit
Wearer uses strings to open/close mask during ritual
Bird exterior opens up to human face on interior
During the moment where the mask opens the viewer turns his back to the audience to heighten the mystery
Transformation theme central aspect of art/religion of the Americas
Transformation mask, Kwakiutl

Northern Canada, Late 19th century

Ritual mask worn by native tribes in the northwest
Worn over the head as a part of a full body suit
Wearer uses strings to open/close mask during ritual
Bird exterior opens up to human face on interior
During the moment where the mask opens the viewer turns his back to the audience to heighten the mystery
Transformation theme central aspect of art/religion of the Americas

Paint Elk Hide
Cotsiogo, Wyoming, 1890-1900
Worn as a rove over the shoulders of a warrior
Warrior's deeds celebrated on the hide
Conveyed biographical details, personal accomplishments, heroism in battle
Men painted hides to narrate their events
Eventually painted hides for European/ American markets
Depicted traditional aspects of teh Plains people culture that were nostalgic rather that practical, bison hunt with the bow and arrow, nomadic hunting almost gone, bison nearly extinct
Bison seen as gifts from the Creator, god
Horses commonly used at time, liberated the Plains people 
Sun dance done around a bison head, but outlawed by US as threat to order shown
Sun dance is where men dance, others sing, prepare feast, drum, construct a teepee, a house made of hide stretched over poles
Exterior poles reach the spirit world or sky
Paint Elk Hide

Cotsiogo, Wyoming, 1890-1900

Worn as a rove over the shoulders of a warrior
Warrior’s deeds celebrated on the hide
Conveyed biographical details, personal accomplishments, heroism in battle
Men painted hides to narrate their events
Eventually painted hides for European/ American markets
Depicted traditional aspects of teh Plains people culture that were nostalgic rather that practical, bison hunt with the bow and arrow, nomadic hunting almost gone, bison nearly extinct
Bison seen as gifts from the Creator, god
Horses commonly used at time, liberated the Plains people
Sun dance done around a bison head, but outlawed by US as threat to order shown
Sun dance is where men dance, others sing, prepare feast, drum, construct a teepee, a house made of hide stretched over poles
Exterior poles reach the spirit world or sky

Black on black ceramic vessel
Maria Montoya Martinez and husband Julian, San Ildelfonso Pueblo, New Mexico, 20th century, Blackware ceramic
Black on black features with highly polished geometric designs on a matte background; Achieved by using extensive polishing special firing in an oxygen-poor atmosphere
Comes from 100 year old tradition of pottery
At time production declining in pueblos as modern life taking hold
Maria made the pots and revived old techniques to produce forms of striking shape, proportion, and texture, while Julian painted them
Decorative, abstract motifs symbolizing the forces of nature
Very symmetrical with even thickness throughout
Black on black ceramic vessel

Maria Montoya Martinez and husband Julian, San Ildelfonso Pueblo, New Mexico, 20th century, Blackware ceramic

Black on black features with highly polished geometric designs on a matte background; Achieved by using extensive polishing special firing in an oxygen-poor atmosphere
Comes from 100 year old tradition of pottery
At time production declining in pueblos as modern life taking hold
Maria made the pots and revived old techniques to produce forms of striking shape, proportion, and texture, while Julian painted them
Decorative, abstract motifs symbolizing the forces of nature
Very symmetrical with even thickness throughout

Concial tower and circular wall of Great Zimbabwe
South Zimbabwe, Shona Peoples, 1000-1400, Granite blocks
Zimbabwe derives from Shona term meaning venerated house or house of stone
Prosperous trading center and royal complex
Stone enclosure, probly royal residence
Walls 800ft long, 32 ft tall, 17 ft thick at the base
Conical tower modeled on traditional shapes of grain silos, control over food symbolized wealth/power
Wall slope inwards at the top
Passageways very narrow/long so single file line necessary
Tower resembles granery representing good harvest
Concial tower and circular wall of Great Zimbabwe

South Zimbabwe, Shona Peoples, 1000-1400, Granite blocks

Zimbabwe derives from Shona term meaning venerated house or house of stone
Prosperous trading center and royal complex
Stone enclosure, probly royal residence
Walls 800ft long, 32 ft tall, 17 ft thick at the base
Conical tower modeled on traditional shapes of grain silos, control over food symbolized wealth/power
Wall slope inwards at the top
Passageways very narrow/long so single file line necessary
Tower resembles granery representing good harvest

Great Mosque of Djenne
Mali, 1200, Rebuilt in 1906/1907
Three tall towers, central one is a mihrab
Crowning ornaments have ostrich eggs, symbols of fertility and purity
Has many torons, wood beams sticking out from wall
Made of adobe, a baked mixture of clay/straw
Torons act as ladders for maintenance of the building
Vertical fluting drains water of surfaces quickly
Largest mud brick mosque in the world
Great Mosque of Djenne

Mali, 1200, Rebuilt in 1906/1907

Three tall towers, central one is a mihrab
Crowning ornaments have ostrich eggs, symbols of fertility and purity
Has many torons, wood beams sticking out from wall
Made of adobe, a baked mixture of clay/straw
Torons act as ladders for maintenance of the building
Vertical fluting drains water of surfaces quickly
Largest mud brick mosque in the world

Wall plaque of Oba Palace
Edo Peoples, Benin (Nigeria), 16th century, cast brass
900 brass plaques similar to this one, 16-18 inches
Decorated walls of the royal palace of Benin
Part of palace complex where these plaques would be placed on top of wooden pillars
Demonstrate the court life in Benin culture. 
Oba
Wall plaque of Oba Palace

Edo Peoples, Benin (Nigeria), 16th century, cast brass

900 brass plaques similar to this one, 16-18 inches
Decorated walls of the royal palace of Benin
Part of palace complex where these plaques would be placed on top of wooden pillars
Demonstrate the court life in Benin culture.
Oba “King” believed to direct descendant from Oranmiyan (supreme god) and legendary founder of the dynasty
Oba was only one allowed to be shielded in the way depicted
Symbols of high rank are emphasized
Stepping on a fallen leader’s head
Ceremonial scene at court
high relief

Photograph of Oba Benin?
Sika Dwa Kofi
Ashanti Peoples, Ghana, 17th century, gold over wood
Symbol of the Ashanti nation held in Ghana
Contains the stool of the nation
Never actually used as a stool, as it was nver allowed to touch the ground
New king is coronated over the stool
Carried to king on a pillow, he alone is allowed to touch it
Taken out on special occassions
Entire surface inlaid with gold 
Bells hang from the sides to warn the king of danger
Replicas often used in ceremonies but each replica is different
British representative tried to sit on the stool in causing rebellion, (War of the Golden Stool)
Sika Dwa Kofi

Ashanti Peoples, Ghana, 17th century, gold over wood

Symbol of the Ashanti nation held in Ghana
Contains the stool of the nation
Never actually used as a stool, as it was nver allowed to touch the ground
New king is coronated over the stool
Carried to king on a pillow, he alone is allowed to touch it
Taken out on special occassions
Entire surface inlaid with gold
Bells hang from the sides to warn the king of danger
Replicas often used in ceremonies but each replica is different
British representative tried to sit on the stool in causing rebellion, (War of the Golden Stool)

Photograph of it?
Ndop of King Mishe
Kuba Peoples (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 1760-1780, Wood
Ndop figures are commemorative portraits of Kuba rulers, presented in an idealized manner
Not acutaly representation of deceased king, but his spirit
made after the death of the king
Each king is commemorated with symbols on the base of this figure, this king has a sword in left hand with nonagressive stance and handle out
One of the earliest existing African wood sculptures, oldest Ndop in existence
Rubbed with oil to protect them from insects
Acted as surrogate for the king in his absence
Characterized by: Cross-legged pose, seat on base, face uninvolved, peace knife in left hand
Kept in kings shrine with other works as a set of royal charms
Ndop of King Mishe

Kuba Peoples (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 1760-1780, Wood

Ndop figures are commemorative portraits of Kuba rulers, presented in an idealized manner
Not acutaly representation of deceased king, but his spirit
made after the death of the king
Each king is commemorated with symbols on the base of this figure, this king has a sword in left hand with nonagressive stance and handle out
One of the earliest existing African wood sculptures, oldest Ndop in existence
Rubbed with oil to protect them from insects
Acted as surrogate for the king in his absence
Characterized by: Cross-legged pose, seat on base, face uninvolved, peace knife in left hand
Kept in kings shrine with other works as a set of royal charms

photograph
Power Figure
Kongo Peoples, 19th century, Wood/metal
Spirits are embedded in the images
Spirits can be called upon to bless or harm others, cause death, or give life
Nails/blades inserted into work in times of distress or need of protection 
Medical properties are inserted inot the body cavity thought to be a person's life or soul
Alert pose ready to take on what is coming
Often destroyed when in contact with Europeans
Influenced Voodoo dolls in America
Power Figure

Kongo Peoples, 19th century, Wood/metal

Spirits are embedded in the images
Spirits can be called upon to bless or harm others, cause death, or give life
Nails/blades inserted into work in times of distress or need of protection
Medical properties are inserted inot the body cavity thought to be a person’s life or soul
Alert pose ready to take on what is coming
Often destroyed when in contact with Europeans
Influenced Voodoo dolls in America

Female Pwo Mask
Chokwe Peoples, Late 19th century, wood fiber pigment, metal
Female masks used by men in ritual dances
Male dancers are covered with their identities masked, dressed as women and had hair braided
Men also move like women in the ritual
Chokwe a matriarchal society showing importance of women
Depicts female ancestors
Mask usually buried with user
Characterized by: Large eye sockets, pushed in chin, slender nose, high forehead, balanced features, almost closed eyes
Female Pwo Mask

Chokwe Peoples, Late 19th century, wood fiber pigment, metal

Female masks used by men in ritual dances
Male dancers are covered with their identities masked, dressed as women and had hair braided
Men also move like women in the ritual
Chokwe a matriarchal society showing importance of women
Depicts female ancestors
Mask usually buried with user
Characterized by: Large eye sockets, pushed in chin, slender nose, high forehead, balanced features, almost closed eyes

Portrait Mask Mblo
Baule Peoples (Ivory Coast), 20th century, wood/pigment
Presented at Mblo performances in which an individual is honored by having ritual dances and tributes performed for them
Honoree receives mask as gift that reflects as artistic double meant to look like them
Masks comissioned by groups of admirers 
Idealized representation of a real person
Portraits rare in African art
Broad foreheads, large eye sockets, slender, vertical nose
Quiet faces with introspective looks
Portrait Mask Mblo

Baule Peoples (Ivory Coast), 20th century, wood/pigment

Presented at Mblo performances in which an individual is honored by having ritual dances and tributes performed for them
Honoree receives mask as gift that reflects as artistic double meant to look like them
Masks comissioned by groups of admirers
Idealized representation of a real person
Portraits rare in African art
Broad foreheads, large eye sockets, slender, vertical nose
Quiet faces with introspective looks

Bundu Mask
Sande Society (Mende Peoples), 19-20th century, wood, cloth, fiber
Only African wooden mask worn by women
Idealized the female beauty
Elaborate hairstyle symbolizes wealth, worn by women as symbol of status
Large forehead
Small eyes in shape of slits
Tight lipped mouth symbolizing secrets that are never revealed
Sande society was group of women who prepare girls for adulthood and role in society
Women wearing mask would also wear a black gown meant to cover the body (Raffia)
Mask rests on her head, head not placed inside the mask
Mask coated with palm oil to increase the lustrous effects
Black color symbol of water, coolnes, and humanity
Individuality in mask is highlighted
Bundu Mask

Sande Society (Mende Peoples), 19-20th century, wood, cloth, fiber

Only African wooden mask worn by women
Idealized the female beauty
Elaborate hairstyle symbolizes wealth, worn by women as symbol of status
Large forehead
Small eyes in shape of slits
Tight lipped mouth symbolizing secrets that are never revealed
Sande society was group of women who prepare girls for adulthood and role in society
Women wearing mask would also wear a black gown meant to cover the body (Raffia)
Mask rests on her head, head not placed inside the mask
Mask coated with palm oil to increase the lustrous effects
Black color symbol of water, coolnes, and humanity
Individuality in mask is highlighted

Ikenga
Igbo Peoples,Nigeria, 19-20th century, wood
Ikenga means strong right arm indicating physical prowess
Honors the right hand which holds tools or weapons, makes sacrifices, conducts rituals, and alerts to speack at public forums
Traditional masculine associations of strength/potency
Carved from hardwoods considered as masculine
Tells of the owners prosperity, and social rank
Personal god of achievement and success
Requires blessings before use, consecrated with offerings 
Horns symbolize power
Maintained in the males home until he dies where it is destroyed with him
Ikenga

Igbo Peoples,Nigeria, 19-20th century, wood

Ikenga means strong right arm indicating physical prowess
Honors the right hand which holds tools or weapons, makes sacrifices, conducts rituals, and alerts to speack at public forums
Traditional masculine associations of strength/potency
Carved from hardwoods considered as masculine
Tells of the owners prosperity, and social rank
Personal god of achievement and success
Requires blessings before use, consecrated with offerings
Horns symbolize power
Maintained in the males home until he dies where it is destroyed with him

Lukasa
Mbudye Society, Congo, 19-20th century, wood/beads/metal
Memory board used to help user remember key moments in ones life such as: court cases, migrations, heroes, kinship, list of kings
Carved from wood in hourglass shape, adorned with shells/beads/metal
Reader holds lukasa in left hand and traces design with right index finger
Ability to read board limited to few people
Backs resembles a tortoise
Each boards design is unique and represents the divine revelations of a spirit medium expresed in sculptural form
Memory boards controlled by a council of men/women (Mbudye) who interpret events that have occurred thus far in ones life
Zoomorphic elements like crocodile living on land/water, society at time had two rulers
Lukasa

Mbudye Society, Congo, 19-20th century, wood/beads/metal

Memory board used to help user remember key moments in ones life such as: court cases, migrations, heroes, kinship, list of kings
Carved from wood in hourglass shape, adorned with shells/beads/metal
Reader holds lukasa in left hand and traces design with right index finger
Ability to read board limited to few people
Backs resembles a tortoise
Each boards design is unique and represents the divine revelations of a spirit medium expresed in sculptural form
Memory boards controlled by a council of men/women (Mbudye) who interpret events that have occurred thus far in ones life
Zoomorphic elements like crocodile living on land/water, society at time had two rulers

Aka Elephant Mask
Bamileke, 19-20h century, wood/raffia/cloth/beads
Important people in society owned/wore an aka or elephant mask; used at royal court
Worn on important ceremonial occassions
Beadwork symbol of power
Symbolizes features of elephant with long trunk/ears symbolizing strength/power
mask over head and two folds hang down in front
Performance art as masked dancers danced barefoot to a drug 
Human face reprsents dual nature (human/animal)
Aka Elephant Mask

Bamileke, 19-20h century, wood/raffia/cloth/beads

Important people in society owned/wore an aka or elephant mask; used at royal court
Worn on important ceremonial occassions
Beadwork symbol of power
Symbolizes features of elephant with long trunk/ears symbolizing strength/power
mask over head and two folds hang down in front
Performance art as masked dancers danced barefoot to a drug
Human face reprsents dual nature (human/animal)

Reliquary Figure (byeri)
Fang, Cameroon, 19-20th century, wood
Figures placed at top of cylinder-like containers made of bark that hold skulls and other bones of important leaders
Feet dangling over rim in gesture of protecting its contents
Reliquary fiure guards the head box against the gaze of women/boys
Bieri figures composed of characteristics the Fang people place high value on: tranquility, vitality, introspection
Surfaces were rubbed with oil to add luser and protect from insects
Prominent belly buton/genitals emphasize life; prayerful gesture/somber expression are of death
Balance of life/death in same piece 
Abstraction of body influenced by European artists of the 21st century
Reliquary Figure (byeri)

Fang, Cameroon, 19-20th century, wood

Figures placed at top of cylinder-like containers made of bark that hold skulls and other bones of important leaders
Feet dangling over rim in gesture of protecting its contents
Reliquary fiure guards the head box against the gaze of women/boys
Bieri figures composed of characteristics the Fang people place high value on: tranquility, vitality, introspection
Surfaces were rubbed with oil to add luser and protect from insects
Prominent belly buton/genitals emphasize life; prayerful gesture/somber expression are of death
Balance of life/death in same piece
Abstraction of body influenced by European artists of the 21st century

Veranda post of enthroned king and senior wife
Yoruba People, 1910, Wood/pigment
Yoruba peoples carved posts for ruler of their kingdom in Nigeria
One of 4 posts made for the palace at Ikere
Negative space creates an 
openness in composition
King is focal point in relationship between his wife and others represented on post
Behind him his large scale senior wife supports the throne
She crows the king during the coronation, protects him during his reign
Veranda post of enthroned king and senior wife

Yoruba People, 1910, Wood/pigment

Yoruba peoples carved posts for ruler of their kingdom in Nigeria
One of 4 posts made for the palace at Ikere
Negative space creates an
openness in composition
King is focal point in relationship between his wife and others represented on post
Behind him his large scale senior wife supports the throne
She crows the king during the coronation, protects him during his reign

Great Stupa at Sanchi
Madhya Pradesh India, Buddhist, Maurya, 300 B.C.E.-100 C.E.
Buddhist shrine, mound shaped and faced with dressed stone
3 umbrellas at top represent Buddha, Buddha's Law, and the monastic orders
Railing at crest of mound surrounds the umbrellas symbolically a sacred tree
Double stairway at south end leads from base to drum where there is a walkway for circumambulation
Originally painted white
Hemispherical dome, replication of the dome of heaven
Four toranas at entrances, at cardinal points of the compass
Torana is a carved scene on architraves where Buddha not shown but symbolized by empty throne or tree where he would have meditated, some reliefs also represent sacred sites where the Buddha visited
Horror vacui composition, high relief 
600 donors have inscriptions carved into the stupa showing project was funded by both women and men, common people and monks
Great Stupa at Sanchi

Madhya Pradesh India, Buddhist, Maurya, 300 B.C.E.-100 C.E.

Buddhist shrine, mound shaped and faced with dressed stone
3 umbrellas at top represent Buddha, Buddha’s Law, and the monastic orders
Railing at crest of mound surrounds the umbrellas symbolically a sacred tree
Double stairway at south end leads from base to drum where there is a walkway for circumambulation
Originally painted white
Hemispherical dome, replication of the dome of heaven
Four toranas at entrances, at cardinal points of the compass
Torana is a carved scene on architraves where Buddha not shown but symbolized by empty throne or tree where he would have meditated, some reliefs also represent sacred sites where the Buddha visited
Horror vacui composition, high relief
600 donors have inscriptions carved into the stupa showing project was funded by both women and men, common people and monks

Borobudur Temple
Central Java, Indonesia, Saliendra Dynasty, 750-842 C.E., Stone masonry
Massive buddhist monument containing 504 life size buddhas, 1460 relief sculptures, 1300 panels, 8200 ft long, 1500 stupas and 1 million carved blocks of stone
Iconographically complex and intricate, many levels a meaning, reflects Buddhist cosmology
Meant to walked around on each terrace, 6 square terraces with 3 circular tiers with a great stupa at summit
Pyramidial form aligned with the 4 cardinal points
Lower stories represent desire /negative influeneces
Middle areas represent world of forms and control of negative influences
Top is world of forumlas where physical world and desire are left behind
place of pilgrimage
rubble faced with carved volcanic rock, 
Detail is a densely packed scene, horror vacui
Queen is majestic and at rest before giving birth to Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha
brought to the city in a great ceremonial procession
Three umbrellas at top represent the sacred tree where buddha achieved enlightenment; also Buddha, Buddhas Law and buddhist community
Borobudur Temple

Central Java, Indonesia, Saliendra Dynasty, 750-842 C.E., Stone masonry

Massive buddhist monument containing 504 life size buddhas, 1460 relief sculptures, 1300 panels, 8200 ft long, 1500 stupas and 1 million carved blocks of stone
Iconographically complex and intricate, many levels a meaning, reflects Buddhist cosmology
Meant to walked around on each terrace, 6 square terraces with 3 circular tiers with a great stupa at summit
Pyramidial form aligned with the 4 cardinal points
Lower stories represent desire /negative influeneces
Middle areas represent world of forms and control of negative influences
Top is world of forumlas where physical world and desire are left behind
place of pilgrimage
rubble faced with carved volcanic rock,
Detail is a densely packed scene, horror vacui
Queen is majestic and at rest before giving birth to Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha
brought to the city in a great ceremonial procession
Three umbrellas at top represent the sacred tree where buddha achieved enlightenment; also Buddha, Buddhas Law and buddhist community

Shiva as Lord of Dance 
Hindu, India, Chola Dynasty, 11th century, Cast bronze
Vigorously dancing with one foot on dwarf, Demon of Ignorance, often depicted in a flaming nimbus
flying locks of hair terminate in rearing cobra hands
one hand sounds the drum that he dances to another has a flame
Ring of fire surrounding him is the encapsulated universe with endless cycle of periodically destroying the universe so it can be reborn again, moves in tune with the dance
Lower right hand in gesture saying not to be afraid 
unfolds universe out of the drum held in one of his right hands, 
Shiva has a third vertical eye suggested between his two other eyes
Face stays tranquil despite scene of chaos
Shiva as Lord of Dance

Hindu, India, Chola Dynasty, 11th century, Cast bronze

Vigorously dancing with one foot on dwarf, Demon of Ignorance, often depicted in a flaming nimbus
flying locks of hair terminate in rearing cobra hands
one hand sounds the drum that he dances to another has a flame
Ring of fire surrounding him is the encapsulated universe with endless cycle of periodically destroying the universe so it can be reborn again, moves in tune with the dance
Lower right hand in gesture saying not to be afraid
unfolds universe out of the drum held in one of his right hands,
Shiva has a third vertical eye suggested between his two other eyes
Face stays tranquil despite scene of chaos

Lakshmana Temple
Khajuraho India, Hindu, 930-950, Sandstone
placed on high pedestal, series of shapes that build to become a large tower
Lakshmana Temple

Khajuraho India, Hindu, 930-950, Sandstone

placed on high pedestal, series of shapes that build to become a large tower
“embryo” room in center containing a small shrine
ambulatory circles around the inner chamber
corbel led roofs have beehive quality
Hindu temple made grouped with series of other temples
Ashlar Masonry
Bands of horizontal molding unite the building
East/west axis receives direct sunlight
Sculpture harmonious integration with architecture
Sensuous figures with revealing clothing
Erotic poses symbolize regeneration

Lakshmana Temple
Khajuraho India, Hindu, 930-950, Sandstone
placed on high pedestal, series of shapes that build to become a large tower
Lakshmana Temple

Khajuraho India, Hindu, 930-950, Sandstone

placed on high pedestal, series of shapes that build to become a large tower
“embryo” room in center containing a small shrine
ambulatory circles around the inner chamber
corbel led roofs have beehive quality
Hindu temple made grouped with series of other temples
Ashlar Masonry
Bands of horizontal molding unite the building
East/west axis receives direct sunlight
Sculpture harmonious integration with architecture
Sensuous figures with revealing clothi