A & P 1552 -The Brain and Cranial Nerves & The Autonomic Nervous System-College of Dupage

3 protective coverings of brain:
dura, arachnoid and pia mater
Brain blood flow:
brain cells require glucose; 1-2 min loss function; 4 min permanent injury
Blood brain barrier:
most impermeable; protects brain cells from harmful substances from blood into brain tissue
Mechanical protection:
shock absorber-function of CSF
Chemical protection:
perfect environment for signaling nerve impulses-function of CSF
Circulation:
of nutrients and waste product impulses
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Brain Stem:
Most inferior portion of brain; every sensory & motor impulse has to go through brain stem
Medulla Oblongata:
connects to spinal cord; involved w/control of respiration and control of heart rate
Pons:
major controller of respiration as well
Midbrain:
most superior part of brain stem; involved w/visual reflexes (tracking words on paper); involved w/coor of muscle movements
Cerebellum:
inferior & posterior part of brain; involved w/balance & equilibrium; coor of complex movements
Thalamus:
relay station for both sensory & motor impulses; gives idea if something will be enjoyable; involved w/emotions and memory
Hypothalamus:
Inferior to thalamus; involved w/production of hormones, emotions, behavior, regulation of appetite, body temp
Cerebrum:
Most superior part; deeply divided into right & left hemispheres
Gyri:
ridges
Sulci:
shallow grooves
Fissures:
deeper grooves; tend to divide major sections
Cerebral white matter:
bundles or tracts that send information
Association tracts:
conducts impulses between gyri within same hemisphere
Commissural tracts:
conducts impulses from one cerebral hemisphere to another
Projection tracts:
conducts impulses from the cerebrum from the lower parts of the CNS; brain stem, spinal cord, cerebellum
Sensory areas:
Receives sensory imput; interperts info; conscious perception; integration of sensory experiences
Motor areas:
Contractions of muscles such as movement of muscles to produce speech
Association Areas:
Storage of passed memories; more complex learning; complex coordination of muscular movement such as signing name
Olfactory Nerve:
entirely sensory; conducts impulses for the sense of smell
Optic nerve:
entirely sensory; conducts impules for vision
Oculomotor nerve:
mainly motor; involved in extrinsic eye muscle movement such as lens of eye, size of pupil
Trochlear Nerve:
mainly motor; innervates extrinsic eye muscle; proprioception
Trigeminal Nerve:
mixed sensory; carries nerve impulses for touch, pain, thermal sensations in the eyes, nose, mouth, pharynx; control chewing movements
Abducens nerve:
mainly motor; extrinsic eye muscles; eye proprioceptors
Facial Nerve:
mixed sensory; proprioceptors in muscles of face and scalp motor; contraction of facial muscles, lacrimal glands, salivary glands, nasal glands
Vestibulochochlear nerve:
sensory and motor impulses for equilibrium and hearing
Glossopharyngeal nerve:
taste motor; muscles that move pharynx, larynx, secretion of saliva
Vagus nerve:
external ear, taste buds, receptors in aorta, organs of thoracic & abdominal cavities; supply lungs, heart respiratory system, gi tract
Accessory nerve:
swallowing movements, movements of head and shoulders sensory
Hypoglossal nerve:
cranial nerve sensory; proprioceptors in tongue motor movement of tongue during swallowing & speech
Funcions of the Somatic Nervous System:
Sensory and motor functions