A History of Western Music: Chapter 20

Enlightenment
All problems can be solved through scientific observation and reasoning. Increased population, manufacturing, trade, and income. Reason, nature, and progress were the main themes.
The Public Concert
The new way of hearing music that arose in the eighteenth century. Offered opportunities for performers and composers.
Galant Style
(French) Most common term for the new style. Featured songlike melodies, short phrases, frequent cadences, light accompaniment, homophonic. Originated from Italian Operas and Concertos.
Short Phrasing
Hallmark of the classical style in music.
Fluid
The emotions in music during the Classical era.
Empfindsam Style
(German) Surprising harmony, chromaticism, and nervous rhythms. Associated with the music of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Similar to Galant Style.
Academy of Ancient Music
An organization dedicated to performing music of earlier centuries.
Michel-Paul-Guy de Chabanon
Believed that music was a universal language.
Period
A complete musical thought made up of two or more phrases that is concluded by a cadence.
Economic Change
Increased population, manufacturing, trade, and income.
Cosmopolitan Society
Marriages between powerful families. Importance of shared humanity and culture.
Catherine the Great
German princes/Empress of Russia.
Metastasio
Italian poet that worked at the German imperial court in Vienna.
F. M. von Grimm
German writer that gained prominence in Parisian literary and musical circles.
Nationalism
A major theme in the nineteenth century; already begun to emerge by the end of the eighteenth century.
Philosophese
French thinkers that included Voltair, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. Contributed to Denis Diderot’s “Encyclopédie.”
Encyclopédie
Written by Denis Diderot. A key text of the Enlightenment in response to the terrible inequalities of social class and focused on individual human rights.
Humanitariansim
Promoted the welfare of humankind and social reform.
Freemasonry
Teachings of the secret fraternal order of Masons. Founded in London.
Connoisseur
Coined in the early eighteenth century to describe an informal listener who has a taste for the best in music and art.
Charles Burney
Wrote the book A General History of Music. (1776-89)
John Hawkins
Wrote the book A General History of the Science and Practice of Music. (1776)
Johann Nikolaus Forkel
Wrote the book Allgemeine Geschichte der Music. (General History of Music, 1788-1801)
Preferred Music
Vocally conceived melody, short phrases, spare accompaniment.
Charles Batteux
Philosopher that wrote the book Les beaux-arts. (The Fine Arts, 1746) Believed that the task of art is to imitate and perfect nature.
Andreas Werckmeister
Wrote the book Der Edlen Music-Kunst. (The Noble Art of Music, 1691) Believed music was a gift of god and it should be used only in his honor.
Classical Style
Melody over relatively light accompaniment. Simple, clearly articulated harmonic plans; periodic phrasing; clearly portrayed forms based on contrast between themes, keys, stable and unstable passages, and between sections with different functions; and contrasts of mood, style, and figuration within movements as well as between them.
Classical Music
Music in the classical period that covers many centuries and styles. (Includes opera, oratorio, symphony, sonata, string quartet, and art song.)
Classical Period
In music history, the era from about 1730 to about 1815, between and overlapping the Baroque and Romantic Periods.
Periodicity
The quality of being periodic, especially when this is emphasized through frequent resting points and articulations between phrases and periods.
Composition
Two or more periods in succession.
Periodic
Organized in discrete phrases or periods.
Heinrich Christoph Koch
Wrote the book Versuch einer Anlietung zur Composition. (Introductory Essay on Composition) Compared music to rhetoric.
Versuch einer Anlietung zur Composition
(Introductory Essay on Composition) Published in three volumes. Written for amateurs who wanted to learn how to compose.
Phrase
A unit of melody or of an entire musical texture that has a distinct beginning and ending and is followed by a pause or other articulation but does not express a complete musical thought.
Alberti Bass
Broken-chord accompaniment common in the second half of the eighteenth century and named after Domenico Alberti, who used the figuration frequently.
Form
The shape or structure of a composition or movement.