6.4: Traits, Genes, and Alleles

gene
The same ______ can have many versions.
gene
a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein
allele
any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
homozygous
describes two of the same alleles at a specific location; alleles are identical to each other
heterozygous
describes two different alleles at a specific location; alleles are different from each other
genome
all of an organism’s genetic material
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genotype
typically refers to the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
phenotype
the physical characteristics, or traits of an individual organism
dominant
is the allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present
recessive
is the allele that is only expressed when two copies of are present
capital letter (P)
dominant allele
lower case letter (p)
recessive allele
traits
Genes influence the development of ___________.
locus
a specific position on a pair of homologous chromosomes
one
Each parent donates ______ allele for every gene.
letters
Alleles can be represented by using _________.
dominant-recessive
Most traits occur in a range and do not follow simple _________ __________ patterns.
Human Genome Project
a 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health
Goals For HGP
identify, determine, store, improve, transfer, and address the information about the genomes and genes
two
Your cells have ______ alleles for each gene