A. pursed-lip breathing.
B. chronic air trapping in the lungs.
C. a decreased expiratory phase.
D. abdominal muscle use.
A. a history of a stroke.
B. frequent infections.
C. chronic food aspiration.
A. Epiglottitis has become relatively rare in children due to vaccinations against the Haemophilus influenzae type b bacterium.
B. Most cases of epiglottitis are progressive in their onset and result in severe swelling of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
C. Unlike croup, epiglottitis most commonly occurs in the middle of the night, when the outside temperature is cool.
D. Characteristic signs of epiglottitis include a low-grade fever, a seal-like barking cough, and varying degrees of respiratory distress.
A. A child’s airway is narrower than an adult’s, and even minor swelling can result in obstruction.
B. The virus that causes croup replicates far more aggressively in children than it does in adults.
C. Children’s immune systems are not as developed as adults’, so they are more prone to infection.
D. Adults were vaccinated against the virus that causes croup, whereas most children were not.
A. small airway spasms during the inhalation phase, resulting in progressive hypoxia.
B. widespread alveolar collapse due to increased pressure during the exhalation phase.
C. narrowing of the smaller airways that is often reversible with prompt treatment.
D. changes in pulmonary structure and function that are progressive and irreversible.
A. was recently evaluated in an emergency department.
B. takes a bronchodilator and a corticosteroid.
C. was previously intubated for his or her condition.
D. has used his or her inhaler twice in the previous week.
A. setting the oxygen flow rate to at least 6 L/min.
B. starting with CPAP levels above 10 to 15 cm of water.
C. holding the mask to the noncompliant patient’s face.
D. ensuring an adequate mask seal with minimal leakage.
A. Administer a beta-2 agonist drug.
B. Begin assisting his ventilations.
C. Sit him up or place him on his side.
D. Assess his oxygen saturation level.
A. excessive mucus production and a chronic cough.
B. chronic bronchoconstriction of varying severity.
C. bronchospasm, edema, and mucus production.
D. acute, reversible swelling of the laryngeal muscles.
A. administer a beta-2 agonist via nebulizer.
B. auscultate her lungs for adventitious breath sounds.
C. increase her oxygen flow rate to 6 L/min.
D. place her in a position that facilitates breathing.
A. humidified oxygen.
B. corticosteroid therapy.
C. assisted ventilation.
D. bronchodilator therapy.
A. is clearly indicated if the patient’s condition does not resolve following field corticosteroid therapy.
B. should only be performed after hyperventilating the patient with a bag-mask device for 2 to 3 minutes.
C. is often a last resort because asthmatics are difficult to ventilate and are prone to pneumothoraces.
D. is generally contraindicated because weaning the patient off of a ventilator can take several days.
A. suspect that he has developed a pneumothorax and prepare to perform a needle chest decompression.
B. decrease the amount of positive-end expiratory pressure that you are delivering and reassess.
C. remove the CPAP unit, assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device, and prepare to intubate him.
D. continue the CPAP treatment and administer a diuretic to remove fluids from his lungs quickly.
A. preoxygenate him with a bag-mask device for 2 to 3 minutes and then intubate his trachea.
B. apply oxygen via nonrebreathing mask, administer naloxone, and be prepared to assist ventilations.
C. suction his oropharynx, perform intubation, and then administer naloxone via slow IV push.
D. assist ventilations with a bag-mask device, administer naloxone, and reassess his ventilatory status.
A. is administered exclusively in a hospital setting.
B. is the primary treatment for acute bronchospasm.
C. takes a few hours to reduce bronchial edema.
D. causes immediate improvement in breathing.
A. increasing the rate and depth of ventilation, thus improving minute volume and mitigating hypoxia.
B. maintaining stability of the posterior pharynx, thereby preventing upper airway obstruction.
C. improving patency of the lower airway through the use of positive-end expiratory pressure.
D. delivering one pressure during the inspiratory phase and a different pressure during the expiratory phase.
A. is awakened from sleep with severe dyspnea.
B. seeks a sitting position when short of breath.
C. prefers to lie flat in order to facilitate breathing.
D. has no position of comfort
A. in cardiac arrest.
B. apneic with a pulse.
C. chemically paralyzed.
D. breathing spontaneously.
A. passive oxygenation.
C. bronchodilator therapy.
D. ventilation support.
A. start an IV of normal saline and administer a steroid.
B. assist him with a metered-dose inhaler bronchodilator.
C. apply high-flow oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
D. assist his ventilations and establish vascular access.